219 B.C. Olympiad 140.2

Consuls: L. Aemilius M.f. Paullus, M. Livius M.f. Salinator
Athenian archon: Menecrates
Achaean General: Aratus junior

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 SPA << A Roman embassy to Hannibal at Carthago Nova.
~Polyb_3.15'1-13; { CAH_8'34.}
2 The Torboletes complain that they have been attacked by Saguntum, and Hannibal sends their envoys to Carthage for a decision.
* Read Appian's account
~Polyb_3.15'8; ~Appian:Hisp_10, :Hann_3'
3 ROM An embassy from Saguntum at Rome.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_21.6'1-4, 28.39'8; ~Appian:Hisp_10; Zonar_8'21.(p55) 
4 EGY << Ptolemy puts Cleomenes under house arrest, at the instigation of Sosibius.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_5.35'1-38'7; Plut:Cleom_34'1-35'7, :Mor_53'E; Paus_2.9'3; { After the murder of Berenice.}
5 ?? Cleomenes fails to enjoy the entertainment at a banquet in Egypt, because he is thinking of his homeland.
6 Cleomenes is killed while attempting to escape.
* Read Plutarch's account
Polyb_5.38'8-39'6, 15.25'2, 18.53'2-3; Plut:Cleom_36'1-39'6; Paus_2.9'3, 3.6'9; Just_28.4'11; Trog:Prol_28; Suda_K'1723; { CAH_7.1'476; OCD_c.}
7 SPA {? March} Hannibal starts to besiege Saguntum.
* Read Livy's account
Polyb_3.6'1-2, 8'6-7, +17'1-9; ~Liv_21.7'1-9, 18'2-7; Silius_1'35-69, '271-326; Flor_1.22'3-4, '6; ~Appian:Hisp_10; +Eutrop_3.7'2; August:DeCiv_3'20; Oros_4.14'1; Zonar_8'21;(p55)  { CAH_8'35; Green_296.}
8 ROM The consuls set out for Illyria.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.16'1-7, 4.37'4; Appian:Ill_8; DioCass_fr.53'1; +Zonar_8'20;(p51)  { CAH_8'45, '93.}
9 SPA Hannibal is wounded at Saguntum.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_21.7'10-8'4; Silius_1'535-555; Zonar_8'21.(p61) 
10 PEL Lycurgus is appointed king of Sparta.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_4.2'9, ~35'8-15, 81'1; Just_29.1'6; { CAH_7.1'476; Green_286.}
11 The Spartans declare war on the Achaean League.
+Polyb_4.36'1-9; { CAH_7.1'476; Green_702.}
12 SYR Antiochus captures Seleuceia in Pieria.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_5.58'1-61'2; Porph:Fr_44; { CAH_7.1'435; OCD_s.}
13 PEL {? May} Aratus, the son of Aratus, becomes General of the Achaean League.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.37'1-3, '6-7.
14 CAP ?? Ariarathes III gains control of Cataonia.
15 << The accession of Ariarathes IV of Cappadocia.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_4.2'8; Diod_31.19'6; Just_29.1'4; { OCD_a.}
15a PON << Document: SEG_48.1097, a decree of Sinope in honour of an envoy from Cos.
16 CRE << Document: Syll_528, decrees of Cnossus and Gortyn thanking Cos for the services of the doctor Hermias.
16a << Document: SEG_49.1217, a treaty between Cnossus and Gortyn.
17 ROM The senate votes to send an embassy to Saguntum.
* Read Livy's account
Cic:Phil_5'27, 6'6; Liv_21.6'5-8, 31.7'3; Silius_1'556-694; Flor_1.22'5; ~Appian:Hisp_11; Zonar_8'21.(p55) 
18 SPA Hannibal breaches a wall at Saguntum.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_21.8'5-9'2; Silius_1'327-534, 5'322-323; Zonar_8'21.(p55) 
19 ILL The Romans capture Dimale.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.18'1-7; +Zonar_8'20;(p51)  { CAH_8'93.}
20 The Romans capture Pharus.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.18'8-19'12, 4.66'4, 32.13'6; Liv_22.33'3; Appian:Ill_8; Just_29.2'6; +Zonar_8'20;(p53)  { CAH_8'93; Green_296.}
21 ++ The achievements of Paullus in the war against the Illyrians.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_3.107'8; Silius_8'289-290, 10'508-509; Just_29.2'1; { OCD_p.}
22 Peace treaty between the Romans and the Illyrians: the end of the Second Illyrian War.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_4.16'6; [Liv]:Per_20; Appian:Ill_8; { CAH_8'93.}
23 PEL Aetolian raids on Aegeira and Dyme.
* Read Polybius' account
Syll_529; +Polyb_4.57'1-60'10, 83'1; { CAH_7.1'476.}
24 EPI Philippus begins the siege of Ambracus.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.61'1-8, 63'2; { CAH_7.1'478.}
25 MAC The Aetolians sack Dium.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.62'1-5, 5.9'2, '5-6, 11'2, '8; { CAH_7.1'477.}
26 SYR {? August} Theodotus, the governor of Coele Syria, deserts to Antiochus.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.37'5, 5.40'1-3, +61'3-62'6, 67'9; !Lucian:Cal_2; Just_30.1'4; Porph:Fr_44; Suda_P'3039; { CAH_7.1'436.}
27 SPA Hannibal refuses to receive a Roman embassy.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_21.9'3-4; Silius_2'1-35; ~Appian:Hisp_11; +Eutrop_3.7'3; August:DeCiv_3'20; ~Oros_4.14'2; Zonar_8'21.(p55) 
28 Hannibal subdues two rebellious tribes, the Oretani and Carpetani.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_21.11'3-12'3; Silius_2'391-456; Zonar_8'21;(p55)  { CAH_8'36.}
29 A battle at Saguntum after the departure of the Roman embassy.
~Silius_2'36-269, 3'299.
30 ROM The triumph of the Roman consuls, over the Illyrians.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.19'12-13, 4.66'8; [Vict]:VirIll_50'1.L 
31 EPI Philippus captures Ambracus.
+Polyb_4.63'1-6; { CAH_7.1'477.}
32 GRE Philippus invades Aetolia.
+Polyb_4.63'7-66'7; { CAH_7.1'477; Green_702.}
33 AFR A Roman embassy at Carthage.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_21.10'1-11'2, 18'4-7, 44'4, 22.14'7; ~Appian:Hisp_11; August:DeCiv_3'20; Zonar_8'21;(p55)  { Green_702.}
34 EPI {? October} Dorimachus, the new general of the Aetolian League, leads a raid on Dodona.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.67'1-5, 5.9'2, 11'2, '8; Diod_26.7'1; { CAH_7.1'477.}
35 EGY The Egyptians prepare their army for war against Antiochus.
36 SPA Unsuccessful peace negotiations at Saguntum.
37 A son is born to Hannibal.
Silius_3'66; { This son is not mentioned elsewhere and is without doubt unhistorical.}
38 {? November} Hannibal captures Saguntum.
* Read Livy's account
Polyb_3.16'5, +17'9-11; Diod_25.15'1; ~Liv_21.14'2-15'3, 19'9-10, 24.42'9, 31.7'6; ValMax_6.6e'1; Petron:Sat_141;(↓)  Plin:HN_16'216;L  Frontin:Str_3.10'4; Silius_2'457-3'2; Flor_1.22'6, '8-9; ~Appian:Hisp_12, :Hann_3; [Vict]:VirIll_42'2;L  +Eutrop_3.7'3; August:DeCiv_3'20, 22'6;(↓↓)  Oros_4.14'1; Zonar_8'21;(p55)  { CAH_8'36; OCD_h.}
39 Hannibal "re-founds" Saguntum.
* Read Appian's account
~Appian:Hisp_12, 75'
40 PEL Philippus defeats Euripidas and the Eleans near Stymphalus.
Polyb_4.67'6-69'9; { CAH_7.1'477.}
40a ROM ?? P.Cloelius causes dissension at Rome by marrying a close relative.
41 ++ The slightly dissolute early life of Scipio Africanus.
* Read Gellius' account
Gell_7.8'5<q" Naev:Fr_1-3>; ValMax_6.9'2.
42 >> Archagathus is the first doctor to set up a practice at Rome, after moving there from the Peloponnese.
43 >> Omens presaging the start of the Punic War, including a talking ox.
* Read Zonaras' account
ValMax_1.6'5; Plin:HN_7'35; ~Zonar_8'22.(p83) 

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