43 B.C. Olympiad 184.2

Consuls: C. Vibius C.f. Pansa Caetronianus , A. Hirtius A.f.
Athenian archon: (?) Polycharmus

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The events of this year have been split into two parts.

    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {1 January} The senate meets to discuss the threat of war against Antonius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_5'1-53, 6'1, 10'3, :AdBrut_3'4;(2.3)  +Appian:BCiv_3'50; +DioCass_45.17'1, 45.17'9-46.29'1; { CAH_9'480.}
2 The senate awards special honours to Octavianus, who is given the rank of propraetor.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_11'20; [Cic]:AdOct_4;L  Aug:ResGest_1; [Liv]:Per_118; Vell_2.62'1; +Plut:Cic_45'3; Tac:Ann_1'10; Suet:Aug_10'3; +Appian:BCiv_3'51; +DioCass_46.29'2-6.
3 {4 January} The senate votes to send three envoys to convey their decisions to Antonius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_6'1-19, 7'13-14, 9'8-9, 13'20, 14'4; +Appian:BCiv_3'51-61.(↓) 
4 {7 January} Octavianus takes up the fasces for the first time.
5 Dire omens portend the onset of civil war.
* Read Dio's account
Plin:HN_2'96; +DioCass_45.17'2-9, 33'1-6; +Obseq_69; (?) ChronPasc_468'B.
6 ILL << M.Brutus seizes the territory and army of P.Vatinius, the proconsul of Illyricum.
* Read Velleius' account
Cic:Phil_10'13; [Liv]:Per_118; Vell_2.69'3-4; Appian:Ill_13,(↓)  :BCiv_4'75; DioCass_47.21'6; { MRR_2'220.}
7 ASI Dolabella kills Trebonius at Smyrna.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_11'1, '5, '7-9, 13'22-23, 14'8; :Fam_12.12'1, 15'4, :AdBrut_3'1;(2.3)  [Liv]:Per_119; Strab_14'646;(1.37)  Vell_2.69'1; Appian:BCiv_3'26, '61,(↓)  4'58; DioCass_47.29'2-6; Oros_6.18'6; { CAH_9'481; OCD_t.}
8 {24 January} Dolabella excuses the Jews in Asia from military service.
9 ROM The death of Decimus Laberius, the writer of mimes.
+Hieron:Chron_1974; { OCD_l; 10 months after the death of Caear.}
10 Document: Cic:Phil_7, a speech of Cicero encouraging the senate to remain vigilant against Antonius.
@  (?) Cic:Phil_12'16.
11 Cicero practices declamation with Hirtius and Pansa.'11;L  Suet:Rhet_1.
12 CIS Antonius rejects the terms brought by the senate's envoys, and offers his own proposals.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_9'2, '6-7, '15, 12'11, 13'21, :Fam_11.8'1, 12.5'3; +Appian:BCiv_3'61-63; +DioCass_46.30'1-4, 35'3.
13 Document: Cic:Fam_10.5 & 11.8, letters from Cicero to Plancus and Decimus Brutus.
14 ROM {January} Document: Cic:Fam_9.24 & 12.24, letters from Cicero to Paetus and Cornificius.
15 {2-4 February} Document: Cic:Fam_10.28 & Cic:EpFr_4'16, letters from Cicero to Trebonius and Octavianus.
16 ++ Servius Sulpicius is an eminent Roman lawyer and orator.
* Read Quintilian's account
Quint_10.5'4; Gell_7.5'1; Justin:Dig_1.2.2'43-44.
17 The senate votes for emergency measures against Antonius after their envoys return; Sulpicius dies during the journey back.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_8'1-33; [Liv]:Per_118; Plut:Ant_17'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'63, '64, 4'58; +DioCass_46.31'1-32'4; Eutrop_7.1'1; Oros_6.18'3; { CAH_9480; OCD_s.}
18 Servius Sulpicius is given a public funeral.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_9'1-17; Hieron:Chron_1973; Justin:Dig_1.2.2'43.
19 Document: Cic:Phil_10, a speech of Cicero about the successes of M.Brutus in Macedonia.
20 {February} Document: Cic:Fam_12.4-5, two letters from Cicero to Cassius.
21 Taxes are reintroduced at Rome, for the first time in over 120 years.
+Plut:Aem_38'1; { Plutarch says that the taxes were intended to fund the war at Mutina.}
22 EGY {15 Mecheir -E = 14 February} Document: AET_5.3, the epitaph of the musician Kheredankh, daughter of Psherenptah.
23 ROM {23 February} Cicero is afraid to travel outside Rome on the day of the Terminalia.
25 SYR {March} C.Cassius wins over all the legions in Syria, together with four legions from Egypt.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_11'30-35, :Fam_12.11'1, 12'1-3, 14'6, :AdBrut_3'3;(2.3)  Strab_16'753;(2.10)  [Liv]:Per_120; Vell_2.69'2; Joseph:BJ_1'218-219, :AJ_14'271-272; +Appian:BCiv_3'78, 4'58-59, 5'8; DioCass_47.28'1-5; { OCD_c.}
26 CIS Pontius Aquila defeats Plancus Bursa, an officer of Antonius, at Pollentia.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_11'14, 13'27; +DioCass_46.38'3-4.
27 ROM The senate votes to send a second embassy to Antonius.
Cic:Phil_12'1-7; { CAH_9'482.}
28 {March} Document: Cic:Phil_11 & 12, two further speeches by Cicero, concerning war against Dolabella and the embassy to Antonius.
Cic:Phil_13'39, :Fam_12.7'1, :AdBrut_4'2;(2.4)  Oros_6.18'6.
29 GAL Plancus and Lepidus found a Roman colony at Lugdunum.
* Read Dio's account
CIL_10.6087; Sen:Ep_91'14; Tac:Hist_1'65; +DioCass_46.50'1-6; { OCD_lug.}
30 MAC Brutus defeats and captures C.Antonius near Apollonia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_10'6, '9-13, 11'26, :AdBrut_3'4;(2.3)  [Liv]:Per_118; Vell_2.69'3; Plut:Brut_25'3-26'8; +Appian:BCiv_3'79, 4'75; DioCass_47.21'7-22'1; { OCD_a.}
31 SPA {16 March} Document: Cic:Fam_10.31, a letter from Pollio to Cicero, sent from Corduba.
32 ROM {20 March} Document: Cic:Phil_13, a speech of Cicero in reply to an open letter from Antonius.
Cic:Fam_10.6'1; { CAH_9'482.}
33 {20 March} Document: Cic:Fam_10.6 & 10.27, letters from Cicero to Plancus and Lepidus.
34 ETR {20 March} The poet P.Ovidius Naso is born at Sulmo.
* Read Ovid's account
Ovid:Ib_1, #:Tr_4.10'3-4, '95-96; Hieron:Chron_1975; { OCD_o.}
35 CIS Hirtius and Octavianus approach Mutina, but do not come into conflict with Antonius.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_14'4-5; [Cic]:AdOct_7;L  Plin:HN_10'110;L  Frontin:Str_3.13'7-8, 14'3-4; Flor_2.15'3-4; +Appian:BCiv_3'64-65; +DioCass_46.35'2-36'5.
36 ETR Ventidius gathers an army of veterans to come in support of Antonius.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Fam_10.33'4, 34'1, 11.10'3, 13'3; +Appian:BCiv_3'66; Gell_15.4'3; { OCD_v.}
37 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_12.6-7 & 12.11, letters of Cicero to and from Cassius.
38 Document: Cic:Fam_10.7-8 & 10.10, letters of Cicero to and from Plancus.
39 {March} Document: Cic:Fam_12.25 & 12.28, two letters from Cicero to Cornificius.
40 << Document: [Caes]:BAlex_ & [Caes]:BAfr_, the accounts of Caesar's wars in Alexandria and Africa.
Suet:Caes_56'1; { The Alexandrian War may have been written by Hirtius; the African War is almost certainly by a different writer.}
41 CIS L.Antonius captures and sacks the city of Parma.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_14'8-9, :Fam_10.33'4, 11.13b'1.
42 {14 April} The battle of Forum Gallorum: M.Antonius defeats Pansa, but is then defeated by Hirtius.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Fam_10.30'1-5, 33'3-4, :AdBrut_9'1-2,(1.3)  :Phil_14'26-28, '36-38; #EhrJon:Fast_Apr14; #Ovid:Fast_4'627-628; [Liv]:Per_119; Frontin:Str_2.5'39; Suet:Aug_10'3-4; +Appian:BCiv_3'66-70;(↓)  +DioCass_46.37'1-38'2; Oros_6.18'4; { CAH_9'483; OCD_p.}
43 {16 April} Octavianus is hailed as imperator for the first time; reckoned by some as the beginning of his reign.
* Read Ovid's account
[Cic]:AdOct_4; #EhrJon:Fast_Apr16; #Ovid:Fast_4'673-676; Theophil:Aut_3'27<q" Chryseros>; ClemAl:Strom_1'21; Euseb:HistEc_1.5'2; [Euseb]:Chron_71, 129;(↓)  [Vict]:Epit_1'30; +Hieron:Chron_1974; Oros_1.1'6; ChronPasc_465'C.
44 ROM Document: Cic:AdBrut_1-5, (2.1)  letters of Cicero to and from M.Brutus.
45 {20 April} Document: Cic:Phil_14, a speech of Cicero, proposing a supplication to mark the victory over Antonius.
46 Atticus helps Fulvia, the wife of Antonius, during the fighting around Mutina.
47 CIS Octavianus practices declamation during the fighting around Mutina.
Suet:Aug_84'1, :Rhet_1.
48 {21 April} In a battle near Mutina, Hirtius defeats Antonius again but is killed during the fighting.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Fam_10.33'4, 11.14'3, :AdBrut_10'1,(1.3a)  18'2,(1.10)  23'8;(1.15)  Vell_2.61'4; +Plut:Cic_45'4; Tac:Ann_1'10; Suet:Aug_10'3-11'1; Flor_2.15'4-5; +Appian:BCiv_3'71; Oros_6.18'5; { CAH_9'483; OCD_h.}
49 The consul Pansa dies of wounds received in the battle of Forum Gallorum.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Fam_10.33'4, 11.13'2, :AdBrut_10'1,(1.3a)  14'3;(1.6)  [Liv]:Per_119; Vell_2.61'4; Plut:Ant_17'2; Tac:Ann_1'10; Suet:Aug_11'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'75-76; +DioCass_46.39'1; +Obseq_69; Oros_6.18'4.
50 Antonius retreats from Mutina.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Fam_10.11'2, 14'1, 33'4, 11.10'3-4, 11'1, 12'1-2, 13'2-3, :AdBrut_18'2;(1.10)  Vell_2.61'4; +Appian:BCiv_3'72-73; [Vict]:VirIll_85'2; Eutrop_7.2'1; { OCD_a.}
51 ROM The senate awards great honours to D.Brutus, following the victory at Mutina, and lesser honours to Octavianus.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fam_11.14'1, 20'1, :AdBrut_12'2-3,(1.4a)  23'7-9,(1.15)  25'2;(1.17)  [Liv]:Per_119; Vell_2.62'1-6; Plut:Brut_27'2; Suet:Aug_12'1; Appian:Ill_13,(↓)  +:BCiv_3'4; +DioCass_46.39'2-41'5.
52 Hirtius and Pansa are given public funerals.
Cic:AdBrut_23'8;(1.15)  ValMax_5.2'10.
53 The senate recognises Sextus Pompeius as commander of the naval forces.
* Read Velleius' account
Vell_2.73'1-2; Appian:BCiv_4'84; DioCass_46.40'3; { CAH_9'484; MRR_2'230.}
54 {April} Document: Cic:Fam_10.9 & 10.11-12, letters of Cicero to and from Plancus.
55 Document: Cic:Fam_11.9 & 11.13b, letters from Decimus Brutus to Cicero.
56 Document: Cic:Fam_12.26-27 & 12.29, letters from Cicero to Cornificius.
57 {April} Document: Cic:AdBrut_8-10, (1.2a)  letters from Cicero to M.Brutus.
58 PAL Cassius exacts money from the Jews.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'220-222, :AJ_14'272-276, '304, '304, '304; Hieron:Chron_1973.
59 SYR {7 May} Document: Cic:Fam_12.12, a letter from Cassius to Cicero.
60 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_11.10-13, letters of Cicero to and from Decimus Brutus.
61 Document: Cic:AdBrut_11-13, (1.4) letters of Cicero to and from M.Brutus.
62 CIS Antonius continues to march towards Lepidus, and reaches Forum Julii.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Fam_10.15'3, 17'1, 33'4, 34'1; Plut:Ant_17'3-6; Frontin:Str_1.7'5; Macrob:Sat_2.2'7.L 
63 LYC Lentulus Spinther forces the fleet of Dolabella to retreat from Lycia.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_12.13'3, 14'1-2, 15'2-6.
64 PAL Malichus murders Antipater.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'223-228, :AJ_14'277-284, 15'47; Euseb:HistEc_1.7'12; { OCD_a.}
65 CIS Octavianus enters into communication with Antonius and Lepidus.
66 ROM Document: Cic:EpFr_4'1-6'5, letters between Cicero and Octavianus.
67 Document: Cic:Fam_11.11.18-20 & 11.23, letters between Cicero and Decimus Brutus.
68 {29 May} Document: Cic:Fam_12.14-15, letters from Lentulus Spinther to Cicero and the Roman senate.
69 CIS {29 May} Antonius arrives at the camp of Lepidus, and they combine their forces.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Fam_10.23'2-3, #35'1-2, 12.10'3, :AdBrut_20'1;(1.12)  [Liv]:Per_119; Vell_2.63'1-3, 64'4; Plut:Ant_18'1-8; Suet:Aug_12'1; Flor_2.16'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'83-84; +DioCass_46.38'5-7, 51'1-52'4; Eutrop_7.2'1; { CAH_9'484; OCD_l.}
70 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_10.13-21a, letters of Cicero to and from Plancus.

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