323 B.C. Olympiad 114.2

Consuls: C. Sulpicius Longus (II), Q. Aulius Cerretanus
Athenian archon: Cephisodorus

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 PER << Alexander defeats the Cossaeans.
* Read Diodorus' account
Diod_17.111'4-112'1; Strab_11'524;(13.6)  Plut:Alex_72'4; Polyaen_4.3'31; Arrian:Anab_7.15'1-3; { CAH_6'842.}
2 GRE << Alexander demands that the Greek states should grant him divine honours.
* Read Aelian's account
Dinarch:Or_1'94; Hyper_5'7, '31-32; Polyb_12.12b'3; Plut:Mor_187'E, 219'E, 804'B, 842'D; Arrian:Anab_7.23'2; DiogLaert_6'63; Aelian:VH_2'19, 5'12, 9'37; Athen_6.251'b; { CAH_6'874-5; OCD_a.}
3 ROM {5 March -R} The triumph of Papirius, over the Samnites.
* Read Livy's account
#FastTr_p95; Liv_8.37'1; [Vict]:VirIll_31'4.
4 GRE Demosthenes is found guilting of taking some of the money brought by Harpalus, and goes into exile.
* Read Dinarchus' account
Dinarch:Or_1'1-114, 2'1-26, 3'1-22; Hyper_5'1-40; Dem:Epist_2'1, '17; Diod_17.108'8; !DionHal:Amm_1'12,(↓↓)  :Din_10;(↓)  Plut:Phoc_22'4, :Dem_26'1-6, :Mor_846'C, 848'F, 850'D; Paus_1.8'2; Suda_D'456; { CAH_6'858; OCD_d.}
5 AEG Some Samians exiles return to their island, but are arrested and sent as prisoners to Athens.
IG_12.6.1.42'A; { CAH_6'858.}
6 MES Foreign embassies meet Alexander in Babylonia.
* Read Diodorus' account
+Arrian:Anab_7.15'4-6, 19'1-2; +Diod_17.113'1-4; Just_12.13'1-2; Oros_3.21'2-3, '8, 6.21'19-20.
7 Alexander enters Babylon, despite the warnings of the Chaldaeans.
* Read Arrian's account
BabylChron_2; +Diod_17.112'1-6, 19.55'8; Seneca:Suas_4'1-5; Plut:Alex_73'1-74'1; Appian:BCiv_2'153; +Arrian:Anab_7.16'5-8, 17'4-18'6; Just_12.13'3-5; Oros_3.20'2-3; { CAH_6'843.}
8 Alexander restores the Esagila, the great temple in Babylon.
* Read Arrian's account
BabylChron_4; Strab_16'738;(1.5)  Joseph:Ap_1'192; +Arrian:Anab_7.17'1-4.
9 CYR << Thibron attacks Cyrene and forces the city to come to terms.
* Read Diodorus' account
Diod_18.19'3-5; Strab_17'837;(3.21)  { Anson_ix; after the death of Harpalus, which happened late in 324 B.C.}
10 LYC << The Pisidians kill Balacrus, their governor.
Diod_18.22'1; { This probably happened shortly before the death of Alexander.}
11 ITA The Romans agree a year's truce with the Samnites.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_8.37'1-2, 9.1'3.
12 MES Alexander explores and repairs the Pallacopas canal near the river Euphrates.
* Read Arrian's account
+Diod_17.116'5-7; Strab_16'741;(1.11)  Appian:BCiv_2'153;(↓)  +Arrian:Anab_7.21'1-22'5.
13 Peucestas brings 20,000 Persian soldiers to Babylon.
!Diod_17.110'1-3; +Arrian:Anab_7.23'1-5.
14 Alexander orders extravagant funeral rites for Hephaestion, including divine honours.
* Read Diodorus' account
+Diod_17.114'1-116'1; Plut:Alex_72'3-5; Arrian:Anab_7.14'7, +23'6-8; Lucian:Cal_17; Just_12.12'12.
15 Omens foreshadow the death of Alexander.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Diod_17.116'1-4; Plut:Alex_73'6-9; Arrian:Anab_7.24'1-3; PsCallisth_3'30.
16 Seleucus receives omens of his future royal power.
* Read Arrian's account
Appian:Syr_56; +Arrian:Anab_7.22'5; Suda_S'202.
17 ASI ?? A dolphin falls in love with a boy called Dionysius, near Iasus in Caria.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Plin:HN_9'27;L  Plut:Mor_984'E-F; Athen_13.606'c; Aelian:VH_6'15; { Pliny says that a similar story was told about another boy, called Hermias.}
18 GRE ?? The philosopher Xenocrates refuses a gift of money from Alexander.
* Read Diogenes' account
Cic:Tusc_5'91; Plut:Mor_181'E, :Fr_99; DiogLaert_4'8; Suda_X'42.
19 PEL ?? Philonides, the courier of Alexander, runs from Sicyon to Elis in 9 hours.
* Read Pausanias' account
Syll_303; Plin:HN_2'181, 7'84; Paus_6.16'5.
20 ASI ?? Alexander attempts to dig a canal through the peninsula of Mimas, near Erythrae.
Plin:HN_5'116; Paus_2.1'5.
21 GRE ?? Crates, an engineer working for Alexander, attempts to clear the subterranean channels of Lake Copais.
22 MES ?? Roxane is cured of an illness by a doctor called Dracon.
23 ?? Alexander experiments with the effects of naphtha.
Strab_16'743;(1.15)  Plut:Alex_35'5-9.
23a ++ The magician Osthanes accompanies Alexander on his expeditions.
24 ++ Alexander uses two official artists, the sculptor Lysippus and the painter Apelles.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Fam_5.12'7; ValMax_8.11e'2; Plin:HN_35'85-86, '106, 37'8; Plut:Mor_335'A-B, 360'D; Fronto:Ep_2'p58-60; Apul:Flor_7; Aelian:VH_2'3.
25 ++ The piper Timotheus arouses Alexander's martial spirit with his music.
* Read Dio's account
Sen:Dial_4.2'6; Plut:Mor_335'A; DioChrys:Or_1'1-7; Suda_A'1122, O'573; { a similar story is told about several different musicians.}
26 ?? Cities are founded by Alexander throughout his empire.
* Read ChroniconPaschale's account
Polyb_10.27'3; Plin:HN_6'96-97, '119, '138; Plut:Mor_328'E; PsCallisth_3'35; ExcBarb_34B; ChronPasc_420'B; StephByz_p70-72.
27 ?? Various stratagems applied by Alexander.
* Read Polyaenus' account
Frontin:Str_1.3'1, 11'4, 2.11'6; Polyaen_4.3'2, '13-14, '28; Aelian:VH_10'4.
28 ?? Sayings of Alexander, addressed to Anaxarchus, Antigenes, Antipatridas, Olympias, Onesicritus, Perillus and others.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_8.14e'2; Sen:Ep_53'10; Plut:Mor_65'F,(25)  85'C, 179'D-181'E, 717'F,(8.1)  760'C-D,(16)  818'B-C; Polyaen_4.3'1; Lucian:HistC_40; Athen_6.250'f-251'a; AmmMarc_14.11'22,L  25.4'15;L 
29 ?? Sayings addressed to Alexander, by Agis, Anaxarchus, Antiphanes, Dioxippus, Philiscus and others.
Cic:Rep_3'24; Sen:Ep_91'17; Plut:Mor_60'B-C, 737'A;(9.1)  Athen_6.251'a, 13.555'a; Aelian:VH_14'11; DiogLaert_9'58, '60; August:DeCiv_4'4.
30 ?? Other anecdotes about Alexander.
Hor:Epist_2.1'232-234; ValMax_7.3e'1; Sen:Ben_1.13'1-3; Plin:HN_6'198, 8'44, 9'27;L  Plut:Mor_58'E, 826'C-D, 1096'B; Polyaen_4.3'32; Athen_1.17'f, 7.276'f-277'a; Aelian:NA_10'40.
31 The final plans of Alexander for further conquests.
* Read Arrian's account
+Diod_18.4'1-6, 19.12'5; Strab_16'741,(1.11)  '785;(4.27)  Curt_10.1'17-19; Lucan_10'36-40; Plut:Mor_326'A-C; +Arrian:Anab_7.1'1-4, 16'1-4, 19'3-20'10; Oros_3.15'10; { CAH_6'843; OCD_a.}
32 AEG << Alexander composes a testament and deposits it on the island of Rhodes.
* Read AlexanderRomance's account
Diod_20.81'3; PsCallisth_3'32;(↓)  ExcBarb_33A-34A.
33 MES Alexander shows anger towards Cassander and Iollas, the sons of Antipater.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Alex_74'1-6, :Mor_180'F; PsCallisth_3'31.(↓) 
34 Alexander falls ill after a banquet at the house of Medius.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Diod_17.117'1-2; Sen:Ep_83'23; Plut:Alex_75'1-6, :Mor_124'C; Athen_10.434'a-b; +Arrian:Anab_7.24'4-25'1; Just_12.13'6-10; PsCallisth_3'31.(↓) 
35 According to rumours, Antipater persuades his sons to poison Alexander.
* Read Curtius' account
+Diod_17.117'5-118'2; Vitr_8.3'16; ValMax_1.7e'2; Curt_10.10'14-19; Plin:HN_30'149;L  Plut:Alex_77'2-5, :Mor_849'F; Paus_8.18'6; +Arrian:Anab_7.27'1-3; Just_12.4'1-9; PsCallisth_3'31.
36 The progress of Alexander's illness is recorded in his Journal ("Ephemerides").
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Alex_76'1-77'1; Arrian:Anab_7.25'1, 26'1.
37 The Macedonian soldiers go to see Alexander, while he lies dying.
* Read Arrian's account
ValMax_5.1e'1; Lucian:Alex_16; +Arrian:Anab_7.25'2-26'1; PsCallisth_3'32.(↓↓) 
38 {29 Aiaru -B = 29 Daesius - M = 11 June} The death of Alexander.
* Read Justin's account
#AstrDiar_322B.obv'8; MarmPar_B'8; Nepos_18.2'1-2; +Diod_17.117'3-5, 18.1'3-4; Curt_10.5'1-16; #Plut:Alex_75'6, 76'9; Arrian:Anab_7.26'2-3, 28'1; Censor:DN_21'9;L  Just_12.15'1-16'1; [Euseb]:Chron_127; FGrH_155.1'1-2; PsCallisth_3'32,(↓↓)  '35; { CAH_6'845; Errington_p13.}
39 ++ General remarks on the character and achievements of Alexander the Great.
* Read Plutarch's account
Polyb_8.10'7-11, 9.34'2-3; Liv_9.16'19-19'17; Curt_10.5'26-37; Sen:Ep_94'62-63; Lucan_10'20-52; Silius_13'763-775; Plut:Alex_4'1-7, 8'1-5; :Mor_65'C-D, 326'D-345'B, 623'D-624'A;(1.6)  Appian:BCiv_2'149-151; Arrian:Anab_7.28'2-30'3; Lucian:DMort_12'1-7, 14'1-6; Athen_10.434'c, 12.537'd-540'a, 13.603'a-c; Aelian:VH_3'23, 9'3, 12'16; DioCass_78.7'1-4; Just_9.8'11-21, 12.16'9-11; Julian:Or_8.250'D-251'B, :Caes_321'B-C, 330'B-D; Suda_A'1121.
40 GRE ?? Sayings of Diogenes, illustrating his Cynic philosophy.
* Read Diogenes' account
Teles_12, 41; Cic:Tusc_1'104, 5'92; Sen:Dial_9.8'7; :Ep_90'14; Plut:Fab_10'1, :Mor_2'A, 5'C, 21'E-F,(4)  74'C,(36)  78'D,(6)  452'D, 477'C, 632'E,(2.1)  995'C-D, 1044'B, 1102'F; Lucian:PrIm_17; Gell_18.13'7-8; Tert:Apol_39'14; ClemAl:Strom_7'4;(↓)  Aelian:VH_3'29, 4'27, 9'19, '28, '34, 10'11, 12'56, '58, 13'26; DiogLaert_6'27-73, '104; Julian:Or_6.197'C.
41 ?? Other anecdotes about Diogenes.
Plut:Mor_233'A; DiogLaert_5'18-19; August:DeCiv_14'20.
42 The death of Diogenes the Cynic.
* Read Diogenes' account
Plut:Mor_107'E, +717'C; Lucian:Vit_10; Censor:DN_15'2;L  Aelian:VH_8'14; DiogLaert_6'31-32, +'76-79; Julian:Or_6.181'A; +Suda_D'1143, Ph'362; { OCD_d=324/1; traditionally supposed to have happened on the same day as the death of Alexander.}
43 ++ General remarks on the ascetic life of Diogenes.
* Read Diogenes' account
Sen:Ben_5.4'3-4; Lucian:DMort_1'1-4, 11'1-4, 24'3, 27'1-9; :Nec_18, :Vit_7-11; DiogLaert_6'74-76;(D.9-10)  Julian:Or_6.194'D-195'B, 202'C, 203'A-B, 7.211'B-D; AnthPal_7.65-68; Suda_Z'207.
44 MES Sisygambis, the mother of Dareius, starves herself to death.
* Read Curtius' account
+Diod_17.118'3; Curt_10.5'17-25; Plut:Mor_343'B; Just_13.1'1-6.
45 After violent disputes, the Macedonians agree to appoint Perdiccas to be regent, with Craterus and Antipater in supporting roles.
* Read Justin's account
Nepos_18.2'1; +Diod_18.2'1-4; Curt_10.6'1-9'21; Plut:Eum_3'1-2, :Alex_77'7-8; Appian:Syr_52; Paus_1.6'2; Arrian:Fr_1'1-4; Just_13.1'7-4'8; Phot:Bibl_82<q" Dexipp_8'1>; PsCallisth_3'32;(↓)  FGrH_155.1'1-2; { CAH_7.1'26-7; Errington_p15.}
46 Philippus Arrhidaeus becomes king of the Macedonians.
Diod_19.11'5; +AstrCan_3; Just_9.8'2; [Euseb]:Chron_159,(↓)  169,(↓)  229,(↓)  241, 245;(↓)  Hieron:Chron_1693; ExcBarb_44A; Malal_196; { OCD_p.}
47 The Macedonians discuss plans for the funeral of Alexander.
* Read Curtius' account
Diod_18.28'2; Curt_10.10'9-13; Quint_8.5'24; Lucian:DMort_13'1-5; Aelian:VH_12'64, 13'30.
48 The Macedonians appoint satraps to govern the provinces of their empire.
* Read Diodorus' account
Nepos_18.2'2-3; +Diod_18.3'1-5; Curt_10.10'1-8; Plut:Eum_3'3-5; Paus_1.9'5; Arrian:Fr_1'5-8; Just_13.4'9-25, 15.3'15; Phot:Bibl_82<q" Dexipp_8'2-7>; PsCallisth_3'33;(↓↓)  FGrH_155.1'2-3; [Euseb]:Chron_247-249;(↓)  Oros_3.23'7-13; ExcBarb_33A-34A; { CAH_7.1'27-8.}
49 GRE Demades, Dionysius, Phocion, Theocritus and others react to the news of the sudden death of Alexander.
* Read Plutarch's account
Poseidon_39; Memn_4'2; Plut:Phoc_22'5-6; :Gal_1'4, :Mor_181'F, 188'D, 459'E; ClemAl:Protr_10'77-78.
50 PEL Leosthenes gathers a large group of mercenaries at Taenarum.
* Read Diodorus' account
Hyper_6'10-11; +Diod_17.111'3-4, 18.9'1-5; Paus_1.25'5, 8.52'5; { OCD_l.}
51 ITA << Agathocles goes to Croton and Tarentum, but is forced to leave both cities.
Diod_19.4'1; { ~CAH_7.1'387.}
52 GRE Epicurus goes from Samos to Athens to be trained as an ephebe.
Strab_14'638;(1.18)  DiogLaert_10'1; { When he was 18 years old; he was born in 341 BC.}
53 EGY Ptolemy establishes himself as satrap of Egypt - counted as the beginning of his reign.
* Read Diodorus' account
SelPap_1.1'1, 82'1; +MarmPar_B'8; +Diod_18.14'1-2; Joseph:AJ_12'11; FGrH_255'9; [Euseb]:Chron_161, 171, 205;(↓)  Hieron:Chron_1693, 1985; ExcBarb_36B; Malal_196-197; ChronPasc_421'A; { see the detailed discussion of the exact date by Chris Bennett.}
54 MES Roxane murders Stateira, who had been her rival as wife of Alexander.
55 ITA The Romans send armies against the Samnites and Apulians, but no battle is fought.
56 GRE Athens decides to start a war against Macedonia.
* Read Diodorus' account
+Diod_18.10'1-5; Plut:Phoc_23'1-4, :Mor_188'D; +Hieron:Chron_1694.
57 {11 Hecatombaeon -G = July/Aug.} Document: IG_2³.375, an Athenian decree concerning a delegation to the Nemean Games.
58 The Athenians gain the support of other Greek states as they prepare for war.
* Read Diodorus' account
@  (?) Dem:Epist_1-4; [Aeschin]:Ep_11'6-12; +Diod_18.11'1-5; Plut:Dem_26'7-27'1, :Mor_220'F; Paus_1.25'4, 4.28'3, 5.4'9, 7.6'5-6; Just_13.5'8; Oros_3.23'14-15.
59 PEL Demosthenes persuades some Peloponnesian cities to join in the war against Macedonia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Dem_27'2-4, :Cic_53'2, :Mor_846'D; Just_13.5'9-10; Oros_3.23'15.
60 Demosthenes saves the sons of Lycurgus from imprisonment.
* Read Demosthenes' account
Dem:Epist_3'1-28; Hyper:Fr_23; Plut:Mor_842'E; { OCD_l; Demosthenes wrote in their defence while he was in exile.}
62 GRE The Athenians recall Demosthenes from exile.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Dem_27'4-6, :Mor_846'D; Appian:BCiv_2'16;(↓)  Paus_1.8'2; Just_13.5'11; Suda_D'456; { CAH_7.1'31=323/2.}
63 ?? Aristotle gives the name Theophrastus, "divine speech", to his pupil Tyrtamus.
Strab_13'618;(2.4)  DiogLaert_5'38.
64 Aristotle leaves Athens and goes to Chalcis; Theophrastus becomes head of the Peripatetic school.
* Read Diogenes' account
DionHal:Amm_1'5; Sen:Dial_8.8'2; Plut:Mor_850'C; Gell_13.5'1-11; ClemAl:Strom_1'14;(↓)  Aelian:VH_3'36; DiogLaert_5'5-6, +'10, '36; Vit:Arist_VM'41; Suda_A'3927, P'2575; { CAH_6'631; OCD_a.}
65 MES Roxane gives birth to a son, who is called Alexander IV.
Arrian:Fr_1'9; +[Euseb]:Chron_231; { Errington_p15; OCD_a.}
66 MAC The Greek army defeats Antipater, and he retreats to Lamia.
* Read Hypereides' account
Dem:Epist_6; Hyper_6'11-18; MarmPar_B'9; +Diod_18.12'1-13'3; Plut:Phoc_23'5-7, :Tim_6'5; Paus_1.1'3, 29'13, 10.3'4; Polyaen_4.4'2-3; Arrian:Fr_1'9; Just_13.5'8; { CAH_7.1'31; Errington_p16.}
67 AFR The Carthaginians execute Hamilcar, their envoy to Alexander.
Just_21.6'7; Oros_4.6'22.
68 ROM == The Romans reject a proposal by M.Flavius to inflict severe punishments on the Tusculans.

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