Apollodorus: Chronicle

Apollodorus of Athens was a Greek grammarian who lived in the second century B.C. He wrote a chronicle (Chronica) in verse, covering from the earliest times down to at least 119 B.C. It was widely used by later writers, but only fragments now remain.

The fragments have been translated from the text of F.Jacoby (FGrH_244). Apollodorus regularly dates years by naming the Athenian archon. The equivalent year B.C., as suggested by Jacoby, is shown in orange.

[7] {STEPHANUS Byz.} (a)   Parparon: a place in Aeolis in Asia, where they record that Thucydides [? Hellanicus] died, according to Apollodorus in book 2 of his Chronica.   {GELLIUS} (b)   Hellanicus, Herodotus, and Thucydides, the historians, flourished with great repute at almost the same time, and were not much different in age. Hellanicus seems to have been sixty five years old at the start of the Peloponnesian war; Herodotus was fifty three years old; and Thucydides was forty years old. Pamphila writes about this in her eleventh book.

[14]   DiogLaert_4'23 (Crates)   The writings of Crates.

[15]   DiogLaert_4'28 (Arcesilaus)   The father of Arcesilaus.

[16]   DiogLaert_4'45 (Arcesilaus)   Arcesilaus, head of the Academy.

[19] {STEPHANUS Byz.} Dorus, a city of Phoenicia ..... Artemidorus knows the city as Dora ..... but Apollodorus calls it Dorus in book 4 of his Chronica:
"To Dorus, a city by the sea"

[22] {STEPHANUS Byz.} Aedusii {Aedui}, allies of the Romans in Gaul. Apollodorus in book 4 of his Chronica.

[23] {STEPHANUS Byz.} Arverni, a very warlike tribe of Gauls. Apollodorus in book 4 of his Chronica:
"The Celtic Arverni"

[24] {STEPHANUS Byz.} Aeria is also the name of a city in Gaul, according to Apollodorus in book 4 of his Chronica.

[25] {STEPHANUS Byz.} Fabia, a city of the Celtic Gauls, founded by Fabius, the general of the Romans. Apollodorus in book 4 of his Chronica.

[26] {STEPHANUS Byz.} Chalcetorium. A city in (?) Crete. Its citizen is called Chalcetoreus. Apollodorus in book (?) 4 of his Chronica:
"With him was Charidemus, the exile from Chalcetorium."


[27]   DiogLaert_1'74 (Pittacus) ; DiogLaert_1'79 (Pittacus)   Pittacus of Mytilene.

[28]   DiogLaert_1'37 (Thales)   Thales of Miletus, an early philosopher.

[29]   DiogLaert_2'2 (Anaximander)   Anaximander of Miletus.

[30]   DiogLaert_9'25 (Zenon) ; DiogLaert_9'29 (Zenon)   Zenon of Elea.

[31]   DiogLaert_2'7 (Anaxagoras)   Anaxagoras of Clazomenae.

[32]   DiogLaert_8'52 (Empedocles)   Empedocles.

[33]   DiogLaert_8'58 (Empedocles)   Gorgias of Leontini.

[34]   DiogLaert_2'44 (Socrates)   Socrates.

[35]   Diod_13.103'4   The death of Euripides.

[36]   DiogLaert_9'41 (Democritus) ; DiogLaert_9'34 (Democritus)   Democritus of Abdera, who was a pupil of Leucippus and Anaxagoras.

[37]   DiogLaert_3'2 (Plato)   Plato.

[38]   DiogLaert_5'9-10 (Aristotle) (a)   Aristotle.
  {DIONYSIUS HAL., Amm.5} (b)   Aristotle was the son of Nicomachus, who traced his lineage and his profession back to Machaon, the son of Asclepius. His mother, Phaestis, was descended from one of those who led the expedition from Chalcis which founded the colony at Stageira. He was born in the ninety-ninth Olympiad, when Diotrephes was archon at Athens {384/3}, and was thus three years older than Demosthenes. In the archonship of Polyzelus {367/6}, after the death of his father, he came to Athens, being then eighteen years of age. Having been recommended to Plato as a pupil, he spent twenty years in his society. When Plato died, in the archonship of Theophilus {348/7], he went off to the court of Hermeias, the tyrant of Atarneus, and spent three years with him before returning to Mytilene in the archonship of Eubulus {345/4}. Thence he went to the court of Philippus, during the archonship of Pythodotus {343/2}, and spent eight years there as tutor to Alexander. After the death of Philippus, in the archonship of Euaenetus {335/4}, he returned to Athens, and taught in the Lyceium for a period of twelve years. In the thirteenth year, after the death of Alexander in the archon-year of Cephisodorus {323/2}, he set off for Chalcis, where he fell ill and died at the age of sixty-three. These, then, are the facts which the biographers of Aristotle have left us.   {translated by S.Usher}

[39]   DiogLaert_9'61 (Pyrrhon)   Pyrrhon was a painter before he became a philosopher.

[40]   DiogLaert_5'58 (Straton)   Straton of Lampsacus, head of the Peripatetic school.

[41]   DiogLaert_10'13   The teachers of Epicurus.

[42]   DiogLaert_10'14-15   Significant dates in the life of Epicurus.

[43] {AULUS GELLIUS, 17.4} Menander was often defeated in comedy contests by Philemon, a far inferior writer who depended on bribery, influence and political support. Once when they met, Menander said, "Pardon me, Philemon, but don't you blush when you defeat me?" . . . They say that Menander wrote 108 or 109 comedies. But in the Chronica of the celebrated writer Apollodorus, we have read the following lines about Menander:
  He was the son of Diopeithes, from Cephisia;
  He wrote five and a hundred plays,
  And died when he was 52 years old.
In the same book, Apollodorus states that out of these 105 plays, only eight won a prize in contests.

[44] {PHILODEMUS} Apollodorus places the capture of the city in the year when Antipater was archon {263/2}; this was the year before Arrheneides. Antigonus then put a garrison on the Museium; he took control of the magistracies, and entrusted the whole (?) government to one man.

[45] {PHILODEMUS} But the Stoa clearly owed most of its growth to Zenon, and virtually all of the Stoics grant him the first place in their school. ... and Apollodorus the chronicler agree with this.

[46]   DiogLaert_7'184   The death of Chrysippus.

[47] {PHILODEMUS} After controlling the school for 18 years, [Lacydes] handed over the leadership when [Antiphilus] was archon {224/3}}; he lived for another 18 years, and died when Callistratus was archon {206/5}. Others says that it was when Pantiades was archon {216/5}, which leaves an interval of 10 years for his illness. Paseas and Thrasys were his associates, thirdly Aristippus and, the most outstanding of them all, Telecles and Euander.

. . . Agamestor was still famous . . . and in addition the two Eubuli, of whom Moschion . . . for . . . years, died of disease when Eupolemus was archon {?185/4}. After this, Eubulus of Erythrae, the son of Antenor, died when Alexander was archon; a month later in the same year, Eubulus of Ephesus, the son of Callicrates, died. After the capture of Perseus, Agamestor of Arcadia, the son of Polyxenus, ended his life when Xenocles was archon {168/7}, and Telecles died when Nicosthenes was archon {164/3}. Last of all Apollonius, the pupil of Telecles, died when Epaenetus was archon. After Theaetetus . . . of the younger Eubulus . . . by disease . . .

[48]   DiogLaert_8'90 (Eudoxus)   Eudoxus of Sicily, a writer of comedies; and Eudoxus of Cnidus, an astronomer.

[49]   Lucian:Macr_22   The death of the historian Ctesibius.

[50] {STEPHANUS Byz.} Parthus: a city of Illyria. Apollodorus in [book 3] of his Chronica.

[51]   DiogLaert_4'65 (Carneades)   The death of Carneades.

[52] {PHILODEMUS} Taking on [? the heritage] of others, if below . . .

[53] {PHILODEMUS} Boethus of Marathon, the son of Hermagoras, lived at the same time as Carneades. In general, Boethus was capable and had an enterprising philosophic [mind], but he was rather weak when speaking. He was a pupil of Ariston, and of Eubulus of Ephesus for a short time. He was already superior to the associates of Autolycus and Amyntas, and was leader of the school . . . to Dionysius . . . the quick wit and eloquence of the man. Ten years after the death of Carneades, when Eumachus was archon {120/19}, he died in the month of Thargelion . . .

[54] {PHILODEMUS} When Carneades was already . . . through old age, [Carneades the son of Polemarchus] took over the hall and the school, which he led while he lived for another six years . . .

[55] {PHILODEMUS} After the death of Carneades the son of Polemarchus, when Epicles was archon {131/0}, Crates of Tarsus succeeded him as leader of the school. When he had occupied the post for only two years, Cleitomachus, who had his own school in the Palladium, moved to the Academy [with many] of his associates.

[56] {PHILODEMUS - a summary in prose of Apollodorus' verse account} [Carneades the son of Epicomus] died aged . . . After him, Crates of Tarsus died after being in control for only two years, and Cleitomachus, who had previously had his own school in the Palladium, entered the Academy with many of his associates. Cleitomachus was originally called Hasdrubal, and came to Athens when he was 24 years old. Four years later he joined Carneades' school, and after staying with him for 19 years he set up his own school in the Palladium, when Agnotheus was archon {140/39}. He maintained his school for (?) ten years, and then took over Carneades' school from Crates of Tarsus, when Lyciscus was archon {129/8}. After leading the school for 19 years, he died when Polycleitus was archon {110/9}. Some say that he [died when he was] seventy [and ...] years old.

[57] {PHILODEMUS - in verse} Once he sailed on an embassy to Rome, and met with . . .

[58] {PHILODEMUS} You know that Melanthius once won the prize for tragedy, and spent some time at the school with Aristarchus. He much rather at Athens . . . [while] otherwise remaining in the great crowd of the school, but of Carneades . . .

[59] {PHILODEMUS} . . . most distinguished men. He first sailed to Attica when Aristophantus was archon {?141/0}, at the age of 22 years. After listening to Carneades for about seven years, he went off to Asia, where he flourished and was considered the most prolific speaker of his generation. Then he returned to Athens . . . He knew tricks, with which he swayed the emotions of his audience in many ways, and he was sufficiently experienced in affairs. He possessed a good memory, and had read much. So he easily obtained the citizenship, and opened a school in the Ptolemaeum . . . (?) the hall of the anointed men . . .

[60] {PHILODEMUS} Antipater and Metrodorus, who did not open schools in the city . . .

[61]   [Euseb]:Chron_189 ; Diod_1.5'1   The date of the capture of Troy.

[62]   [Euseb]:Chron_221-223   The kings of Sparta before the first Olympiad.

[63]   Tatian:AdGr_2'31 Homer the poet ;
{CLEM.AL., Strom_1.21} Now from the Trojan war to the birth of Homer, according to Philochorus, a hundred and eighty years elapsed; and he lived after the Ionian migration. But Aristarchus, in the Archilochian Memoirs, says that he lived during the Ionian migration, which took place a hundred and twenty years after the siege of Troy. But Apollodorus alleges it was an hundred and twenty years after the Ionian migration, while Agesilaus son of Doryssaeus was king of the Lacedaemonians: so that he brings Lycurgus the legislator, while still a young man, close to him in age.
{HIERONYMUS, Chron_1102} In Latin history, we have found the following words written: When Agrippa was king of the Latins, Homer the poet was famous in Greece; according to Apollodorus the grammarian and Euphorbus the historian, this was 124 years before the foundation of Rome; and according to Cornelius Nepos, it was 100 years before the first Olympiad.

[64]   Plut:Lyc_1'2   Lycurgus, the Spartan lawgiver.

[65]   {HIERONYMUS, Chron_1221} {? Year 18 of king Alcamenes}   According to Apollodorus, the laws of Lycurgus were adopted in Sparta at this time.

[66]   DiogLaert_2'3 (Anaximenes)   Anaximenes of Miletus.

[67]   Quint_11.2'14   The art of memory, as practised by Simonides.

[68]   DiogLaert_9'18 (Xenophanes)   Xenophanes ;
{CLEM.AL., Strom_1.14} Xenophanes of Colophon was the founder of the Eleatic school, who, Timaeus says, lived in the time of Hieron, ruler of Sicily, and Epicharmus the poet; and Apollodorus says that he was born in the fortieth Olympiad, and reached to the times of Darius and Cyrus.

[69]   {SCHOL.PIND., Ol.1.23} "Syracusan king who delights in horses."   Some editors show the text as "King of the Syracusans . . ." They say that Hieron was not a Syracusan when he won the victory; because he re-founded Catana and called it Aetne, therefore he was a citizen of Aetne. But Didymus says that these editors are foolish; at that time Hieron was a Syracusan, and not a citizen of Aetne, as Apollodorus says. Aristonicus reasonably suggests that Hieron was a citizen of Aetne, but was called a Syracusan.

[70]   DiogLaert_9'50 (Protagoras)   The father of Protagoras.

[71]   DiogLaert_9'55-56 (Protagoras)   Protagoras of Abdera.

[72]   DiogLaert_9'24 (Melissus)   Melissus of Samos.

[73]   {SORANUS, Vit.Hipp.} Hippocrates was a Coan by birth. He was the son of Heracleides and Phaenarete, and could trace his ancestors back to Heracles and Asclepius, being in the twentieth generation from the former, and the nineteenth from the latter. Eratosthenes and Pherecydes and Apollodorus and Areius of Tarsus all refer to the origins of his family.

[74]   Diod_13.108'1   Antimachus the poet.

[75]   {SCHOL.PLATO, Apol.19C}   Aristophanes had three sons: Philippus, who performed in the plays of Eubulus; Ararōs, who performed in his own plays and his father's plays; and a third son, whom Apollodorus calls Nicostratus, but Dicaearchus and his followers call him Philetaerus.

[76]   DiogLaert_8'90 (Eudoxus)   Eudoxus of Cnidus and Eudoxus of Sicily.

[77] {ETYM. MAGNUM} Hellenopolis . . . Apollodorus: "Attalus collected settlers from the Greek cities and founded a city; he called in Hellenopolis."

[78] {STEPHANUS Byz.} Oreus, a city of Euboea ..... Apollodorus calls the inhabitants Oreites, with four syllables, pronouncing the e and i separately, not as a diphthong, as follows:
"They captured the city of the Oreites by night"

[79]   {JOSEPHUS, Ap_2.83}   Polybius of Megalopolis, Strabo the Cappadocian, Nicolaus of Damascus, Timagenes, Castor the chronicler, and Apollodorus all assert that it was lack of money which induced Antiochus {Epiphanes}, in violation of his treaties with the Jews, to plunder the temple with its stores of gold and silver.

[80] {STEPHANUS Byz.} Allobryges: a very powerful Gallic tribe, according to Apollodorus.

[81]   DiogLaert_6'101 (Menippus)   Two painters called Menippus.

[82] {SYNCELLUS} The (?) ten kings of Pontus ruled for (?) 218 years, beginning at this time. Apollodorus and Dionysius have related their history.

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