215 B.C. Olympiad 141.2

Consuls: Ti. Sempronius Ti.f. Gracchus, L. Postumius A.f. Albinus (III)
Athenian archon: Hagnias
Achaean General: Aratus (XV?)

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1 ITA Casilinum surrenders to the Carthaginians.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.19'1-20'3; Strab_5'249;(4.10)  ValMax_7.6'2-3; Plin:HN_8'222, 17'7;L  Frontin:Str_3.14'2, 15'3, 4.3'20; Silius_12'426-428; Polyaen_6.38'6; Zonar_9'2.(p159) 
2 ROM M.Fabius Buteo is appointed dictator, to draw up a new list of senators.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.22'1-23'9; +FastCap_p60; ValMax_7.6'1; Plut:Fab_9'3-4; { OCD_f.}
3 {5 February -R} The dedication of a temple of Concordia.
* Read Livy's account
CIL_add.7'Feb5, 8'Feb5; +Liv_22.33'7-8, 23.21'7.
4 The previous dictator, M.Junius, holds elections for new consuls.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.24'1-5; +Plut:Marc_12'1-2; ~Zonar_9'3.(p163) 
5 ITA Hannibal captures Petelia.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_7.1'3; +Liv_23.30'1-5; ValMax_6.6e'2; Petron:Sat_141;(↓)  Frontin:Str_4.3'18; Silius_12'429-433; Appian:Hann_29'
6 SIC Gelon, son of Hieron II, dies while organizing opposition to Rome in Sicily.
7 ROM {15 March -R} Gracchus enters office as sole consul, while Marcellus is sent to Cales, where new Roman recruits are assembled.
+Liv_23.30'18-31'6; { CAH_8'526.}
8 Following the death of L.Postumius, Marcellus is elected to be consul, but is forced to resign after a bad omen; Q.Fabius is elected in his place.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.31'7-15, 27.22'1; +FastCap_p60; +Zonar_9'3;(p163)  { CAH_8'70; OCD_m.}
9 The Romans and Carthaginians prepare for the next year's fighting.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.32'1-20; ~Eutrop_3.11'2; +Zonar_9'3.(p163-5) 
9a EGY {1 Phamenoth -E = April} Document: AET_6.11, a letter from a perfume trader.
10 ROM {8 June -R} T. Otacilius Crassus dedicates a temple to Mens, the personification of Mind.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_22.9'10, +23.32'20; #Ovid:Fast_6'241-248; { OCD_m.}
11 SPA The Carthaginians order Hasdrubal to lead his army into Italy.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.27'9-28'6; +Zonar_9'3;(p165)  { CAH_8'57.}
12 SIC ?? Archimedes runs from his bath exclaiming "I've found it" after working out how to measure the gold in a crown given to Hieron.
* Read Vitruvius' account'9-12; Plut:Mor_1094'C.
13 ?? Archimedes constructs war engines for Hieron.
* Read Plutarch's account
Polyb_8.7'2; Liv_24.34'13; Plut:Marc_14'8-15.
14 ?? Hieron builds a huge ship, which he gives as a present to Ptolemy.
Athen_5.206'd-209'e<q" Moschion>.
16 ?? Polydorus writes a new set of laws for Syracuse.
17 ?? Hieron passes laws for the financial administration of Sicily, known to the Romans as the leges Hieronicae.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Verr_2.2'34, 3'14-15, '18-19, '120-123, '150, 5'53.
18 ?? Hieron remains steadfast in his alliance with the Romans and regularly sends aid to them.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_7.5'7; Liv_25.24'13, 29'7, 26.30'1.
19 ++ General comments on the long and prosperous reign of Hieron.
* Read Polybius' account
Athen_6.250'e, 12.542'a<q" Silenus>; Polyb_7.8'1-9; Silius_14'79-84; Paus_6.15'6.
20 The death of Hieron II, king of Syracuse.
* Read Livy's account
Polyb_3.2'7, ~7.3'6, 7'3; Diod_26.15'1; ~Liv_24.4'1-5'6, 25.31'4; ValMax_8.13e'1; Plin:HN_8'143; Silius_14'85-90; Paus_6.12'4; Lucian:Macr_10; { CAH_8'61; OCD_h=216.}
21 GRE ?? Document: Austin_74B  (Syll_497), an Athenian decree in honour of Eurycleides. { Errington_p108.}
22 MAC An alliance is agreed between Hannibal and Philippus of Macedonia.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_7.9'1-17; Nepos_23.2'1; +Liv_23.33'1-34'9; Silius_15'289-290; Flor_1.23'4; Appian:Mac_1; Just_29.4'2-3; +Eutrop_3.12'2; +Zonar_9'4;(p167)  { CAH_8'96-98; OCD_p.}
23 SAR The Carthaginians foment a revolt in Sardinia.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.34'10-17; +Eutrop_3.12'3.
24 ITA << A Roman prisoner of Hannibal is sent to fight alone against an elephant, and kills it.
25 Gracchus defeats the Campanians at Hamae.
26 Hannibal fails to capture Cumae, after Gracchus comes to its defence.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.36'1-37'9; Silius_12'1-160; { CAH_8'53; OCD_g.}
27 Ti.Sempronius Longus defeats a Carthaginian force under Hanno near Grumentum.
28 SPA The Romans defeat Hasdrubal at Ibera.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.28'7-29'17, 26.41'13; ~Eutrop_3.11'2; +Oros_4.16'13; +Zonar_9'3;(p165)  { CAH_8'57.}
29 SIC An alliance is agreed between Hannibal and Hieronymus, the grandson of Hieron.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_7.2'1-5'8; ~Liv_24.5'7-6'9, 25.29'2, 26.30'2, '7; ValMax_3.3e'5; Silius_14'91-98, 15'422-424; Appian:Sic_3'1;(5)  { CAH_8'61; OCD_syracuse.}
30 ASI Antiochus begins the siege of Sardis, which is held by Achaeus.
~Polyb_7.15'2; { The siege lasted for two years.}
31 ROM The senate debates the alliance between Hannibal and Philippus.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.38'1-39'14; Just_29.4'3; +Eutrop_3.12'3.
32 ITA Fabius advances into Campania.
33 SAR T.Manlius defeats the rebels in Sardinia.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.40'1-41'7; Silius_12'342-419; Flor_1.22'35; ~Eutrop_3.13'1-2; +Zonar_9'4;(p167)  { CAH_8'62.}
34 AFR T.Otacilius leads a Roman fleet in a raid against the African coast.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.41'8-12, 24.8'14-16; { CAH_8'66.}
35 ITA A Samnite embassy asks Hannibal to protect them against Roman raids.
36 ITA Marcellus repels an attack by Hannibal on Nola.
* Read Livy's account
Cic:Brut_12; +Liv_23.45'6-46'7; ValMax_1.6'9; Silius_12'161-305, '420-423; +Plut:Marc_12'3-7; Appian:Hann_30; Ampel_46'6; +Eutrop_3.12'1; +Oros_4.16'12; +Zonar_9'3;(p163)  { CAH_8'53; OCD_m.}
37 A duel between Claudius Asellus and the Campanian champion Taurea.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.46'8-48'3; Frontin:Str_3.4'1; Appian:Hann_37.(↓) 
38 SPA The Romans relieve Iliturgi, after defeating the Carthaginian army there.
39 ITA The Carthaginians capture Locri and Croton.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_24.1'1-3'5, 29.6'1; +Eutrop_3.12'1.
40 Hannibal and Gracchus retire to winter quarters.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_24.3'16-17; Flor_1.22'30-32.
41 ROM The Lex Oppia limits the amount of jewellery and other valuables which can be owned by individuals.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_34.1'3, 4'6, 5'5, 6'9, '15, 8'3; ValMax_9.1'3; Silius_12'306-319; Tac:Ann_3'33, '34; +Oros_4.20'14; Zonar_9'17;(p295)  { CAH_8'184; OCD_o.}
42 Some Vestal virgins are buried alive.
* Read ChroniconPaschale's account
ChronPasc_432'A; +Hieron:Chron_1802.

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