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281 B.C. Olympiad 124.4


Consuls: L. Aemilius Q.f. Barbula, Q. Marcius Q.f. Philippus
Athenian archon: Urias

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 {9 Gamelion -G = February} Document: IG_2³.881, an Athenian decree in honour of Euthius, the archon of the previous year.
1a ?? Document: Syll_373, a statue of Hadeia, the sister-in-law of Lysimachus, at Oropus.
2 THR ?? Onesicritus recites his histories to Lysimachus.
Plut:Alex_46'4; DiogLaert_6'84.
3 ?? Menedemus is sent as an ambassador to Lysimachus.
DiogLaert_2'140.
4 ?? Sotades attacks both Lysimachus and Ptolemy Philadelphus.
Athen_14.620'f.
5 ASI ?? Lysimachus builds or refounds cities at Nicaea, Alexandria and Smyrna.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_12'565,(4.7)  13'593,(1.26)  '597,(1.33)  '607,(1.52)  14'646.(1.37) 
6 PON ?? Lysimachus destroys the city of Astacus.
Strab_12'563.(4.2) 
7 ASI ?? Lysimachus attempts to tax salt which is collected at Tagasae.
Athen_3.73'd<q" Phylarch_65>.
8 THR ?? Lysimachus banishes all philosophers from his kingdom.
Athen_13.610'e.
8a ?? Document: OGIS_15, a dedication by Arsinoe in Samothrace.
9 Lysimachus punishes Telesphorus for an insult against Arsinoe.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Sen:Dial_5.17'2-4; Plut:Mor_534'E; Athen_14.616'c-d.
10 ?? Lysimachus carefully fortifies his camp after being forced to stop in an exposed position.
Frontin:Str_1.5'11.
11 ?? Lysimachus discovers a new herb with a pungent smell.
Plin:HN_25'72.L 
12 ?? Sayings of Bithys, Pasiades, and Philippides, addressed to Lysimachus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Mor_183'E, 338'A-B, 508'C, 517'B, 633'B;(Q2.1)  Athen_6.246'e.
13 ++ Territory controlled by Lysimachus.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_33.40'6; Strab_7'319.(6.1) 
14 ASI {February} Lysimachus is defeated and killed by Seleucus at the battle of Corupedium, after which Arsinoe escapes from Ephesus.
* Read Appian's account
@  HierCard_10; Polyb_18.51'4; Nepos_21.3'2; Liv_34.58'5; Strab_13'623;(4.1)  Plin:HN_8'143;L  Memn_5'7; Plut:Mor_970'C; Phlegon:Fr_9; Appian:Syr_62, 64; Paus_1.10'5; Polyaen_8.57'1; Lucian:Macr_11; ~Just_17.2'1-3; Trog:Prol_17; +[Euseb]:Chron_233-235;(↓)  Oros_3.23'60-62;L  { CAH_7.1'113; Errington_p62.}
15 ROM {5 March -R} The triumph of Fabricius, over the Samnites, Lucanians, and Bruttii.
#FastTr_p97.
16 EPI << Pyrrhus regains control of Corcyra, with help from Tarentum.
* Read Pausanias' account
Paus_1.12'1; Just_25.4'8; { CAH_7.2'458, '462.}
17 SIC << Phintias moves the inhabitants of Gela to a new city called Phintias, but his cruelty causes his subjects to revolt against him.
~Diod_22.2'2-4; { OCD_g.}
17a GRE << Document: Syll_365, honours awarded by the Athenian people to the agonothete Glaucon.
18 CAP Diodorus the general of Seleucus is heavily defeated.
~Trog:Prol_17.
19 ASI Seleucus captures Sardis.
Polyaen_4.9'4.
20 PON The inhabitants of Heracleia arrest Heracleides, their previous governor, but Seleucus threatens to attack them.
~Memn_6'1-7'4.
20a GRE Areus, king of Sparta, leads a raid against the Aetolians, but is defeated.
Just_24.1'2-7; { Errington_p84.}
21 THR ?? Cambaules leads a band of Gauls in a raid into Thrace.
Paus_10.19'5; { At some unspecified time before the Gauls' invasion of Greece in 279 B.C.}
22 ITA The Tarentines attack Thurii.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_6'263;(1.13)  ~Appian:Sam_7'2;(15)  { CAH_7.2'457.}
23 The Tarentines reject and insult a Roman embassy.
* Read Dionysius' account
Polyb_1.6'5; DionHal_19.4'2-5'5; ~[Liv]:Per_12; ValMax_2.2'5;L  Flor_1.13'5; Appian:Sam_7'3-6;(16)  DioCass_fr.39'6-9; Julian:Mis_355'C-D; Eutrop_2.11'1; +Oros_4.1'2;L  ~Zonar_8'2;(p297)  { CAH_7.2'457.}
24 AEG The inhabitants of Lemnos erect temples in honour of Seleucus and Antiochus.
~Athen_6.254'f-255'a.
24a ASI Document: SEG_59.1406A, a decree of Aegae in Aeolis, granting divine honours to Seleucus and Antiochus.
25 Document: RC_9, a letter from Seleucus to Sopater, concerning the city of Athymbria.
26 SYR << Seleucus enters into a treaty of friendship with Ptolemy (II ?).
Paus_1.7'3.
27 ?? Seleucus returns to the Greeks the statues etc. which were removed by the Persians.
* Read Gellius' account
ValMax_2.10e'1;L  Plin:HN_34'70<x>;L  Paus_1.16'3, 3.16'8, 8.46'3; Gell_7.17'2.
28 ?? Seleucus founds numerous cities throughout his kingdom, including Beroea, Cyrrhus, Dura, Ecbatana, Edessa, Hierapolis, Nicephorium, Nicopolis, Nisibis, Pella, Rhagae, Seleuceia-on-Calycadnus, and Thyateira.
* Read Appian's account
OGIS_211; Apollod:Fr_286; IsidChar_2;(↓)  Strab_11'524,(13.6)  14'670;(5.4)  Plin:HN_6'43;L  Appian:Syr_57; Sherk:AH_131;B  Aelian:NA_12'2; FGrH_854'3<q" PausDam>; Liban:Or_11'100-103<t=B  Austin_58>; Hieron:Chron_1715; AmmMarc_14.8'2, '5-6; Malal_203-204.
29 PER ?? Seiles massacres 3000 Persian rebels.
Polyaen_7.39'1.
30 EXT ?? Seleucus unsuccessfully attempts to transplant Indian perfume trees.
Plin:HN_16'135.L 
31 ?? Seleucus plans a canal between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea.
Plin:HN_6'31.L 
32 ?? The explorations of Demodamas, along the river Jaxartes and in India.
Plin:HN_6'49,L  '63.L 
33 SYR ?? Seleucus maintains a herd of elephants near Apameia.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_16'752;(2.10)  Aelian:NA_9'58.
34 ++ General remarks on the reign of Seleucus.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Plut:Mor_790'A; Arrian:Anab_7.22'5; Athen_6.244'f; Malal_198.
35 THR {month6 -B = August/September} Ptolemy Ceraunus assassinates Seleucus and makes himself king of Macedonia.
* Read Appian's account
BabylChron_9'R1-7, #BM.35603'O8-10; Polyb_2.41'1; Nepos_21.3'4; Strab_13'623;(4.1)  Memn_8'1-3; Appian:Syr_62-63, 64-65;(↓)  Paus_1.16'2; Just_17.2'4-5; Trog:Prol_17; +[Euseb]:Chron_235, 243, 249; Hieron:Chron_1735, 1737; Oros_3.23'63-68;L  { CAH_7.1'113; Errington_p62.}
36 The funeral of Seleucus.
* Read Appian's account
Appian:Syr_63;(↓)  Malal_204.
37 ROM The Roman senate declares war on Tarentum.
DionHal_19.6'1-3.
38 ITA Aemilius leaves Samnium and moves against Tarentum.
* Read Zonaras' account
Ennius:Ann_180; DionHal_19.7'2; ~[Liv]:Per_12; Appian:Sam_7'7;(17)  +Oros_4.1'3-4;L  ~Zonar_8'2;(p299)  { CAH_7.2'457.}
39 The Tarentines call on Pyrrhus to protect them against the Romans; Pyrrhus is encouraged to go by an oracle from Delphi.
* Read Plutarch's account
Polyb_1.6'5-6, 8.24'1; Cic:Div_2'116; Diod_21.21'1-15; ~DionHal_19.8'1-3; ~Plut:Pyrrh_13'3-14'14; Flor_1.13'6; Appian:Sam_7'8;(17)  Paus_1.12'1-2; MinFel:Oct_26'6; DioCass_fr.39'10, 40'3-6; Just_17.3'22-18.1'2; [Vict]:VirIll_35'1-3;L  August:DeCiv_3'17;(↓↓)  ~Oros_4.1'5;L  ~Zonar_8'2,(p301-5)  { CAH_7.2'666; Green_228.}
40 MAC Ptolemy Ceraunus attempts to win the support of other kings.
* Read Justin's account
~Just_17.2'9-10; Trog:Prol_17.
41 EPI Pyrrhus makes an alliance with Ptolemy Ceraunus and gets help from Macedonia for his expedition to Italy.
* Read Justin's account
~Just_17.2'11-15; Trog:Prol_17; { CAH_7.2'462-463.}
41a LYC {Audnaeus -M = Sept./Oct.} Document: THI_35, a decree of Termessus in Pamphylia, in honour of a Ptolemaic official.
42 EGY Ptolemy II frees Jewish slaves.
* Read Aristeas' account
Aristeas_12-27; Joseph:AJ_12'17-33; ChronPasc_425'A; +Hieron:Chron_1736; August:DeCiv_18'42, '45.(↓) 
43 GRE ?? Sayings of Gnathaena, an Athenian hetaera, addressed to Andronicus, Callistion, Chaerephon, Dexithea, Diphilus, Hippomachus, Mania, Pausanias, Stratocles, and others.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Athen_13.578'e, 579'e-581'c, 583'a, 'e-f, 584'b-585'b; { Gnathaena was a contemporary of the poet Diphilus, and lived to be an old woman (see Ath_13.580'c).}

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