Het'um the Historian's

History of the Tartars

[The Flower of Histories of the East]

compiled by
Het'um the Armenian
of the Praemonstratensian Order

Translated by Robert Bedrosian

This translation is in the public domain. It may be copied and distributed freely.

Download in .zip format



Translator's Preface

Book One

Chapter 1
The Kingdom of Cathay
Chapter 2
The Kingdom of Tars
Chapter 3
The Kingdom of Turkestan
Chapter 4
The Kingdom of Khwarazmia
Chapter 5
The Kingdom of Komania [Cumans/Ghuzz]
Chapter 6
The Kingdom of India
Chapter 7
The Kingdom of Persia
Chapter 8
The Kingdom of Media
Chapter 9
The Kingdom of Armenia
Chapter 10
The Kingdom of Georgia
Chapter 11
The Kingdom of Chaldea
Chapter 12
The Kingdom of Mesopotamia
Chapter 13
The Kingdom of the Land of the Turks
Chapter 14
The Kingdom of the Country of Syria

Book Two

Chapter 15
The Lordship of the Saracens


Book Three

Chapter 16
The Land Where the Tartars First Lived
Chapter 17
Chingiz-Khan, First Emperor of the Tartars
Chapter 18
Ogedei, Second Emperor of the Tartars
Chapter 19
Jinon-Khan [Guyuk-Khan], Third Emperor of the Tartars
Chapter 20
Ogedei's Eldest Son, Jochi

Chapter 21
Ogedei-Khan's Second Son, Baiju
Chapter 22
Yohaghata [Chaghatai], Third Son of Ogedei
Chapter 23
Mongke-Khan, Fourth Ruler of the Tartars
Chapter 24
The Baptism of Mongke-Khan
Chapter 25
How Mongke-Khan's Brother, Hulegu, Wasted Assyria and Entered the Kingdom of Persia

Chapter 26
How Hulegu Took the City of Baghdad and Did Away with the Caliph, Head of the Saracen Religion; the Death of the Caliph
Chapter 27
Regarding the Persecution of Saracens
Chapter 28
How Hulegu Conquered the City of Antioch
Chapter 29
The Taking of Damascus and the Holy Land as Far as the Egyptian Desert
Chapter 30
Qubilai-Khan, Fifth Ruler of the Tartars

Chapter 31
The Death of Hulegu and How the Sultan Took Back the Land of Syria and Egypt
Chapter 32
Abagha, Son of Hulegu, Who Succeeded to the Lordship of His Father
Chapter 33
How the Sultan of Egypt Defeated the King of Armenia, Capturing One of His Sons and Killing the Other
Chapter 34
How Abagha Entered Egypt and Destroyed the Country of the Turks
Chapter 35
The Poisoning of the Sultan of Egypt

Chapter 36
How the Tartar General, Mangodan, Fled Due to Fear
Chapter 37
Teguder, Hulegu's Second Son, Who Succeeded Abagha on the Throne
Chapter 38
How Abagha's Son, Arghun, Became Lord of the Tartars after Teguder's Death
Chapter 39
Arghun's Successor, Geikhatu
Chapter 40
How Baidu, Lord of the Tartars, Died

Chapter 41
How Arghun's Son, Ghazan, Seized the Lordship, and Concerning His Deeds
Chapter 42
The Victory and the Division of the Booty
Chapter 43
How the Traitor Qipchaq Returned the Country to the Sultan
Chapter 44
The Great Injury Born by the Tartars in the Plain of Damascus from the Inundation of the Waters
Chapter 45
How the Sultan made a Truce with the King of Armenia

Chapter 46
Regarding the Division of My Book from the Beginning
Chapter 47
T'amar-Khan, Sixth Ruler of the Tartars, His Authority and Lordship over Subjects
Chapter 48
More on the Tartars' Religion and Customs
Chapter 49
The Prerequisites for Starting a Battle
Chapter 50
Affairs of the Kingdom of Egypt and the Sultan's Capabilities

Chapter 51
The Authority of the Sultan in the Land of Syria
Chapter 52
The Kingdom of Egypt and How It Changed Hands
Chapter 53
How the City of Acre was Taken from the Christians
Chapter 54
The Position and Circumstances of Egypt

Book Four

When is the Time to Start the War?

Why They Should Go into the Holy Land

How the Enemies of the Christian Faith were Reduced and Put Down

How Gharbanda, King of the Tartars, Offered to Go to the Holy Land with His Forces

Concerning the Enemy's Strengths and Weaknesses

The Names of the Nine Sultans Who were Slain and Poisoned

Provision against the Sultan of Egypt

How Ambassadors Should be Sent to Gharbanda, a King of the Tartars, so that the Enemies Should Have Nothing Brought to Them

How the Sultan of Egypt Should Be Made Subject to the Christians and the Tartars

The General Passage


Note: because of its large size, the translation has been divided into multiple files (of about 30K each) for fast display. Use the Continue link at the end of each section to advance.

The following modern chronological tables may be helpful as accompaniments to the translation:

Rulers of Mongol Empires
Medieval Rulers of Antioch, Cyprus and Jerusalem
Rulers of Armenia and of Eastern and Western Empires
Heads of the Syrian, Armenian, Nestorian, and Roman Catholic Churches to ca. 1500

Additional tables are available on another page of this site: Chronological Tables.

Maps are available on our Maps page.


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