Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum: 61.722


Greek text:   (A,B) IC_1.18.9 / IG_2².1135 ,   (C,D) SEG_61.722  ,   (E) SEG_33.638
Date:   111/0 B.C.
Tags:     isopoliteia ,   oaths
Format:   see key to translations

This treaty was previously known from two fragments found at Athens and at Rhodes; a third copy recently discovered at Chersonesos in Crete has provided much more of the text in parts C and D. Chersonesos was called 'Lyttos by the Sea' at the time of the treaty.

The new copy includes interesting details of festivals ('happy days') that commemorated important events in the history of Lyttos; see F. Gaignerot-Driessen, "The killing of a city: a destruction by enforced abandonment" ( ).   There is a German translation of the treaty, prior to the discovery of the third copy, by A.Chaniotis, "Die Verträge zwischen kretischen Poleis in der hellenistischen Zeit", no. 60 ( Google Books ).

[A]   { Date inserted above the copy in Athens: }

Treaty between the Lyttians and the Olountians.  When Sosikrates was archon, in the prytany of . . ., with . . . of Kriōa acting as secretary.  

[With] good [fortune and for our safety], when the Diphyloi . . . were kosmoi [of the Lyttians in the upper] city, on the 28th day [of the month] of Panamos, and . . . Sotadas son of Sotadas and his colleagues [were kosmoi] of the Lyttians in the [city] by the sea, and . . . were kosmoi [of the city of the Olountians] . . . since the city of the Olountians [has sent envoys to the upper city of the Lyttians and the city of the Lyttians by the sea about friendship] and isopoliteia and [an alliance - that it should exist between the cities for all time] - 10 therefore it was resolved by the Lyttians . . .

[B]   . . . the Lyttians [shall have the right of exporting] from [ Olous, and the Olountians shall have the right of exporting from Lyttos, if by land free from taxes, but if by ] sea, [after paying] the taxes [in accordance with the established laws in each city].  The external roads [shall be sacred, for the Lyttians going to Olous and for the Olountians going] to Lyttos.  If anyone [commits an offence against someone on the roads, they shall pay a six-fold] penalty upon conviction in court.  The kosmoi who are in office there [for each year shall administer an oath to those who are joining the band of young men { agela } in each city, with the Olountians present in Lyttos] and the Lyttians [present in Olous, 10 and the oath shall be as written] in this [treaty].

[C]   And they shall go to each other's festivals: the Lyttians to Olous for the Britomartia and for the Thiodaisia, and similarly the Olountians to Lyttos for the happy day on which the city was re-founded and for the happy day on which the Lyttians captured Dreros; 10 and they shall each bring a religious band { thiasos } and they shall send runners and they shall offer the traditional sacrifice to the gods; and they shall read out this treaty on the aforementioned days.  The kosmoi who are in office in each city at the aforementioned 20 festivals shall announce the public reading of the treaty five days beforehand; and similarly they shall announce beforehand whenever they intend to administer the oath to the band of young men { agela }; if any of them do not make the announcement or do not administer the oath, each kosmos shall pay a fine of one hundred staters of silver to the city of those who have been wronged. 30 If both the cities decide to add something to this treaty, or to remove something from it, the amendments [shall be] valid.  Each party shall inscribe this treaty on a stone stele and set it up in their own city, at upper Lyttos in the Pythion and at Lyttos 40 by the sea in the agora; and similarly the Olountians shall set it up at Olous in the agora; and they shall also jointly set up other steles . . . containing a copy of this treaty, at Knossos in the temple of Apollo Delphidios and at Rhodes 50 and at Athens, after sending out embassies from each city within two months from when the treaty is ratified. If they do not inscribe it or do not set it up, each kosmos of the city that did not do it shall pay a fine of one hundred staters to the city of those who did inscribe it.  The Lyttians shall swear 60 the oath written below to the Olountians, and the Olountians shall swear the oath written below [to the Lyttians], making the oath themselves together with their wives and children, upon the [sacrificial offerings that are customary] for each city . . . the treaty . . .

[D]   Oath of the Lyttians:  I swear by Hestia and Zeus Kretagenes and Zeus Monnitios and Zeus Bidatas and Zeus Tallaios and Hera and Poseidon and Athena Polias and Pythian Apollo and Leto and Artemis and Ares and Aphrodite 10 and Hermes and the Kouretes and the Nymphs and Britomartis and all the other gods and goddesses, that I will remain in friendship and alliance and isopoliteia and intermarriage and in all the other terms written in the treaty for all time, 20 plainly and without deceit, and I will not desert the Olountians, either in war or in peacetime.  I will resolve on the best course for the Olountians, just as for myself, and (?) I will conform to the oath in matters relating to gods and to men; and I will give and accept what is just, 30 in accordance with what we have agreed.  I will not undo any of these terms, neither myself nor by permitting another to do so by any device.  I will abide by these terms, and by whatever the cities agree later; and I will not regard any other oath as more binding than this one.  If I keep my oath, 40 may it turn out fine and good for me, but if I break my oath, may the opposite happen

The oath of the Olountians shall be the same.

[E]   { At the bottom of the copy in Rhodes: }

Envoys of the Lyttians:   Chairylos son of Bisos, Monas son of Aristias . . .

Envoys of the Olountians:   Protarchos son of Protarchos, . . . 

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