* * * * *
[1.] G  Hippolochus the Macedonian, my friend Timocrates, lived in the time of Lynceus and Duris of Samos, pupils of Theophrastus the Eresian. And he had made a bargain with Lynceus, as one may learn from his letters, that if ever he was present at any very expensive banquet, he would relate to him the whole of the preparations which were made; and Lynceus in return made him the same promise. And there are accordingly some letters of each of them on the subject of banquets; # in which Lynceus relates the banquet which was given at Athens by Lamia the Attic female flute-player to King Demetrius, surnamed Poliorcetes, (and Lamia was the mistress of Demetrius.) And Hippolochus reports the marriage feast of Caranus the Macedonian. And we have also met with other letters of Lynceus, written to the same Hippolochus, giving an account of the banquet of King Antigonus, when he celebrated the Aphrodisian festival at Athens, and also that given by King Ptolemaeus. And I will show you the very letters themselves. But as the letter of Hippolochus is very scarce, I will run over to you the principal things which are contained in it, just for the sake of conversation and amusement at the present time.
[2.] G # In Macedonia, then, as I have said, Caranus made a marriage feast; and the guests invited were twenty in number. And as soon as they had sat down, a silver bowl was given to each of them as a present. And Caranus had previously crowned every one of them, before they entered the dining-room, with a golden chaplet, and each chaplet was valued at five pieces of gold. And when they had emptied the bowls, then there was given to each of the guests a loaf in a brazen platter of Corinthian workmanship, of the same size; and poultry, and ducks, and besides that, pigeons, and a goose, and quantities more of the same kind of food heaped up abundantly. And each of the guests taking what was set before him, with the brazen platter itself also, gave it to the slaves who waited behind him. Many other dishes of various sorts were also served up to eat. And after them, a second platter was placed before each guest, made of silver, on which again there was placed a second large loaf, and on that goose, and hares, and kids, and other rolls curiously made, and doves, and turtledoves, and partridges, and every other kind of bird imaginable, in the greatest abundance. Those also, says Hippolochus, we gave to the slaves; and when we had eaten to satiety, we washed our hands, and chaplets wore brought in in great numbers, made of all sorts of flowers from all countries, and on each chaplet a circlet of gold, of about the same weight as the first chaplet.  And Hippolochus having stated after this that Proteas, the descendant of that celebrated Proteas the son of Lanice, who had been the nurse of Alexander the king, was a most extraordinary drinker, as also his grandfather Proteas, who was the friend of Alexander, had been; and that he pledged every one present, proceeds to write as follows :-
[3.] G And while we were now all amusing ourselves with agreeable trifling, some flute-playing women and musicians, and some Rhodian players on the sambuca came in, naked as I fancied, but some said that they had tunics on. And they having played a prelude, departed; and others came in in succession, each of them bearing two bottles of perfume, bound with a golden thong, and one of the crests was silver and the other gold, each holding a cotyla, and they presented them to each of the guests and then, instead of supper, there was brought in a great treasure, a silver platter with a golden edge of no inconsiderable depth, of such a size as to receive the entire bulk of a roast boar of huge size, which lay on it on his back, showing his belly uppermost, stuffed with many good things. For in the belly there were roasted thrushes, and paunches, and a most countless number of fig-peckers, and the yolks of eggs spread on the top, and oysters, and periwinkles. And to every one of the guests was presented a boar stuffed in this way, nice and hot, together with the dish on which he was served up. And after this we drank wine, and each of us received a hot kid, on another platter like that on which the boar had been served up with some golden spoons. Then Caranus seeing that we were cramped for the want of room, ordered canisters and breadbaskets to be given to each of us, made of strips of ivory curiously plaited together; and we were very much delighted at all this, and applauded the bridegroom, by whose means we wore thus enabled to preserve what had been given to us. Then chaplets were again brought to us, and another pair of cruets of perfume, one silver and one gold, of the same weight as the former pair. And when quiet was restored, there entered some men, who even in the Potfeast at Athens had borne a part in the solemnities, and with them there came in some ithyphallic dancers, and some jugglers, and some conjuring women also, tumbling and standing on their heads on swords, and vomiting fire out of their mouths, and they, too, were naked.
[4.] G And when we were relieved from their exhibition, then we had a fresh drink offered to us, hot and strong, and Thasian, and Mendaean, and Lesbian wines were placed upon the board, very large golden goblets being brought to every one of us. And after we had drunk, a glass goblet of two cubits in diameter, placed on a silver stand, was served up, full of roast fishes of every imaginable sort that could be collected. And there was also given to every one a silver breadbasket full of Cappadocian loaves; some of which we ate and some we delivered to the slaves behind us. And when we had washed our hands, we put on chaplets; and then again we received golden circlets twice as large as the former ones, and another pair of cruets of perfume. And when quiet was restored, Proteas leaping up from his couch, asked for a cup to hold a chous; and having filled it with Thasian wine, and having mingled a little water with it, he drank it off, saying -
He who drinks most will be the happiest.
And Caranus said - "Since you have been the first to drink, do you be the first also to accept the cup as a gift; and this also shall be the present for all the rest who drink too." And when this had been said, at once nine of the guests rose up snatching at the cups, and each one trying to forestall the other. But one of those who were of the party, like an unlucky man as he was, as he was unable to drink, sat down and cried because he had no goblet; and so Caranus presented him with an empty goblet.  After this, a dancing party of a hundred men came in, singing an epithalamium in beautiful tune. And after them there came in dancing girls, some arranged so as to represent the Nereids, and others in the guise of the nymphs.
[5.] G And as the drinking went on, and the shadows were beginning to fall, they opened the chamber where everything was encircled all round with white cloths. And when these curtains were drawn, the torches appeared, the partitions having been secretly removed by a mechanism. And there were seen Cupids, and Artemises, and Pans, and Hermae, and numbers of statues of that kind, holding torches in silver candlesticks. And while we were admiring the ingenuity of the contrivance, some real Erymanthian bears were brought round to each of the guests on square platters with golden edges, pierced through and through with silver darts. And what was the strangest thing of all was, that those of us who were almost helpless and stupefied with wine, the moment that we saw any of these things which were brought in, became all in a moment sober, standing upright, as it is said. And so the slaves crammed them into the baskets of good omen, until the usual signal of the termination of the feast sounded. For you know that that is the Macedonian custom at large parties.
And Caranus, who had begun drinking in small goblets, ordered the slaves to bring round the wine rapidly. And so we drank pleasantly, taking our present liquor as a sort of antidote to our previous hard drinking. And while we were thus engaged, Mandrogenes the buffoon came in, the descendant, as is reported, of that celebrated Straton the Athenian, and he caused us much laughter. And after this he danced with his wife, a woman who was already more than eighty years of age. And at last the tables, to wind up the whole entertainment, were brought in. And sweetmeats in plaited baskets made of ivory were distributed to every one. And cheesecakes of every kind known, Cretan cheesecakes, and your Samian ones, my friend Lynceus, and Attic ones, with the proper boxes, or dishes, suitable to each kind of confection. And after this we all rose up and departed, quite sobered, by Zeus, by the thoughts of, and our anxiety about, the treasures which we had received. But you who never go out of Athens think yourself happy when you hear the precepts of Theophrastus and when you eat thyme, and salads, and nice twisted loaves, solemnizing the Lenaean festival, and the Potfeast at the Anthesteria. But at the banquet of Caranus, instead of our portions of meat, we carried off actual riches, and are now looking, some for houses, and some for lands, and some of us are seeking to buy slaves.
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[20.] G  Subsequently the Lacedaemonians relaxed the rigour of this way of living, and became more luxurious. At all events, Phylarchus, in the (?) twenty-fifth book of his Histories, writes thus concerning them [ Fr_44 ] :- "The Lacedaemonians had given up assembling for the pheiditia, according to the custom of their country, and whenever they met, after having had a few things brought round, for the sake of a seeming compliance with the law, other things were then prepared; couches furnished in a very expensive way and of exceeding size and all differing from one another in their adornment; so that some of the strangers who were invited used to be afraid to put their elbows on the pillows; and those who formerly used to rest on a bare bench during the whole banquet, perhaps once leaning on their elbows for a few minutes, had now come to such a pitch of luxury as I have spoken of, and to a serving up of many cups of wine, and of all sorts of food procured from all countries and dressed in every kind of luxurious way; and besides that, they had come to use foreign perfumes, and also foreign wines and sweetmeats. And the people began this fashion who lived a short time before the reign of Cleomenes, namely Areus and Acrotatus, rivalling the indulgence of the court of Persia; and they in their turn were so far exceeded by some private individuals, who lived in Sparta at that time, in their own personal extravagance, that Areus and Acrotatus appeared people of such rigid frugality as to have surpassed the most simple of their predecessors in self-denial."
[21.] G # But Cleomenes was a man of eminent wisdom in his discernment of matters, (although he was but a young man,) and also was exceedingly simple in his manner of life. For he, being king, and having such important affairs entrusted to his management, displayed such behaviour to any who were invited to any sacrifice, as to make them see that what they had daily prepared at home for themselves was in no respect inferior to what he allowed himself. And when many embassies were sent to him be never made a banquet for the ambassadors at an earlier hour than the regular time; and there never was anything more laid than five couches; and when there was no embassy, three couches were laid. And there were no orders issued by the regulator of the feasts, as to who should come in or who should sit down first: but the eldest led the way to the couch, unless he himself invited any one else to do so; and he was generally seen supping with his brother or with some of his friends of his own age. And there was placed on a tripod a brazen wine-cooler, and a cask, and a small silver cup holding two cotylae, and a cyathus; and the spoon was made of brass. And wine was not brought round to drink unless any one asked for it; but one cyathus was given to each guest before supper: and generally it was given to himself first; and then, when he had thus given the signal, the rest also asked for some wine. But what was served up was placed on a very common-looking table; and the dishes were such that there was neither anything left, nor anything deficient, but just a sufficient quantity for every one; so that those who were present should not feel the want of anything. For he did not think it right to receive guests as sparingly, in respect of soup and meat, as men are treated at the pheiditia; nor again, to have so much superfluity as to waste money for no purpose, exceeding all moderation and reason in the feast; for the one extreme he counted illiberal and the other arrogant. And the wine was of rather a better quality when he had any company. But while they were eating they all kept silence; but a slave stood by, holding in his hand a vessel of mixed wine, and poured out for every one who asked for it. And in the same manner, after supper there was given to each guest not more than two cyathi of wine, and this too was brought to each person as he made a sign for it. And there was no music of any kind accompanying the meal, but Cleomenes himself conversed all the time with each individual, having invited them, as it were, for the purpose of listening and talking; so that all departed charmed with his hospitality and affability.
But Antiphanes, ridiculing the Lacedaemonian banquets in the style of the comic poets, in his drama which is entitled Archon, speaks as follows :-
 If you should live in Lacedaemon's walls,
You must comply with all their fashions there.
Go to their spare pheiditia for supper,
And feast on their black broth; and not disdain
To wear fierce whiskers, and seek no indulgence
Further than this; but keep the olden customs,
Such as their country does compel.
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[26.] G  But Heracleides the Cumaean, who compiled a history of Persia, in the second book of that work which is entitled Preparatory, says:- "And those who wait upon the Persian kings while they are at supper, all bathe before serving, and wear beautiful clothes; and they remain nearly half the day in attendance at the feast. But of those who are invited to eat with the king, some dine outside, and every one who chooses can see them, but some dine inside with the king: and even these do not actually eat with him; but there are two rooms opposite to one another, in one of which the king eats his meal, and in the other the guests eat theirs. And the king can see them through the curtain which is at the door; but they cannot see him. But sometimes, when there is a feast, then they all sup in one room, namely, in the same room as the king, being the large room. And when the king has a drinking party, (and he has one very often,) his guests are about a dozen in number, and when they have supped, the king by himself, and his guests by themselves, then one of the eunuchs summons those who are to drink with the king: and when they come, then they drink with him, but they do not have the same wine; also they sit on the ground and he reclines on a couch with golden feet; and when they are very drunk indeed they go away. But for the most part the king breakfasts and sups by himself: but sometimes his wife sups with him; and sometimes some of his sons do so. And at supper his concubines sing and play to him; and one of them leads, and then all the rest sing in concert.
"But the supper," he continues, "which is called the king's supper, will appear to any one who hears of it to be very magnificent; still, when it is examined into, it will turn out to be economically and carefully managed, and in the same manner as the meals of the other Persians who are in office. For the king has a thousand victims slain every day: and among them are horses and camels, and oxen, and asses, and stags, and an immense number of sheep; and a great many birds too are taken; and the Arabian ostrich (and that is a very huge animal), and geese, and cocks; and a moderate quantity of them are served up to each of the mess-mates of the king, and each of them carries away what is left for his breakfast. But the greater part of these victims and of this meat is carried out into the court to the spear-bearers and light-armed troops whom the king maintains; and in the court the masters of the feasts portion out the meat and the bread into equal portions; and as the mercenary troops in Greece receive money for their hire, so do these men receive food from the king, on account, as if it were money. And in the same way, at the courts of the other Persians, who hold high rank, all the food is placed at once upon the table; and when the mess-mates of the magistrate have finished their supper, then he who superintends the meal distributes what is left on the table (and the greater port of the bread and meat, is left) to each of the servants. And each attendant, when he has received his share, has his food for the day.  For the most honourable of the mess-mates (their title is οἱ σύνδαπνοι) never come to the king except to breakfast; because they have requested permission not to be bound to come twice in the day, in order that they themselves may be able to receive guests at their own houses."
[27.] G But Herodotus, in his seventh book, says:- "The Greeks, who received Xerxes in hospitality, and invited him to supper, all came to the very extremity of ruin, so as to be utterly turned out of their houses; as for instance, among the Thasians, who, because of the cities which they had on the continent, received the army of Xerxes and entertained it at supper. Antipater, one of the citizens, expended four hundred talents in that single entertainment; and he placed on the tables gold and silver cups and goblets; and then the soldiers, when they departed after the supper, took them away with them. And, wherever Xerxes took two meals, dining as well as supping, that city would be utterly ruined."
And in the ninth book of his Histories, the same author tells us:- "The king provides a royal entertainment; and this is provided once every year, on the day on which the king was born. And the name of this feast is in Persian τυκτὰ, but in Greek τέλειον; and that is the only day that he has his head rubbed, and gives presents to the Persians."
But Alexander the Great, whenever he supped with any of his friends, as Ephippus the Olynthian relates in his book on the Deaths of Alexander and Hephaestion, expended each day a hundred minae, as perhaps sixty or seventy of his friends supped with him. But the king of the Persians as Ctesias and Dinon relate in the Histories of Persia, supped with fifteen thousand men, and there were expended on the supper four hundred talents; and this amounts in Italian money to twenty four hundred thousand [denarii]. And this sum when divided among fifteen thousand men is a hundred and sixty [denarii] of Italian money for each individual; so that it comes to very nearly the same as the expense of Alexander; for he expended a hundred minae, according to the account of Ephippus.
But Menander, in his play called Drunkenness, estimates the expense of the most sumptuous banquet at a talent, saying:-
Then we do not in these matters act as we should do
When to the gods we sacrifice; for then we go and buy
A sheep, an offering for the gods, for scarce ten drachmas' price.
And then we send for flute-players, and ointments, and perfumes,
And harps, and singing women, eels, and cheese, and honey too;
And ample jars of Thasian wine; but those can scarcely come,
When all together reckoned up, to a small talent's sum.
And it is as the very extravagance of expense that he has named a talent at all. And in his Morose Man he speaks as follows:-
See how those housebreakers do sacrifice!
Bearing such beds and couches, not to please
The gods, but their own selves. Incense is pious,
So is the votive cake; and this the god
Receives well-baked in the holy fire.
But they when they have offered the chump end
Of the spine, the gall bladder, and bones,
Not too agreeable or easy to eat,
Unto the gods, consume the rest themselves.
[28.] G And Philoxenus of Cythera, in the play which is entitled The Supper (for he it is whom Platon the comic writer mentions in his Phaon, and not Philoxenus tho Leucadian,) mentions the following as the preparation made for a banquet:-
[ these verses, as recorded in the manuscripts, are barely intelligible ]
And then two slaves brought in a well-rubbed table,
 And then another, and another, till
The room was full, and then the hanging lamps
Beamed bright and shone upon the festive crowns,
And herbs, and dishes of rich delicacies.
And then all arts were put in requisition
To furnish forth a most luxurious meal.
Barley cakes as white as snow did fill the baskets,
And then were served up not coarse vulgar pots,
But well-shaped dishes, whose (?) well-ordered breadth
Filled the rich board, eels, and the well-stuffed conger,
A dish for the gods. Then came a platter
Of equal size, with dainty swordfish fraught,
And then fat cuttlefish, and the savoury tribes
Of the long hairy polypus. After this
(?) Another dish appeared upon the table,
Rival of that just brought from off the fire,
Fragrant with spicy odour. And on that
. . .
. . .
After that came a grey mullet hot
From the fire, the whole as large as the table,
. . .
. . . following these we had
Flower-leaved cakes and fresh confections
Sweet to the palate, and large buns of wheat,
Large as the plate, sweet, and round, which you
Do know the taste of well. And if you ask
What more was there, I'd speak of luscious chine,
And loin of pork, and head of boar, all hot;
Cutlets of kid, and well-boiled meat ends,
And ribs of beef, and heads, and snouts, and tails,
. . .
. . .
Then kid again, and lamb, and hares, and poultry,
Partridges and ring-doves were lavishly laid before us.
And golden honey, and clotted cream was there,
And cheese, which I did join with all in calling
Most tender fare. And when we all had reached
Satiety of food and wine, the slaves
Bore off the still full tables; and some others
Brought us warm water for to wash our hands.
[29.] G And Socrates the Rhodian, in the third book of his History of the Civil War, describing the entertainment given by Cleopatra the last queen of Egypt, who married Antonius the Roman general, in Cilicia, speaks in the following manner:- "But Cleopatra having met Antonius in Cilicia, prepared him a royal entertainment, in which every dish was golden and inlaid with precious stones, wonderfully chased and embossed. And the walls," continues he, "were hung with cloths embroidered in gold and purple. And she had twelve triclinia laid; and invited Antonius to a banquet, and invited him to bring with him whatever companions he pleased.  And he being astonished at the magnificence of the sight, expressed his surprise; and she, smiling said that she made him a present of everything which he saw, and invited him to sup with her again the next day, and to bring his friends and captains with him. And then she prepared a banquet by far more splendid than the former one, so as to make that first one appear contemptible; and again she presented to him everything that there was on the table; and she told each of his captains to take for his own the couch on which he lay, and the goblets which were set before each couch. And when they were departing she gave to all those of the highest rank litters, with the slaves for litter-bearers; and to the rest she gave horses, adorned with silver-plated trappings: and to every one she gave Ethiopian boys, to bear torches before them. And on the fourth day she paid more than a talent for roses; and the floor of the chamber for the men was strewed a cubit deep, nets being spread over the blooms." And he relates further, that "Antonius himself when he was staying at Athens, a short time after this, prepared a very superb scaffold to spread over the theatre, covered with green wood such as is seen in the caves sacred to Dionysus; and from this scaffold he suspended drums and fawn-skins, and all the other trinkets which one names in connection with Dionysus, and then sat there with his friends, getting drunk from daybreak,- a band of musicians, whom he had sent for from Italy, playing to him all the time, and all the Greeks around being collected to see the sight. And presently," continues he, "he crossed over to the Acropolis, the whole city of Athens being illuminated with lamps suspended from the roofs; and after that he ordered himself to be proclaimed as Dionysus throughout all the cities in that district."
And Gaius the emperor, surnamed Caligula because he was born in the camp, was not only called the New Dionysus, but was also in the habit of going about dressed in the entire dress of Dionysus, and be used to sit on the tribunal as judge in that dress.
[30.] G Now a man looking at these instances which have occurred in our country before our time, may marvel at the poverty of the Greeks, especially if he sets his eyes upon the banquets which take place among the Thebans; concerning whom Cleitarchus, in the first book of his Histories relating to Alexander, speaks, and says that all their wealth, when the city was razed to the ground by Alexander, was found to amount to four hundred and forty talents, because they were mean-spirited and stingy in eating and drinking, preparing in their banquets forced-meat balls, and boiled fish and anchovies, and other small fish, and sausages, and ribs of beef, and soup; on which Attaginus the son of Phrynon feasted Mardonius, with fifty other Persians; a man whom Herodotus mentions in his ninth book [ 9.16 ] as having amassed an enormous amount of riches. And I think that they would never have survived, and that there was no necessity for the Greeks to fight against them at Plataea, as they would certainly have been killed by such food as that.
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[33.] G  But Lynceus, in his treatise on the Affairs and Constitution of Egypt, comparing the Egyptian banquets to the Persian ones, says - "When the Egyptians made an expedition against Ochus, king of Persia, and were defeated, when the king of the Egyptians was taken prisoner, Ochus treated him with great humanity, and invited him to supper. And as there was a very splendid preparation made, the Egyptian laughed at the idea of the Persian living so frugally. 'But if you wish,' said he, 'O king, to know how happy kings ought to feast, permit those cooks who formerly belonged to me to prepare for you an Egyptian supper.' And when the Persian had ordered that they should do so, when it was prepared, Ochus was delighted at the feast, and said, 'May the gods, O Egyptian, destroy you miserably for a wicked man, who could leave such a supper as this, and desire a much more frugal repast.'" But what the Egyptian feasts were like Protagorides teaches us in the first book of his treatise on the Contests at Daphne, speaking as follows :- "And the third description of suppers is the Egyptian, whose tables are not laid at all, but dishes are brought round to the guests."
[34.] G "But among the Galatians," says Phylarchus in his sixth book [ Fr_9 ], "it is the custom to place on the tables a great number of loaves broken plentifully, and meat just taken out of the cauldrons, which no one touches without first waiting for the king to see whether he touches anything of what in served up before him." But in his third book the same Phylarchus says [ Fr_2 ] that "Ariamnes the Galatian, being an exceedingly rich man, gave notice that be would give all the Galatians a banquet every year, and that he did so, managing in this manner: he divided the country, measuring it by convenient stages along the roads; and at these stages he erected tents of stakes and rushes and osiers, each containing about four hundred men, or somewhat more, according as the district required, and with reference to the number that might be expected to throng in from the villages and towns adjacent to the stage in question. And there he placed huge cauldrons, full of every sort of meat; and he had the cauldrons made in the preceding year before he was to give the feast, sending for artisans from other cities. And he caused many victims to he slain - numbers of oxen, and pigs, and sheep and other animals - every day; and he caused casks of wine to be prepared, and a great quantity of ground corn. And not only," he continues, "did all the Galatians who came from the villages and cities enjoy themselves, but even all the strangers who happened to be passing by were not allowed to escape by the slaves who stood around, but were pressed to come in and partake of what had been prepared."
[35.] G Xenophon also mentions the Thracian suppers in the seventh book of his Anabasis, describing the banquet given by Seuthes in the following words [ 7.3'21 ] -  "But when they all came to the supper, and the supper was laid so that they might all sit round in a circle, then tripods were brought to all the guests; and they were about twenty in number, all full of meat ready carved: and leavened loaves of large size were stuck to the joints of meat with skewers. And most especially were tables always placed before the guests, for that was the custom. And first of all Seuthes behaved in this manner: taking the loaves which were near him, he broke them into small pieces, and threw the pieces to whoever he chose; and he acted in the same way with the meat, leaving before himself only just as much as he could eat; and the rest also did the same, - those I mean before whom the tables were set. But a certain Arcadian, Arystas by name, a great eater, said that throwing the bread and meat about was folly; and taking a large loaf in his hand, of the size of three choenixes, and putting the meat upon his knees, made his supper in that manner. And they brought round horns of wine, and all pledged one another; but Arystas, when the cup-bearer came to him with the wine, said, as he saw that Xenophon was no longer eating any supper, 'Give him the wine, for he has time to drink it, but I have not time yet.' And then there arose laughter. And as the liquor went round, a Thracian came in, having a white horse, and taking a horn full of wine, said, 'O Seuthes, I pledge you, and I make you a present of my horse: and if you ride him you will catch whatever you wish to catch; and when you retreat you will never need to fear an enemy.' And another man brought in his son, and gave him to him in the same manner, pledging him in wine: and another gave him garments for his wife. And Timasion, pledging him, gave him a silver goblet, and a scimitar worth ten minae. But Gnesippus, an Athenian, rising up, said that there was an ancient and excellent law, that those who had anything should give it to the king as a compliment, and that the king should make presents to those who had nothing. But Xenophon rose up boldly, and taking the horn, said- 'I, O Seuthes, give you myself and than my companions to be faithful friends to you, and not one of them is unwilling that I should do so: and now they are present here asking for nothing, but being willing to encounter labour and danger on your behalf.' And Seuthes, rising up, drank to Xenophon, and spilt the rest of the contents of the horn at the same time that he did. And after this there came in men who played on horns such as are used for giving orders with, and also on trumpets made of raw bull's-hide, in excellent tune, as if they had been playing on a magadis."
[36.] G And Poseidonius the Stoic, in the histories which be composed in a manner by no means inconsistent with the philosophy which he professed, writing of the laws that were established and the customs which prevailed in many nations, says [ Fr_15 ] - " The Celts place food before their guests, putting grass for their seats, and they serve it up on wooden tables raised a very little above the ground; and their food consists of a few loaves, and a good deal of meat brought up floating in water, and roasted on the coals or on spits. And they eat their meat in a cleanly manner enough, but like lions, taking up whole joints in both their hands and gnawing them; and if there is any which they cannot easily tear away, they cut it off with a small sword which they have in a sheath in a special box.  And those who live near the rivers eat fish also, and so do those who live near the Mediterranean sea, or near the Atlantic ocean; and they eat it roasted with salt and vinegar and cumin seed: and cumin seed they also throw into their wine. But they use no oil, on account of its scarcity; and because they are not used to it, it seems disagreeable to them. But when many of them sup together, they all sit in a circle; and the bravest sits in the middle, like the coryphaeus of a chorus; because he is superior to the rest either in his military skill, or in birth, or in riches: and the man who gives the entertainment sits next to him; and then on each side the rest of the guests sit in regular order, according as each is eminent or distinguished for anything. And their armour-bearers, bearing their large oblong shields, called thureoi, stand behind; and their spear-bearers sit down opposite in a circle, and feast in the same manner as their masters. And those who act as cup-bearers and bring round the wine, bring it round in jars made either of earthenware or of silver, like ordinary casks in shape, and the name they give them is ἀμβίκος. And their platters on which they serve up the meat are also made of the same material; but some have brazen platters, and some have wooden or plaited baskets. And the liquor which is drunk is, among the rich, wine brought from Italy or from the country about Massilia; and this is drunk unmixed, but sometimes a little water is mixed with it. But among the poorer classes what is drunk is a beer made of wheat prepared with honey, and oftener still without any honey; and they call it κόρμα. And they all drink it out of the same cup, in small draughts, not drinking more than a cyathus at a time; but they take frequent draughts: and a slave carries the liquor round, beginning at the right hand and going on to the left; and this is the way in which they are waited on, and in which they worship the gods, always turning towards the right hand."
[37.] G # And Poseidonius continuing, and relating the riches of Luernius the father of Bityis, who was subdued by the Romans, says [ Fr_18 ] that "he, aiming at becoming a leader of the populace, used to drive in a chariot over the plains, and scatter gold and silver among the myriads of Celts who followed him; and that he enclosed a fenced space of twelve furlongs in length every way, square, in which he erected wine-presses, and filled them with expensive liquors; and that he prepared so vast a quantity of eatables that for very many days any one who chose was at liberty to go and enjoy what was there prepared, being waited on without interruption or cessation. And once, when he had issued beforehand invitations to a banquet, some poet from some barbarian tribe came too late and met him on the way, and sung a hymn in which he extolled his magnificence, and bewailed his own misfortune in having come too late: and Luernius was pleased with his ode, and called for a bag of gold, and threw it to him as he was running by the side of his chariot; and that he picked it up, and then went on singing, saying that his very footprints upon the earth over which be drove produced benefits to men." Those now are the accounts of the Celts given by Poseidonius in the twenty-third book of his history.
[38.] G But in the fifth book, speaking of the Parthians, he says [ Fr_5 ] - "But a friend who is invited does not share the same table,  but sitting on the ground while the king reclines near on a lofty couch, eats whatever is thrown to him from the king, like a dog. And very often he is torn away from his feast on the ground for some trifling cause, and is scourged with rods and knotted whips; and when he is all covered with blood he falls down on his face on the floor, and adores the man who has punished him as his benefactor."
# And in his eleventh book, speaking of Seleucus the king, and relating how he came against Media, and warred against Arsaces, and was taken prisoner by the barbarian, and how be remained a long time in captivity to Arsaces, being treated like a king by him, he writes thus [ Fr_12 ] - "Among the Parthians, at their banquets, the king had a couch on which he reclined by himself higher than all the rest, and apart from them; and a table also was laid for him by himself as for a hero, laden with all sorts of barbaric delicacies." # And when he is speaking of Heracleon of Beroea, who was promoted to honour by that king Antiochus who was surnamed Grypus, and who very nearly turned his benefactor out of his kingdom, he writes as follows in the fourth book of his histories: "He also gave entertainments to the soldiers, making them sit down on the ground in the open air by thousands and the entertainment consisted of large loaves and meat; and their drink was any sort of wine that could be got, mingled with cold water. And they were waited on by men girded with swords, and there was an orderly silence throughout the whole company."
Again, in his second book, he says [ Fr_1 ] - "In the city of the Romans when they feast in the temple of Hercules, when a general who is celebrating a triumph furnishes the entertainment, the whole preparation of the banquet is of a Herculean character; for honey-wine is served out to the guests as wine and the food consists of huge loaves, and smoked meat boiled, and also, great abundance of roast meat from the victims which have been lately slain. But among the Etruscans luxurious tables are spread twice a-day; and couches embroidered with flowers, and silver drinking cups of every sort. And a great number of well-appointed slaves is at hand, dressed in expensive garments." And Timaeus, in the first book of his Histories, says that all the female servants in that nation always wait at table naked till they are quite grown up.
[39.] G And Megasthenes, in the second book of his Indian History, says - "Among the Indians at a banquet a table is set before each individual; and it is like a sideboard or buffet; and on the table is placed a golden dish, in which they throw first of all boiled rice, just as if a person were going to boil groats, and then they add many sorts of meat dressed after the Indian fashion."
But the Germans, as Poseidonius relates in his thirtieth book [ Fr_22 ], eat for dinner meat roasted in separate joints; and they drink milk and unmixed wine. And some of the tribes of the Campanians practise single combat at their drinking parties. But Nicolaus of Damascus, one of the philosophers of the Peripatetic school, in the hundred-and-tenth book of his History, relates that the Romans at their feasts practise single combats, writing as follows - "The Romans used to exhibit spectacles of single combats, not only in their public shows and in their theatres, having derived the custom from the Etruscans, but they did so also at their banquets. Accordingly, peop1e often invited their friends to an entertainment, promising them, in addition to other things that they should see two or three pairs of single combatants. And when they had had enough of meat and drink, they then called in the combatants: and as soon as one of them was killed, the guests clapped, being delighted at the exhibition.  And in one instance a man left it in his will that some beautiful women, whom he had purchased as slaves, should engage in single combat: and in another case a man desired that some youthful boys whom he had loved should do so; but the people would not tolerate such notorious proceedings, and declared the will invalid." And Eratosthenes says, in the first book of his Catalogue of the Victors at Olympia, that the Etruscans used to box to the music of the flute.
[40.] G But Poseidonius, in the twenty-third book of his Histories, says [Fr_16 ] - "The Celts sometimes have single combats at their entertainments. For having assembled in arms, they go through the exercise, and make feints at, and sometimes they even go so far as to wound one another. And being irritated by this, if the bystanders do not stop them, they will proceed even to kill one another. But in olden times," he continues, "there was a custom that a hind quarter of pork was put on the table, and the bravest man took it; and if any one else laid claim to it, then the two rose up to fight till one of them was slain. And other men in the theatre having received some silver or gold money, and some even for a number of earthen vessels full of wine, having taken pledges that the gifts promised shall really be given, and having distributed them among their nearest connections, have laid themselves down on doors with their faces upwards, and then allowed some bystander to cut their throats with a sword."
And Euphorion the Chalcidian, in his Historical Memorials, writes as follows - "But among the Romans it is common for five minae to be offered to any one who chooses to take it, to allow his head to be cut off with an axe, so that his heirs might receive the reward: and very often many have returned their names as willing, so that there has been a regular contest between them as to who had the best right to be beaten to death."
[41.] G And Hermippus, in the first book of his treatise on Lawgivers, asserts that the Mantineians were the original inventors of men to fight in single combat, and that Demonax, one of their citizens, was the original suggestor of such a course; and that the Cyrenaeans were the next to follow their example. And Ephorus, in the sixth book of his History, says- "The Mantineians and Arcadians were in the habit of practising warlike exercises; and even to this day they call the military dress and the ancient fashion of arming the Mantineian, as having been invented by that people. And in addition to this, the exercises of single combat were first invented in Mantineia, Demeas being the original author of the invention." And that the custom of single combatants was an ancient one, Aristophanes shows, when he speaks thus in his Phoenissae -
And on the heroes twain, the sons of Oedipus,
Has savage Ares descended; and they now
Seek the arena dread of single combat.
And the word μονόμαχος appears not to be derived from the noun μάχη, but rather from the verb μάχεσθαι. For as often an a word compounded of μάχη ends ος, as in the words σύμμαχος, πρωτόμαχος, ἐπίμαχος, ἀντίμαχος, and the φιλόμαχος race of Perseus, spoken of by Pindarus, then it is acuted on the antepenultima; but when it has the acute accent on the penultima, then the verb μάχεσθαι comes in; as is shown in the words πυγμάχος, ναυμάχος, in the expression αὐτόν σε πυλαμάχε πρῶτον, in Stesichorus; and the nouns ὁπλομάχος, τειχομάχος, πυργομάχος. But Poseidippus the comic writer, in his Pornoboscus, says -
The man who never went to sea has never shipwrecked been.
But we have been more miserable than μονομαχοῦντες (gladiators in single combat).
 And that even men of reputation and captains fought in single combat, and did so in accordance with premeditated challenges, we have already said in other parts of this discussion. # And Diyllus the Athenian says, in the ninth book of his Histories, that Cassander, when returning from Boeotia after he had buried the king and queen at Aegae, and with them Cynna the mother of Eurydice, and had paid them all the other honours to which they were entitled, celebrated also a show of single combats, and four of the soldiers entered the arena on that occasion.
[42.] G # But Demetrius of Scepsis, in the twelfth book of Trojan Array, says, that at the court of Antiochus the king, who was surnamed the Great, not only did the friends of the king dance in arms at his entertainments, but even the king himself did so. And when the turn to dance came to Hegesianax of Alexandria in the Troad, who wrote the Histories, he rose up and said- 'Do you wish, O king, to see me dance badly, or would you prefer hearing me recite my own poems very well?' Accordingly, being ordered rather to recite his poems, he sang the praises of the king in such a manner, that he was thought worthy of payment, and of being ranked as one of the king's friends for the time to come. # But Duris the Samian, in the seventeenth book of his Histories, says that Polysperchon, though a very old man, danced whenever he was drunk,- a man who was inferior to no one of the Macedonians, either as a commander or in respect of his general reputation: but still that he put on a saffron robe and Sicyonian sandals, and kept on dancing a long time. But Agatharchides the Cnidian, in the eighth book of his History of Asia, relates that the friends of Alexander the son of Philippus once gave an entertainment to the king, and gilded all the sweetmeats which were to be served up in the second course. And when they wanted to eat any of them, they took off the gold and threw that away with all the rest which was not good to eat, in order that their friends might be spectators of their sumptuousness, and their servants might become masters of the gold. But they forgot that, as Duris also relates, Philippus the father of Alexander, when he had a golden cup which was fifty drachmas in weight, always took it to bed with him, and always slept with it at his head. And Seleucus says, "that some of the Thracians at their drinking parties play the game of hanging; and fix a round noose to some high place, exactly beneath which they place a stone which is easily turned round when any one stands upon it; and then they cast lots, and he who draws the lot, holding a sickle in his hand, stands upon thee stone, and puts his neck into the halter; and then another person comes and raises the stone, and the man who is suspended, when the stone moves from under him, if he is not quick enough in cutting the rope with his sickle, is killed; and the rest laugh, thinking his death good sport."
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[54.] G  But Archestratus of Gela, in his treatise on Gastronomy, - which is the only poetical composition which you wise men admire; following Pythagoras in this doctrine alone, namely silence, and doing this only because of your want of words; and besides that, you profess to think well of the Art of Love of Sphodrias the Cynic, and the Amatory Conversation of Protagorides, and the Convivial Dialogues of that beautiful philosopher Persaeus, compiled out of the Commentaries of Stilpon and Zenon, in which he inquires, How one may guard against guests at a banquet going to sleep; and, How one ought to use drinking of healths; and, When one ought to introduce beautiful boys and girls into a banquet; and when one ought to treat them well as if they were admired, and when one ought to send them away as disregarding them; and also, concerning various kinds of cookery, and concerning loaves, and other things; and all the over-subtle discussions in which the son of Sophroniscus has indulged concerning kissing. A philosopher who was continually exercising his intellect on such investigations as these, being entrusted, as Hermippus relates, with the citadel of Corinth by Antigonus, got drunk and lost even Corinth itself, being outwitted and defeated by Aratus the Sicyonian; who formerly had argued in his Dialogues addressed to Zenon the philosopher, contending that a wise man would in every respect be a good general; and this excellent pupil of Zenon proved this especial point admirably by his own achievements. For it was a witty saying of Bion of Borysthenes, when he saw a bronze statue of his, on which was the inscription, "Persaeus of Citium, the pupil of Zenon", that the man who engraved the inscription had made a blunder, for that it ought to have been, "Persaeus the servant (οἰκιτίεα not Κιτίεα ) of Zenon"; for he had been born a slave of Zenon, as Nicias of Nicaea relates, in his History of Philosophers; and this is confirmed by Sotion the Alexandrian, in his Successions. And I have met with two books of that admirable work of Persaeus, which have this title, Convivial Dialogues.
[55.] G But Ctesibius of Chalcis, the friend of Menedemus, as Antigonus the Carystian relates in his Lives, being asked by somebody, 'What he had ever got by philosophy?' replied, 'The power of getting a supper without contributing to it himself.' On which account Timon somewhere or other said to him -
Oh you mad dinner hunter, with the eyes
Of a dead corpse, and heart both bold and shameless.
And Ctesibius was a man who made very good guesses, and was a very witty man, and a sayer of amusing things;  on which account every one used to invite him to their parties; he was not a man like you, you Cynic, who never sacrificed to the Graces, nor even to the Muses. And therefore Virtue avoiding you, and all like you, sits by Pleasure, as Mnasalces of Sicyon says, in his Epigrams -
Here I most miserable Virtue sit
By Pleasure's side, and cut my hair for grief,
Crushed in my spirit; for profane Delight
Is judged by all my better, and my chief.
And Baton the comic writer says in his Homicide -
Now I invite those moderate philosophers,
Who never allow themselves a single pleasure,
Who keep on looking for the one wise man
In all their walks and conversations,
As if he were a slave who'd run away.
O wretched man, why, when you have a ticket,
Will you refuse to drink? Why do you now
Do so much wrong to the Gods? Why do you make
Money of greater value than the rate
Which nature put on it? You drink but water,
And so must be a worthless citizen;
For so you cheat the farmer and the merchant;
But I by getting drunk increase their trade.
Then you at early dawn carry round a jug,
Seeking for oil, so that a man must think
You have an hour-glass with you, not a bottle.
[56.] G However, Archestratus, as I was saying before this long digression, whom you praise as equal to Homer because of his praises of the stomach (though your friend Timon says of the stomach, "Than which no part more shameless can be found"), when speaking of the Sea-dog, writes as follows :-
There are but few so happy as to know
This god-like food, nor do men covet it
Who have the silly souls of common mortals.
They fear because it is an animal
Which living preys on man. But every fish
Loves human flesh, if it can meet with it,
So it is fit that all who talk such nonsense
Should be confined to herbs, and should be sent
To Diodorus the philosopher
And starve, and so pythagorize with him.
But this Diodorus was by birth an Aspendian; but desiring to be thought a Pythagorean, he lived after the fashion of you Cynics, letting his hair grow, being dirty, and going barefoot. On which account some people fancied that it was an article of the Pythagorean creed to let the hair grow, which was in reality a fashion introduced by Diodorus, as Hermippus asserts. But Timaeus of Tauromenium, in the ninth book of his Histories, writes thus concerning him - "Diodorus, who was by birth an Aspendian, introduced a novel fashion of dress, and pretended to resemble the Pythagoreans. Stratonicus wrote and sent a messenger to him, desiring him who carried the message to seek out a disciple of Pythagoras who kept the portico crowded by his insane vagaries about dress, and his insolence." And Sosicrates, in the third book of the Succession of Philosophers, relates that Diodorus used to wear a long beard, and a worn-out cloak, and to keep his hair long, indulging in these fashions out of a vain ostentation.  For the Pythagoreans before him wore very handsome clothes, and used baths, and perfumes, and hair of the ordinary length.
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[63.] G  But Duris, in the seventh book of his history of the Affairs of Macedonia, speaking of Pasicyprus the king of Cyprus, and of his intemperate habits, writes as follows - "Alexander, after the siege of Tyre, dismissed Pnytagoras, and gave him many presents, and among them he gave him the fortified place which he asked for. And that very place Pasicyprus the king had previously sold, in a luxurious freak, for fifty talents, to Pygmalion of Citium, selling him both the fortress itself and his own royal authority over it. And when he had received the money he grew old in Amathus." Such also was Aethiops the Corinthian, as Demetrius of Scepsis relates, of whom mention is made by Archilochus; "for he, out of his love of pleasure and intemperance, sailing with Archias to Sicily when he was about to found Syracuse, sold to his messmate for a cake of honey the lot which he had just drawn, and was about to take possession of in Syracuse."
[64.] G # But Demetrius carried his extravagance to such a height, he, I mean, who was the descendant of Demetrius Phalereus, according to the account of Hegesander, that he had Aristagora the Corinthian for a mistress and lived in a most expensive manner. And when the Areopagites summoned him before them, and ordered him to live more decorously - "But even now,' said he, "I live like a gentleman, for I have a most beautiful mistress, and I do no wrong to any one, and I drink Chian wine, and I have a sufficiency of everything, as my own revenues suffice for all these expenses. And I do not live as some of you do, corrupted by bribes myself, and intriguing with other men's wives." And hereupon be enumerated some who acted in this manner by name. And Antigonus the king, having heard this made him a thesmothete. And he, being an hipparch at the Panathenaea, erected a seat close to the statues of Hermes for Aristagora, higher than the Hermae themselves. And when the mysteries were celebrated at Eleusis, he placed a seat for her close to the temple, saying that those who endeavoured to hinder him should repent it.
[65.] G  But Phanodemus, and also Philochorus [ Fr_196 ], have related that in former times the judges of the Areopagus used to summon before them and to punish profligate and extravagant men, and those who had no ostensible means of living: and many others have told the same story. # At all events, those judges sent for Menedemus and Asclepiades the philosophers when they wore young men and poor, and asked them how they managed to look so sleek and comfortable when they spent the whole day idling with philosophers, and had no property. And they replied that some one of the men about the mill had better be sent for. And when he came and said that they came every night to the mill and threshed and ground the corn, and each earned two drachmas, the judges of the Areopagus marvelled, and presented them with two hundred drachmas as a reward. And the citizens of Abdera brought Democritus to trial, on the ground that he had wasted the estate which he had inherited from his father. And when he had read to them his Great World, and his treatise concerning the Things in the Shades below, and had said that he had spent it on these works, he was discharged.
[66.] G But those men who are not so luxurious, as Amphis says -
Drink throughout the day in every day,
Shaking their heads through their too mighty draughts.
And according to Diphilus -
Having three heads, like to Artemis' statue.
Being enemies to their own estate, as Satyrus in his treatise on Characters said, running through their land, tearing to pieces and plundering their own houses, selling their own property as if it were the spoil of the enemy, considering not what has been spent, but what will be spent, and not what will remain afterwards, but what will not remain, having spent beforehand in their youth the money which ought to have earned them safely through old age, rejoicing in companionship, not in companions, and in their wine, and not in those who drink it with them. But Agatharchides the Corinthian, in the twenty-eighth book of his Commentary on the Affairs of Europe, says "that Gnosippus, who was a very luxurious and extravagant man in Sparta, was forbidden by the ephors to hold intercourse with the young men." # And among the Romans, it is related, according to the statement of Poseidonius, in the forty-ninth book of his Histories [ Fr_27 ], that there was a man named Apicius who went beyond all other men in intemperance. This is that Apicius who was the cause of banishment to Rutilius who wrote the history of the Romans in the Greek language. But concerning Apicius, the man, I mean, who is so notorious for his extravagant luxury, we have already spoken in our first book.
[67.] G # But Diogenes the Babylonian, in his treatise on Nobility of Birth, says "that the son of Phocion, whose name was Phocus, was such a man that there was not one Athenian who did not hate him. And whenever any one met him they said to him, 'O you man who are a disgrace to your family!' For he had expended all his patrimony on intemperance; and after this he became a flatterer of the prefect of Munychia; on which account he was again attacked and reproached by every one. And once, when a voluntary contribution was being made, he came forward and said, before the whole assembly, 'I, too, contribute my share.' And the Athenians all with one accord cried out, 'Yes, to profligacy.' And Phocus was a man very fond of drinking hard; and accordingly, when he had conquered with horses at the Panathenaea, and when his father entertained his companions at a banquet, the preparation was very splendid, and foot-tubs full of wine and spices were set before all who came in.  And his father, seeing this, called Phocus, and said, 'Will you not stop your companion from polluting your victory in this fashion?' "
And I know too of many other intemperate and extravagant men, whom I leave you to find out, with the exception of Callias the son of Hipponicus, whom even the tutors of little children have heard of. But concerning the others whom I have been a little hasty in mentioning, if you have anything to say, I have the doors of my ears open. So speak; for I want to know something.
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[75.] G  And while much such conversation as this was proceeding, on a sudden a noise was heard from some one of the neighbouring places, as from an hydraulic organ, very pleasant and agreeable, so that we all turned round towards it, being charmed by the melody; and Ulpianus looking towards the musician Alceides said, Do you hear, O you most musical of men, this beautiful harmony which has made us turn round, being enchanted by the music? And is it not the case, as it is said to be among you Alexandrians, that constant music of an unaccompanied flute causes pain rather than any musical pleasure to those who hear it? And Alceides said, - But this engine, the hydraulic organ, whether you choose to class it among stringed instruments or among wind instruments, is the invention of a fellow-countryman of ours, an Alexandrian, a barber by trade; and his name in Ctesibius. And Aristocles reports this, in his book on Choruses, saying "The question is asked, whether the hydraulic organ is a stringed instrument or a wind instrument." Now Aristoxenus did not feel sure on this point; but it is said, that Plato showed a sort of notion of the invention, making a nightly clock like the hydraulic organ; being very like an enormous hour-glass. And, indeed, the hydraulic organ does seem to be a kind of hour-glass. It cannot, therefore, be considered a stringed instrument, and one to be played by touching. But perhaps it may be called a wind instrument, because the organ is inflated by the water; for the pipes are plunged down into the water, and when the water is agitated by a youth, as the axles penetrate through the whole organ, the pipes are inflated, and create a gentle and agreeable sound. And this organ is like a round altar; # and they say that it was invented by Ctesibius the barber, who dwelt at that time in the territory of Aspendus, in the reign of the second Ptolemaeus surnamed Euergetes; and they say that he was a very eminent man; they say also, that he learnt a good deal from his wife Thais. But Tryphon, in the third book of his treatise on Names, (and it is a dissertation on Flutes and Organs) says Ctesibius the mechanic wrote a book about the water-organ; but I am not sure that he is not mistaken as to the name. At all events, Aristoxenus preferred stringed instruments which are played upon by the touch to wind instruments; saying that wind instruments are very easy; for that many people, without having been taught, can play on the flute and pipe, as for instance, shepherds.
[76.] G And this is what I have got to say to you about the hydraulic organ, O Ulpianus. For the Phoenicians used a kind of flute called the gingras, according to the account of Xenophon, about a span in length, and of a very shrill and mournful tone. And the same instrument is used also by the Carians in their wailings, unless, indeed, when he says Phoenicia he means Caria; and indeed you may find the name used so in Corinna and in Bacchylides. And these flutes are called gingri by the Phoenicians from the lamentations for Adonis;  for you Phoenicians called Adonis Gingres, as Democleides tells us. And Antiphanes mentions the gingri flutes in his Physician; and Menander does so too, in his Carina; and Amphis, in his Dithyrambus, saying -
(A) And I have got that admirable gingras.
(B) What is the gingras?
(A) 'Tis a new invention
Of our countrymen, which never yet
Has been exhibited in any theatre,
But is a luxury of Athenian banquets.
(B) Why then not introduce it to this people?
(A) Because I think that I shall draw by lot
Some most ambitious tribe; for well I know
They would disturb all things with their applause.
And Axionicus says, in his Phileuripides -
For they are both so sick with love
Of the melodious strains of soft Euripides,
That every other music seems to them
Shrill as the gingras and a mere misfortune.
[77.] G But how much better, O most sagacious Ulpianus, is this hydraulic organ, than the instrument which is called nablas; which Sopater the parodist, in his drama entitled Pylae, says is also an invention of the Phoenicians, using the following expressions -
Nor is the noise of the Sidonian nablas ,
Which from the throat doth flow, at all impaired.
And in the Slave of Mystacus we find -
Among the instruments of harmony
The nablas comes, not over soft or sweet;
By its long sides a lifeless lotus fixed
Sends forth a breathed music; and excites men,
Singing in Bacchic strain a merry song.
And Philemon says, in his Adulterer -
(A) There should, O Parmenon, be here among as
A nablas or a female flute-player.
(B) What is a nablas?
(A) Don't you know? you idiot!
(B) Indeed I don't.
(A) What, do not know a nablas?
You know no good; perhaps a sambuca-player
You never have heard of either!
There is also an instrument called the triangle, which Juba mentions in the fourth book of his Theatrical History, and says it is an invention of the Syrians; as is also the sambuca, which is called λυροφοίνιξ. But this instrument Neanthes of Cyzicus in the first book of his Seasons, says is an invention of Ibycus of Rhegium, the poet; as also the lyre called barbitos was of Anacreon. But since you are running all us Alexandrians down as unmusical, and keep mentioning the monaulos as our only national instrument, listen now to what I can tell you offhand about that.
[78.] G For Juba, in the before-mentioned treatise, says that the Egyptians call the monaulos an invention of Osiris, just as they say that kind of plagiaulos is, which is called photinx, and that, too, I will presently show you is mentioned by a very illustrious author; for the photinx is the same as the flute, which is a national instrument. But Sophocles, in his Thamyras, speaks of the monaulos, saying -
For all the tuneful melodies of pipes (πήκτιδες)
Are lost, the lyre, and monaulos too.
. . . . .
And Araros in his Birth of Pan, says -
But he, can you believe it? seized at once
On the monaulos, and leapt lightly forth.
 And Anaxandrides, in his Treasure, says -
I the monaulos took, and sang a wedding song.
And in his Bottle-bearer he says -
(A) What have you done, you Syrian, with your monaulos?
(B) What monaulos?
(A) The reed.
And Sopater, in his Bacchis, says -
And then he sang a song on the monaulos.
But Protagorides of Cyzicus in the second book of his treatise on the Assemblies at Daphne, says, "He touched every kind of instrument, one after another, castanets, the weak-sounding pandurus, but he drew the sweetest harmony from the sweet monaulos." # And Poseidonius the Stoic philosopher, in the third book of his Histories, speaking of the war of the Apameans against the Larisseans, writes as follows [ Fr_2 ] - "Having taken short daggers sticking in their waists, and small lances covered with rust and dirt, and having put veils and curtains over their heads which produce a shade but do not hinder the wind from getting to their necks, dragging on asses laden with wine and every sort of meat, by the side of which were packed little photinges and little monauli, instruments of revelry, not of war." But I am not ignorant that Amerias the Macedonian, in his Dialects, says, that the monaulos is called tityrinus. So have you have, O excellent Ulpianus, a man who mentions the photinx. But that the monaulos was the same instrument which is now called calamaules, or reedfife, is clearly shown by Hedylus in his Epigrams, where he says -
Beneath this mound the tuneful Theon lies,
Whom the monaulos knew its sweetest lord;
Scirpalus was his son, when age had destroyed his sight,
And his sire him called him Scirpalus
Son of Eupalamus in his first birthday ode,
Showing that he was a choice bouquet where
The virtues all had met. For well he played for Glauce
The Muses' sports amid their wine-glad revels;
He sang to Battalus, an eager drinker
Of unmixed wine, and Cotalus and Pacalus.
Say then to Theon the calamaules,
Farewell, O Theon, tunefullest of men.
As, therefore, they now call those who play on a pipe of reeds (κάλαμοι) calamaules, so also they call them now rappaules, according to the statement of Amerias the Macedonian, in his Dialects.
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[83.] G  This then, O my word-hunting Ulpianus, is what you may learn from us Alexandrians, who are very fond of the music of the monaulos. For you do not know that Menecles, the historian of Barce, and also that Andron, in his Chronicles, him of Alexandria I mean, assert that it is the Alexandrians who instructed all the Greeks and the barbarians, when the former encyclic mode of education began to fail, on account of the incessant commotions which took place in the times of the successors of Alexander. # There was subsequently a regeneration of all sorts of learning in the time of Ptolemaeus the seventh king of Egypt, the one who was properly called by the Alexandrians Cacergetes ["evil-doer"]; for he having murdered many of the Alexandrians, and banished no small number of those who had grown up to manhood with his brother, filled all the islands and cities with men learned in grammar, and philosophy, and geometry, with musicians, and painters, and schoolmasters, and physicians, and men of all kinds of trades and professions; who, being driven by poverty to teach what they knew, produced a great number of celebrated pupils.
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