- pages 191-247
Most of the original Greek text of the Chronicle has been lost. This translation is based on a Latin translation of the Armenian translation of the Greek original, in the Schoene-Petermann edition. The references in red are the page numbers from that edition.
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Olympiads of the Greeks
- First Olympiad: in which Coroebus of Elis won the stadion race.
From this time onwards, the dates of the Greeks seem to have been accurately recorded; before then, the dates are supplied according to the whim of each writer.
About the institution of the Olympic Games
It is necessary to say a little about the origin of the games. Some writers, who trace back the institution of the games to the earliest times, say that they had been held before Heracles, by one of the Idaean Dactyls; and then by Aethlius, as a challenge for his sons (from his name, the competitors were called athletes); and then by his son Epeius; and then Endymion, Alexinus and Oenomaus were each in charge of the sacred festival. Then Pelops held the games in honour of his father Zeus; and next, Heracles the son of Alcmene. There were ten generations (or, according to some, only three complete festivals) from Heracles until the time of Iphitus.
Iphitus was a citizen of Elis, who was concerned about the condition of Greece, and wished to rid the cities of their wars. He sent envoys from the whole of the Peloponnese to consult [the god] about release from the wars which gripped them. The god gave this response to the Peloponnesians:
You who dwell in the Peloponnese, gather round the altar;
Make sacrifice, and obey the instructions of the prophets.
He added these words to the Eleans:
Elean servants of the gods, who maintain your ancestral rites,
Protect your homeland, and desist from war.
Lead the Greeks in mutually just friendship,
Until the gathering comes in the year of good will.
[p193] As a result of this, Iphitus proclaimed the truce [which had been fixed by Heracles at the summer solstice; they no longer fought against each other,] and he organised the games together with Lycurgus, who happened to be his relative because they were both descended from Heracles. On this occasion, the only contest was the stadion race; later the other contests were added in their turn.
Aristodemus of Elis relates that the victors in the athletic contests began to be registered in the 27th Olympiad after Iphitus. Before then, no-one had thought to record the athletes' names. In the 28th Olympiad Coroebus of Elis won the stadion race, and he was the first victor to be registered. This was then established as the first Olympiad, from which the Greeks calculate their dates.
Polybius says the same as Aristodemus; but Callimachus says that thirteen Olympiads passed after Iphitus without victors being registered; and Coroebus was the victor in the 14th Olympiad. Many writers state that the institution of the games by Heracles the son of Alcmene occurred (?) 419 years before what is counted as the first Olympiad. The Eleans hold the games every fifth year, with a gap of four years in between them.
The Greek Olympiads, from the first Olympiad up until the 247th, when Antoninus the son of Severus was emperor of the Romans:
[The equivalent years B.C. or A.D. are shown in green]
- 1st Olympiad [776 B.C.] - Coroebus of Elis was the victor in the stadion race.
The stadion race was the only contest for the first thirteen Olympiads.
- 2nd [772 B.C.] - Antimachus of Elis, stadion race
[At this time] Romulus and Remus were born.
- 3rd [768 B.C.] - Androclus of Messenia, stadion race
- [p195] 4th [764 B.C.] - Polychares of Messenia, stadion race
- 5th [760 B.C.] - Aeschines of Elis, stadion race
- 6th [756 B.C.] - Oebotas of Dyme, stadion race
- 7th [752 B.C.] - Diocles of Messenia, stadion race
- 8th [748 B.C.] - Anticles of Messenia, stadion race
- 9th [744 B.C.] - Xenocles of Messenia, stadion race
- 10th [740 B.C.] - Dotades of Messenia, stadion race
- 11th [736 B.C.] - Leochares of Messenia, stadion race
- 12th [732 B.C.] - Oxythemis of Coroneia, stadion race
- 13th [728 B.C.] - Diocles of Corinth, stadion race
- 14th [724 B.C.] - Desmon of Corinth, stadion race
A double race was added, which was won by Hypenus of Elis.
- 15th [720 B.C.] - Orsippus of Megara, stadion race
A long race was added, and the runners were naked; the winner was Acanthus of Laconia.
- 16th [716 B.C.] - Pythagoras of Laconia, stadion race
- 17th [712 B.C.] - Polus of Epidaurus, stadion race
- 18th [708 B.C.] - Tellis of Sicyon, stadion race
A wresting contest was added, and the winner was Eurybatus of Laconia.
A pentathlon contest was also added, and the winner was Lampis of Laconia.
- 19th [704 B.C.] - Menus of Megara, stadion race
- 20th [700 B.C.] - Atheradas of Laconia, stadion race
- 21st [696 B.C.] - Pantacles of Athens, stadion race
- 22nd [692 B.C.] - Pantacles for a second time
- 23rd [688 B.C.] - Icarius of Hyperesia, stadion race
A boxing contest was added, and the winner was Onomastus of Smyrna. It was Onomastus who established the rules of boxing.
- 24th [684 B.C.] - Cleoptolemus of Laconia, stadion race
- 25th [680 B.C.] - Thalpis of Laconia, stadion race
A race was added for chariots drawn by four horses, and the winner was Pagon of Thebes.
- [p197] 26th [676 B.C.] - Callisthenes of Laconia, stadion race
Philombrotus of Laconia won the pentathlon at three Olympic games.
The Carneia, a contest for citharodes, was held for the first time at Sparta.
- 27th [672 B.C.] - Eurybus of Athens, stadion race
- 28th [668 B.C.] - Charmis of Laconia, stadion race
Charmis trained on a diet of dried figs.
These games were held by the inhabitants of Pisa, because Elis was preoccupied by a war against Dyme.
- 29th [664 B.C.] - Chionis of Laconia, stadion race
Chionis could leap a distance of 22 feet.
- 30th [660 B.C.] - Chionis for a second time
The inhabitants of Pisa defected from Elis, and supervised these and the following 22 games.
- 31st [656 B.C.] - Chionis of Laconia for a third time, stadion race
- 32nd [652 B.C.] - Cratinus of Megara, stadion race
At these games, Comaeus was the third of his brothers to win the boxing contest.
- 33rd [648 B.C.] - Gylis of Laconia, stadion race
At these games, a pancratium contest was added, and the winner was Lygdamis of Syracuse. Lygdamis was massive; he measured out the stadion with his feet, in only six hundred paces.
A horse race was added, and the winner was Craxilas of Thessaly.
- 34th [644 B.C.] - Stomas of Athens, stadion race
- 35th [640 B.C.] - Sphaerus of Laconia, stadion race
The double race was won by Cylon of Athens, who later attempted to set himself up as tyrant.
- [p199] 36th [636 B.C.] - Phrynon of Athens, stadion race
Phrynon was [later] killed in single combat with Pittacus.
- 37th [632 B.C.] - Eurycleidas of Laconia, stadion race
A stadion race for boys was added, and the winner was Polynices of Elis.
A wrestling contest for boys was added, and the winner was Hipposthenes of Laconia, who won the men's wrestling contest five times in a row, starting from the next-but-one Olympic games.
- 38th [628 B.C.] - Olyntheus of Laconia, stadion race
A pancratium contest for boys was added, but only on this one occasion. The winner was Deutelidas of Laconia.
- 39th [624 B.C.] - Rhipsolaus of Laconia, stadion race
- 40th [620 B.C.] - Olyntheus of Laconia for a second time, stadion race
- 41st [616 B.C.] - Cleondas of Thebes, stadion race
A boxing contest for boys was added, and the winner was Philotas of Sybaris.
- 42nd [612 B.C.] - Lycotas of Laconia, stadion race
- 43rd [608 B.C.] - Cleon of Epidaurus, stadion race
- 44th [604 B.C.] - Gelon of Laconia, stadion race
- 45th [600 B.C.] - Anticrates of Epidaurus, stadion race
- 46th [596 B.C.] - Chrysamaxus of Laconia, stadion race
The boys' stadion race was won by Polymnestor of Miletus, who chased and caught a hare while he was tending goats.
- 47th [592 B.C.] - Eurycles of Laconia, stadion race
- 48th [588 B.C.] - Glycon of Croton, stadion race
Pythagoras of Samos was excluded from the boys' boxing contest and was mocked for being effeminate, but he went on to the men's contest and defeated all his opponents.
- 49th [584 B.C.] - Lycinus of Croton, stadion race
- [p201] 50th [580 B.C.] - Epitelidas of Laconia, stadion race
[At this time] the seven wise men were identified.
- 51st [576 B.C.] - Eratosthenes of Croton, stadion race
- 52nd [572 B.C.] - Agis of Elis, stadion race
- 53rd [568 B.C.] - Hagnon of Peparethus, stadion race
- 54th [564 B.C.] - Hippostratus of Croton, stadion race
Arichion of Phigaleia was (?) strangled and died, while winning the pancratium contest for the third time, and though dead he was crowned as victor, because his opponent had already conceded defeat, after his leg was broken by Arichion.
- 55th [560 B.C.] - Hippostratus for a second time
[At this time] Cyrus became king of the Persians.
- 56th [556 B.C.] - Phaedrus of Pharsalus, stadion race
- 57th [552 B.C.] - Ladromus of Laconia, stadion race
- 58th [548 B.C.] - Diognetus of Croton, stadion race
- 59th [544 B.C.] - Archilochus of Corcyra, stadion race
- 60th [540 B.C.] - Apellaeus of Elis, stadion race
- 61st [536 B.C.] - Agatharchus of Corcyra, stadion race
- 62nd [532 B.C.] - Eryxias of Chalcis, stadion race
Milon of Croton won the wrestling contest. He won six times at the Olympic games, six times at the Pythian games, ten times at the Isthmian games, and nine times at the Nemean games.
- 63rd [528 B.C.] - Parmenides of Camarina, stadion race
- 64th [524 B.C.] - Menander of Thessaly, stadion race
- 65th [520 B.C.] - Anochas of Tarentum, stadion race
A race in full armour was added, and the winner was Damaretus of Heraea.
- 66th [516 B.C.] - Ischyrus of Himera, stadion race
- 67th [512 B.C.] - Phanas of Pellene, stadion race
Phanas was the first to win all three races, the stadion race, the double race and the race in full armour.
- 68th [508 B.C.] - Isomachus of Croton, stadion race
- 69th [504 B.C.] - Isomachus for a second time
- [p203] 70th [500 B.C.] - Nicasias of Opus, stadion race
- 71st [496 B.C.] - Tisicrates of Croton, stadion race
- 72nd [492 B.C.] - Tisicrates for a second time
- 73rd [488 B.C.] - Astyalus of Croton, stadion race
- 74th [484 B.C.] - Astyalus for a second time
- 75th [480 B.C.] - Astyalus for a third time
- 76th [476 B.C.] - Scamander of Mytilene, stadion race
- 77th [472 B.C.] - Dandes of Argos, stadion race
- 78th [468 B.C.] - Parmenides of Poseidonia, stadion race
- 79th [464 B.C.] - Xenophon of Corinth, stadion race
- 80th [460 B.C.] - Torymmas of Thessaly, stadion race
The wrestling contest was won by Amesinas of Barce, who trained by wrestling with a bull while he was tending cattle. He even brought the bull to Pisa to help his training.
- 81st [456 B.C.] - Polymnastus of Cyrene, stadion race
- 82nd [452 B.C.] - Lycus of Larissa, stadion race
- 83rd [448 B.C.] - Crisson of Himera, stadion race
- 84th [444 B.C.] - Crisson for a second time
- 85th [440 B.C.] - Crisson for a third time
- 86th [436 B.C.] - Theopompus of Thessaly, stadion race
- 87th [432 B.C.] - Sophron of Ambracia, stadion race
During this [Olympiad], the Peloponnesian war began.
- 88th [428 B.C.] - Symmachus of Messenia, stadion race
- 89th [424 B.C.] - Symmachus for a second time
- 90th [420 B.C.] - Hyperbius of Syracuse, stadion race
- 91st [416 B.C.] - Exagentus of Acragas, stadion race
- 92nd [412 B.C.] - Exagentus for a second time
- 93rd [408 B.C.] - Eubatus of Cyrene, stadion race
The pancratium contest was won by Polydamas of Scotussa, a massive man who, when he was with Ochus amongst the Persians, killed lions and fought without weapons against armed men; he even brought chariots charging at full speed to a halt.
A race was added for chariots drawn by a pair of horses, and the winner was Euagoras of Elis.
- 94th [404 B.C.] - Crocinas of Larissa, stadion race
- 95th [400 B.C.] - Minon of Athens, stadion race
- 96th [396 B.C.] - Eupolemus of Elis, stadion race
A contest for trumpeters was added, and the winner was Timaeus of Elis.
[p205] A contest for heralds was added, and the winner was Crates of Elis.
- 97th [392 B.C.] - Terinaeus [of ...], stadion race
- 98th [388 B.C.] - Sosippus of Delphi, stadion race
The wrestling contest was won by Aristodemus of Elis, whom no-one could grasp round the middle.
- 99th [384 B.C.] - Dicon of Syracuse, stadion race
A race was added for chariots drawn by four foals, and the winner was Eurybatus of Laconia.
- 100th [380 B.C.] - Dionysodorus of Tarentum, stadion race
- 101st [376 B.C.] - Damon of Thurii, stadion race
- 102nd [372 B.C.] - Damon for a second time
- 103rd [368 B.C.] - Pythostratus of Ephesus, stadion race
- 104th [364 B.C.] - Phocides of Athens, wrestling
These games were held by the inhabitants of Pisa.
- 105th [360 B.C.] - Porus of Cyrene, stadion race
- 106th [356 B.C.] - Porus for a second time
- 107th [352 B.C.] - Micrinas of Tarentum, stadion race
- 108th [348 B.C.] - Polycles of Cyrene, stadion race
- 109th [344 B.C.] - Aristolochus of Athens, stadion race
- 110th [340 B.C.] - (?) Anticles of Athens, stadion race
- 111th [336 B.C.] - Cleomantis of Cleitor, stadion race
- 112th [332 B.C.] - Eurylas of Chalcis, stadion race
[At this time] Alexander captured Babylon, and killed Dareius.
- 113th [328 B.C.] - Cliton of Macedonia, stadion race
Ageus of Argos, [victor in] the long race, returned to Argos and announced his own victory on the same day.
- 114th [324 B.C.] - Micinas of Rhodes, stadion race
[At this time] Alexander died, and his empire was split between many rulers; Ptolemaeus became king of Egypt and Alexandria.
- 115th [320 B.C.] - Damasias of Amphipolis, stadion race
- 116th [316 B.C.] - Demosthenes of Laconia, stadion race
- 117th [312 B.C.] - Parmenides of Mytilene, stadion race
- 118th [308 B.C.] - Andromenes of Corinth, stadion race
Antenor of Athens or Miletus, undisputed [victor in] the pancratium, was victor at all the major games, undefeated in each of three age [p207] groups.
- 119th [304 B.C.] - Andromenes of Corinth, stadion race
- 120th [300 B.C.] - Pythagoras of Magnesia-on-Maeander, stadion race
Ceras of Argos, [victor in] wrestling, tore the hooves off a cow.
- 121st [296 B.C.] - Pythagoras for a second time
- 122nd [292 B.C.] - Antigonus of Macedonia, stadion race
- 123rd [288 B.C.] - Antigonus for a second time
- 124th [284 B.C.] - Philomelus of Pharsalus, stadion race
- 125th [280 B.C.] - Ladas of Aegium, stadion race
- 126th [276 B.C.] - Idaeus or Nicator of Cyrene, stadion race
- 127th [272 B.C.] - Perigenes of Alexandria, stadion race
- 128th [268 B.C.] - Seleucus of Macedonia, stadion race
- 129th [264 B.C.] - Philinus of Cos, stadion race
A new race for two-foal chariots was introduced, and the first winner was Philistiachus [Bilistiche of Macedonia].
- 130th [260 B.C.] - Philinus for a second time
- 131st [256 B.C.] - Ammonius of Alexandria, stadion race
A one-foal race was introduced, and the first winner was Hippocrates [of Thessaly].
- 132nd [252 B.C.] - Xenophanes of Amphissa in Aetolia, stadion race
- 133rd [248 B.C.] - Simylus of Neapolis, stadion race
[At this time] the Parthians revolted against the Macedonians; their first king was Arsaces, from whom the kings are called the Arsacids.
- 134th [244 B.C.] - Alcides of Laconia, stadion race
- 135th [240 B.C.] - Eraton of Aetolia, stadion race
Cleoxenus of Alexandria, [victor in] boxing, won without injury at all the major games.
- 136th [236 B.C.] - Pythocles of Sicyon, stadion race
- 137th [232 B.C.] - Menestheus of [?] Barcyla, stadion race
- 138th [228 B.C.] - Demetrius of Alexandria, stadion race
- 139th [224 B.C.] - Iolaidas of Argos, stadion race
- 140th [220 B.C.] - Zopyrus of Syracuse, stadion race
- 141st [216 B.C.] - Dorotheus of Rhodes, stadion race
- 142nd [212 B.C.] - Crates of Alexandria, stadion race
[p209] Caprus of Elis won both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions, like Heracles; so he was acclaimed as "second after Heracles".
- 143rd [208 B.C.] - Heracleitus of Samos, stadion race
- 144th [204 B.C.] - Heracleides of Salamis in Cyprus, stadion race
- 145th [200 B.C.] - Pyrrhias of Aetolia, stadion race
Moschus of Colophon, [victor in] boys' boxing, was the only boy to have won the boxing competition at all the major games. A boys' pancratium competition was introduced, and the first winner was Phaedimus of Alexandria.
- 146th [196 B.C.] - Micion of Boeotia, stadion race
- 147th [192 B.C.] - Agemachus of Cyzicus, stadion race
Cleitostratus of Rhodes, [victor in] wrestling, overcame his opponents by grasping their necks.
- 148th [188 B.C.] - Arcesilaus of Megalopolis, stadion race
- 149th [184 B.C.] - Hippostratus of Seleuceia in Pieria, stadion race
- 150th [180 B.C.] - Onesicritus of Salamis, stadion race
- 151st [176 B.C.] - Thymilus of Aspendus, stadion race
- 152nd [172 B.C.] - Democritus of Megara, stadion race
- 153rd [168 B.C.] - Aristander of Antissa in Lesbos, stadion race
- 154th [164 B.C.] - Leonidas of Rhodes, three times victor in the stadion race
- 155th [160 B.C.] - Leonidas for a second time
- 156th [156 B.C.] - Leonidas for a third time
Aristomenes of Rhodes was the third after Heracles to win both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions.
- 157th [152 B.C.] - Leonidas, victor in the stadion race for a fourth time, was the first and only man to win 12 Olympic crowns over four Olympiads.
- 158th [148 B.C.] - Othon of Syracuse, stadion race
- 159th [144 B.C.] - Alcimus of Cyzicus, stadion race
- 160th [140 B.C.] - Agnodorus of Cyzicus, stadion race
- 161st [136 B.C.] - Antipater of Epirus, stadion race
- 162nd [132 B.C.] - Damon of Delphi, stadion race
- 163rd [128 B.C.] - Timotheus of Tralles, stadion race
- 164th [124 B.C.] - Boeotus of Sicyon, stadion race
- [p211] 165th [120 B.C.] - Acusilaus of Cyrene, stadion race
- 166th [116 B.C.] - Chrysogonus of Nicaea, stadion race
- 167th [112 B.C.] - Chrysogonus for a second time
- 168th [108 B.C.] - Nicomachus of Philadelphia, stadion race
- 169th [104 B.C.] - Nicodemus of Lacedaemon, stadion race
- 170th [100 B.C.] - Simmias of Seleuceia-on-Tigris, stadion race
- 171st [96 B.C.] - Parmeniscus of Corcyra, stadion race
- 172nd [92 B.C.] - Eudamus of Cos, stadion race
Protophanes of Magnesia-on-Maeander was the fourth after Heracles to win both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions.
- 173rd [88 B.C.] - Parmeniscus of Corcyra again, stadion race
- 174th [84 B.C.] - Demostratus of Larissa, stadion race
- 175th [80 B.C.] - Epaenetus of Argos, boys' stadion race
There was no stadion race for adults this year, because Sulla had summoned all the athletes to Rome.
- 176th [76 B.C.] - Dion of Cyparissus, stadion race
- 177th [72 B.C.] - Hecatomnos of Elis, stadion race
- 178th [68 B.C.] - Diocles [?] Hypopenus, stadion race
Stratonicus of Alexandria, son of Corragus, was the fifth after Heracles to win both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions; at the Nemean games, he won four crowns on the same day in the boys' and youths' competitions, [though he attended the competitions without a horse. He achieved this through the favour of his friends or the kings, and therefore he was regarded as disqualified].
- 179th [64 B.C.] - Andreas of Lacedaemon, stadion race
- 180th [60 B.C.] - Andromachus of Ambracia, stadion race
- 181st [56 B.C.] - Lamachus of Tauromenium, stadion race
- 182nd [52 B.C.] - Anthestion of Argos, stadion race
[p213] Marion of Alexandria, son of Marion, was the sixth after Heracles to win both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions.
- 183rd [48 B.C.] - Theodorus of Messene, stadion race
[At this time] Julius Caesar was emperor of the Romans.
- 184th [44 B.C.] - Theodorus for a second time
[At this time] Augustus became emperor of the Romans.
- 185th [40 B.C.] - Ariston of Thurii, stadion race
- 186th [36 B.C.] - Scamander of Alexandria Troas, stadion race
- 187th [32 B.C.] - Ariston of Thurii again, stadion race
- 188th [28 B.C.] - Sopater of Argos, stadion race
- 189th [24 B.C.] - Asclepiades of Sidon, stadion race
- 190th [20 B.C.] - Auphidius of Patrae, stadion race
- 191st [16 B.C.] - Diodotus of Tyana, stadion race
- 192nd [12 B.C.] - Diophanes of Aeolis, stadion race
- 193rd [8 B.C.] - Artemidorus of Thyateira, stadion race
- 194th [4 B.C.] - Demaratus of Ephesus, stadion race
- 195th [1 A.D.] - Demaratus for a second time
- 196th [5 A.D.] - Pammenes of Magnesia-on-Maeander, stadion race
- 197th [9 A.D.] - Asiaticus of Halicarnassus, stadion race
- 198th [13 A.D.] - Diophanes of Prusa [by Mt. Olympus], stadion race
Aristeas of Stratoniceia or (?) Maeander was the seventh after Heracles to win both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions.
[At this time] Tiberius became emperor of the Romans.
- 199th [17 A.D.] - Aeschines Glaucias of Miletus, stadion race
The four-horse race which had been stopped a long time ago was reinstated, and the winner was Tiberius Caesar.
- 200th [21 A.D.] - Polemon of Petra, stadion race
- 201st [25 A.D.] - Damasias of Cydonia, stadion race
- 202nd [29 A.D.] - Hermogenes of Pergamum, stadion race
- 203rd [33 A.D.] - Apollonius of Epidaurus, stadion race
- 204th [37 A.D.] - Sarapion of Alexandria, stadion race
Neicostratus of Aegae was the eighth and last after Heracles to win both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions. [p215] Only eight men between Heracles and our times have achieved this, because after these games the inhabitants of Elis would not award the crown even to those who were capable of it.
[At this time] Gaius became emperor of the Romans.
- 205th [41 A.D.] - Eubulidas of Laodiceia, stadion race
[At this time] Claudius became emperor of the Romans.
- 206th [45 A.D.] - Valerius of Mytilene, stadion race
- 207th [49 A.D.] - Athenodorus of Aegium, stadion race
- 208th [53 A.D.] - Athenodorus for a second time
[At this time] Nero became emperor of the Romans.
- 209th [57 A.D.] - Callicles of Sidon, stadion race
- 210th [61 A.D.] - Athenodorus of Aegium [(?) for a third time], stadion race
- 211th [65 A.D.] - These games were not held [at the usual time] because Nero postponed them until his visit to Greece. They were held two years later, and Tryphon of Philadelphia won the stadion race. Nero was awarded the crown in the contests for heralds, performers of tragedy and citharodes; and also in the races for chariots drawn by foals, full-grown horses and ten foals.
- 212th [69 A.D.] - Polites of Ceramus, stadion race
[At this time] Vespasianus became emperor of the Romans.
- 213th [73 A.D.] - Rhodon of Cyme, or Theodotus, stadion race
- 214th [77 A.D.] - Straton of Alexandria, stadion race
[At this time] Titus became emperor of the Romans.
- 215th [81 A.D.] - Hermogenes of Xanthus, stadion race
[At this time] Domitianus became emperor of the Romans.
- 216th [85 A.D.] - Apollophanes Papis of Tarsus, stadion race
- 217th [89 A.D.] - Hermogenes of Xanthus for a second time, stadion race
- 218th [93 A.D.] - Apollonius of Alexandria, or Heliodorus, stadion race
- 219th [97 A.D.] - Stephanus of Cappadocia, stadion race
[At this time] Nerva became emperor of the Romans, and after him Trajanus [became emperor].
- 220th [101 A.D.] - Achilleus of Alexandria, stadion race
- 221st [105 A.D.] - Theonas Smaragdus of Alexandria, stadion race
- 222nd [109 A.D.] - Callistus of Side, stadion race
The horse races were reintroduced.
- [p217] 223rd [113 A.D.] - Eustolus of Side, stadion race
- 224th [117 A.D.] - Isarion of Alexandria, stadion race
[At this time] Hadrianus became emperor of the Romans.
- 225th [121 A.D.] - Aristeas of Miletus, stadion race
- 226th [125 A.D.] - Dionysius Sameumys of Alexandria, stadion race
- 227th [129 A.D.] - Dionysius for a second time
- 228th [133 A.D.] - Lucas of Alexandria, stadion race
- 229th [137 A.D.] - Epidaurus Ammonius of Alexandria, stadion race
[At this time] Antoninus Pius became emperor of the Romans.
- 230th [141 A.D.] - Didymus (?) Clydeus of Alexandria, stadion race
- 231st [145 A.D.] - Cranaus of Sicyon, stadion race
- 232nd [149 A.D.] - Atticus of Sardis, stadion race
Socrates entered both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions, but he was banned by the inhabitants of Elis, in favour of Dionysius of Seleuceia.
- 233rd [153 A.D.] - Demetrius of Chios, stadion race
- 234th [157 A.D.] - Eras of Chios, stadion race
- 235th [161 A.D.] - Mnasibulus of Elateia, stadion race
[At this time] Marcus Antoninus Pius and Lucius Verus became emperors of the Romans.
- 236th [165 A.D.] - Aeithales of Alexandria, stadion race
- 237th [169 A.D.] - Eudaemon of Alexandria, stadion race
- 238th [173 A.D.] - Agathopus of Aegina, stadion race
- 239th [177 A.D.] - Agathopus for a second time
[At this time] Commodus became emperor of the Romans.
- 240th [181 A.D.] - Anubion Pheidus of Alexandria, stadion race
- 241st [185 A.D.] - Heron of Alexandria, stadion race
- 242nd [189 A.D.] - Magnus [Libycus] of Cyrene, stadion race
- 243rd [193 A.D.] - Isidorus [Artemidorus] of Alexandria, stadion race
[At this time] Pertinax, and then Severus, became emperors of the Romans.
- 244th [197 A.D.] - Isidorus for a second time
- 245th [201 A.D.] - Alexander of Alexandria, stadion race
- 246th [205 A.D.] - Epinicus Cynas of Cyzicus, stadion race
- [p219] 247th [209 A.D.] - Satornilus of Gortyn in Crete, stadion race
[At this time] Antoninus, called Caracalla, became emperor of the Romans.
- 248th [213 A.D.] - Heliodorus Trosidamas of Alexandria, stadion race
- 249th [217 A.D.] - Heliodorus for a second time
The record of the Olympiads which we have found ends at this point.
[We know from elsewhere that the victor in the stadion race at the next Olympic games, the 250th Olympiad, was Publius Aelius Alcandridas of Sparta, who also won at the 251st games. So, thanks to Eusebius, we have a complete list of the victors in this race for a period of a thousand years, from 776 B.C. to 225 A.D.]
It will be fitting to add here lists of the kings of the Corinthians, kings of the Spartans, rulers of the sea and the early kings of the Macedonians. I will set down in order their names and their dates, taking them from the Historical Library of Diodorus, who gives a very accurate account of them.
The kings of the Corinthians - from the books of Diodorus
After thoroughly investigating that, it remains to tell how Corinth and Sicyon were settled by the Dorians. Almost all the nations in the Peloponnese, except the Arcadians, were uprooted by the return of the Heracleidae. In their division of the land, the Heracleidae picked out Corinth and the surrounding area; they sent for Aletes, and awarded the territory to him. Aletes became a distinguished king and increased the power of Corinth; he reigned for 38 years.
After the death of Aletes, his descendants ruled the land, the eldest son succeeding in every case, until the tyrant Cypselus, who [came to power] 447 years after the return of the Heracleidae.
The first of them to become king was Ixion, for 38 years.
[p221] Then Agelas was king for 37 years.
Then Prymnis, for 35 years.
Then Bacchis, also for 35 years. Bacchis was the most distinguished of the kings up to his time; so that the kings after him called themselves Bacchidae instead of Heracleidae.
Then Agelas, for 30 years.
Eudemus, for 25 years.
Aristomedes, for 35 years.
When Aristomedes died, his son Telestes was still a child; and so the direct succession was interrupted by his uncle and guardian Agemon, for 16 years.
Then Alexander was king, for 25 years.
Telestes, who earlier had been deprived of his father's kingdom, killed Alexander, and ruled for 12 years.
Automenes ruled for one year, after Telestes was killed by his relatives.
The Bacchidae, descendants of Heracles who were more than 200 in number, seized power and jointly governed the city; each year they chose one of their number to be president, in place of the king. They governed the city for 90 years, until they were suppressed by the tyrant Cypselus.
The kings of the Corinthians are as follows:
After which there were annual presidents.
- Aletes - for 35 years
- Ixion - for 37 years
- Agelas - for 37 years
- Prymnis - for 35 years
- Bacchis - for 35 years
- Agelas - for 30 years
- Eudemus - for 25 years
- Aristomedes - for 35 years
- Agemon - for 16 years
- Alexander - for 25 years
- Teletes - for 12 years
- Automenes - for one year
The kings of the Spartans - from the books of Diodorus
It happens that it is difficult to establish the dates between the Trojan war and the first Olympiad, because at that time there were no annual magistrates either at Athens or at any other city. Therefore we will take the kings of the Spartans as an example.
According to Apollodorus of Athens, there were 308 years from the destruction of Troy [1183 B.C.] until the first Olympiad [776 B.C.]. 80 of those years passed before the expedition of the Heracleidae [1103 B.C.]; [p223] the rest are covered by the reigns of the kings of the Spartans - Procles, Eurysthenes and their descendants. We will set down the order of [the kings of] each family up until the first Olympiad.
Eurysthenes began his reign in the 80th year after the Trojan war, and he was king for 42 years.
After him, Agis reigned for one year.
Echestratus for 31 years.
After him, Labotas reigned for 37 years.
Dorystus for 29 years.
They were followed by Agesilaus, who reigned for 44 years.
Archelaus for 60 years.
Teleclus for 40 years.
Alcamenes for 38 years. In the tenth year of his reign, the first Olympiad was established, in which Coroebus of Elis won the stadion race.
Procles was the first king of the other family, for (?) 49 years.
After him, Prytanis reigned for 49 years.
Eunomius for 45 years.
And then Chariclus reigned for 60 years.
Nicander for 38 years.
Theopompus for 47 years. The first Olympiad occurred in the tenth year of this reign.
In summary, there were 80 years from the capture of Troy until the expedition of the Heracleidae, and then these kings of the Spartans:
In total, 325 years.
- Eurysthenes - for 42 years
- Agis - for one year
- Echestrates - for 37 years
- Labotas - for 37 years
- Dorystus - for 29 years
- [p225] Agesilaus - for 44 years.
- Archelaus - for 60 years
- Teleclus - for 40 years
- Alcamenes - for 37 years. In his tenth year, the first Olympiad was established.
The kings from the other family were:
In total, 290 years.
- Procles - for 51 years
- Prytanis - for 49 years
- Eunomius - for 45 years
- Charicles - for 60 years
- Nicander - for 38 years
- Theopompus - for 47 years. In his tenth year, the first Olympiad was established.
The Thalassocracies, who ruled the sea - in brief, from the writings of Diodorus
After the Trojan war, the sea was controlled by:
Up until the time when (?) Alexander crossed over the sea.
- The Lydians and Maeones - for 92 years
- The Pelasgians - for 85 years
- The Thracians - for 79 years
- The Rhodians - for 23 years
- The Phrygians - for 25 years
- The Cypriots - for 33 years
- The Phoenicians - for 45 years
- The Egyptians - for [..] years
- The Milesians - for [..] years
- [The Carians - for .. years]
- The Lesbians - for [..] years
- The Phocaeans - for 44 years
- The Samians for [..] years
- The Spartans - for 2 years
- The Naxians - for 10 years
- The Eretrians - for 15 years
- The Aeginetans - for 10 years
After this, it will be fitting to move on to the kingdom of the Macedonians.
The kings of the Macedonians
The end of the Assyrian empire, after the death of Sardanapallus the last king of the Assyrians, was followed by the Macedonian age.
Before the first Olympiad, Caranus was moved by ambition to collect forces from the Argives and from the rest of the Peloponnese, in order to lead an army into the territory of the Macedonians. At that time the king of the Orestae was at war with his neighbours, the Eordaei, and he called on Caranus to come to his aid, promising to give him half of his territory in return, if the Orestae were successful. The king kept his promise, and Caranus took possession of the territory; he reigned there for 30 years, until he died in old age.
He was succeeded by his son Coenus, who was king for 28 years.
After him, Tyrimias reigned for 43 years.
Perdiccas for 42 years. He wanted to expand his kingdom; so he sent [a mission] to Delphi.
A little further on, [Diodorus] says:
Perdiccas reigned for 48 years, and left his kingdom to Argaeus, who reigned for 31 years.
The next king was Philippus, who reigned for 33 years.
Aeropus for 20 years.
Alcetas for 18 years.
Amyntas for 49 years.
He was followed by Alexander, who reigned for 44 years.
Then Perdiccas was king for 22 years.
Archelaus for 17 years.
Aeropus for 6 years.
Then Pausanias was king for one year.
Ptolemaeus for 3 years.
Perdiccas for 5 years.
Philippus for 24 years.
Alexander, [who] fought against the Persians, for more than 12 years.
In this way the most reliable historians trace the ancestry of the Macedonian kings back to Heracles. From Caranus, who was the first to rule all the Macedonians, until Alexander, who conquered Asia, there were 24 kings who reigned for a total of 453 years.
[p229] The individual [kings] are as follows:
- Caranus reigned for 30 years
- Coenus - for 28 years
- Tyrimias - for 43 years
- Perdiccas - for 48 years
- Argaeus - for 38 years
- Philippus - for 33 years
- Aeropus - for 20 years
- Alcetas - for 18 years. In his time, Cyrus was king of the Persians.
- Amyntas - for 42 years
- Alexander - for 44 years
- Perdiccas - for 23 years
- Archelaus - for 24 years
- Orestes - for 3 years
- Archelaus - for 4 years
- Amyntas - for one year
- Pausanias - for one year
- Amyntas - for 6 years
- Argaeus - for 2 years
- Amyntas - for 18 years
- Alexander - for one year
- Ptolemaeus of Alorus - for 3 years
- Perdiccas - for 6 years
- Philippus - for 27 years
- Alexander the son of Philippus - for 12 years
The kings of the Macedonians, from the writings of our enemy, the philosopher Porphyrius:
These were the kings of Macedonia and Greece after Alexander the son of Philippus; and the Macedonian kingdom continued until its dissolution as follows.
The Macedonians appointed Aridaeus, the son of Philippus and Philinna of Thessaly, to be king after Alexander because of their affection for the family of Philippus, although they knew that Aridaeus was the son a courtesan and he was feeble-minded. He began to reign, as we said, in the second year of the 114th Olympiad [323 B.C.]. He is reckoned to have reigned for 7 years, because he lived up until the fourth year of the 115th Olympiad [317 B.C.].
[p231] Alexander left two sons, Heracles the son of Barsine the daughter of Pharnabazus, and Alexander the son of Roxane the daughter of Oxyartes the Bactrian; this Alexander was born about the time of his father's death, at the start of Philippus' reign. Olympias the mother of Alexander killed Aridaeus, but then Cassander the son of Antipater executed her and both the sons of Alexander, the one by himself and the other (the son of Barsine) by prompting Polysperchon. Cassander cast away Olympias' body without a burial, and proclaimed himself king; and from then onwards, all the other satraps acted as kings, because the family of Alexander had been destroyed. Cassander married Thessalonice the daughter of Philippus, and survived as king for another 19 years as king, until he died of a wasting disease. His reign, including the year in which Olympias ruled after the death of Aridaeus, lasted from the first year of the 116th Olympiad [316 B.C.] until the third year of the 120th Olympiad [298 B.C.].
Cassander was succeeded by his sons, Philippus and Alexander and Antipater, who reigned for 3 years and 6 months after the death of their father. The first to rule was Philippus, who died at Elateia. Then Antipater murdered his mother Thessalonice, who favoured her other son Alexander, and fled to Lysimachus. But Lysimachus put him to death, even though he had married one of Lysimachus' daughters.
Alexander married Lysandra, the daughter of Ptolemaeus, and in the war against his younger brother called on the aid of Demetrius the son of Antigonus, who was called Poliorcetes. But Demetrius killed Alexander, and made himself the king of the Macedonians. The reign of the sons of Cassander is reckoned to last from the fourth year [p233] of the 120th Olympiad [297 B.C.] until the third year of the 121st Olympiad [294 B.C.].
Demetrius reigned for 6 years, from the [fourth year of the] 121st Olympiad [293 B.C.]until the first year of the 123rd Olympiad [288 B.C.], when he was deposed by Pyrrhus the king of Epirus, the 23rd in line from Achilles the son of Thetis. Pyrrhus claimed the kingdom belonged to him after the extinction of Philippus' family, through his connection with Olympias the mother of Alexander, who was also a descendant of Pyrrhus the son of Neoptolemus.
Pyrrhus ruled the Macedonians for seven months in the second year of the 123rd Olympiad [287 B.C.]. In the eighth month, he was replaced by Lysimachus the son of son of Agathocles, a Thessalian from Crannon who had been a bodyguard of Alexander. Lysimachus was king of Thrace and the Chersonese, and now overran the neighbouring country of Macedonia.
Lysimachus was persuaded by his wife Arsinoe to kill his own son. He ruled Macedonia for 5 years and 6 months, from the second year of the 123rd Olympiad [287 B.C.] until the third year of the 124th Olympiad [282 B.C.]. [p235] He was defeated by Seleucus Nicator, the king of Asia, at the battle of Corupedium, and lost his life in the battle. But straight after his victory, Seleucus was murdered by Ptolemaeus Ceraunus, the son of Lagus and Eurydice the daughter of Antipater, even though Seleucus was his benefactor and had received him when he fled [from Lysimachus].
Then Ptolemaeus ruled over the Macedonians, until he was killed in battle against the Galatians. He reigned for one year and five months, which lasted from the fourth year of the 124th Olympiad [281 B.C.] until the fifth month of the first year of the 125th Olympiad [280 B.C.].
Ptolemaeus was succeeded by his brother Meleager, but the Macedonians deposed Meleager after only two months, because they considered him unfit to rule. In his place, since no-one was left from the royal family, they appointed as king Antipater, who was the nephew of Cassander and the son of Philippus. But he too was deposed after ruling for 45 days by Sosthenes, a commoner who considered him to be too poor a general to face the dangerous invasion of Brennus the Galatian. The Macedonians gave Antipater the name Etesias, because the Etesian winds blow at about the time when he was king. Sosthenes repelled Brennus, and died after being in charge of the state for two complete years.
After Sosthenes, there was anarchy in Macedonia, because the followers of Antipater and Ptolemaeus and Aridaeus were competing for control of the state, but no-one was completely in charge. In the period from Ptolemaeus until the end of the anarchy, that is from the fourth year of the 124th Olympiad [281 B.C.] until the [first year of the] 126th Olympiad [276 B.C.], Ptolemaeus Ceraunus reigned for one year and five months, [p237] Meleager for two months, Antipater for 45 days, Sosthenes for two years, and the rest is reckoned to have been a time of anarchy.
While Antipater was plotting to take over the state, Antigonus set himself up as king; he was the son of Demetrius Poliorcetes and Phila the daughter of Antipater, and was called Gonatas because he had been born and brought up at Gonni in Thessaly. Antigonus reigned in total for 44 years; before he gained control of Macedonia, he had already been king for 10 whole years. He was proclaimed king in the second year of the 123rd Olympiad [287 B.C.], and became king of the Macedonians in the first year of the 126th Olympiad [276 B.C.]. Antigonus subdued Greece by force; he lived for 83 years in all, and died in the first year of the 135th Olympiad [240 B.C.].
Antigonus was succeeded by his son Demetrius, who conquered the whole of Libya and captured Cyrene. Eventually he gained absolute control of all his father's possessions, and ruled over them for 10 years. He married a captive girl whom he called Chryseis, and by her he had a son Philippus, who was the first of the kings to fight against the Romans and caused the Macedonians much woe.
When Demetrius died, Philippus was left as a [young] orphan, and a member of the royal family, Antigonus called Phuscus, became his guardian. Seeing that Phuscus acted honourably in his role of guardian, the Macedonians made him king, and gave him Chryseis to be his wife. Chryeis bore him sons, but he did not bring them up, because he was holding the kingdom in trust for Philippus. And indeed he was succeeded by Philippus, when he died.
Demetrius, called the Fair, died in the second year of the [?] 130th Olympiad. Philippus then became king, [p239] with the aforesaid Antigonus as his guardian. Antigonus died in the fourth year of the 139th Olympiad [221 B.C.]; he had been guardian for 12 years, and lived for 42 years in all. Philippus began to rule without a guardian in the 140th Olympiad [220 B.C.]; he reigned for 42 complete years, and died in the second year of the 150th Olympiad [179 B.C.], aged 58 years.
Perseus the son of Philippus caused the death of his brother Demetrius by making accusations against him to his father. Perseus was king for 10 years and 8 months, until the fourth years of the 152nd Olympiad [169 B.C.], when Lucius Aemilius defeated and conquered the Macedonians at Pydna. Perseus fled to Samothrace, but then agreed to surrender to the enemy, who transferred him to Alba, where he was imprisoned and died five years later. He was the last king of the Macedonians.
At that time the Romans allowed the Macedonians to remain autonomous, out of respect for their glorious reputation and the greatness of their [former] empire. But 19 years later, in the third year of the 157th Olympiad [150 B.C.], a certain Andriscus falsely claimed to be the son of Perseus, and took on the name of Philippus, from which he came to be called the false Philippus. With the help of the Thracians he conquered Macedonia, but after ruling for a year he was defeated and fled to the Thracians, who handed him over, to be sent as a prisoner to Rome.
Because the Macedonians had been ungrateful, and had co-operated with the false Philippus, the Romans made them tributary in the fourth year of the 157th Olympiad [149 B.C.]. So from Alexander until the end, when they became tributary to the Romans, that is from the second year of 114th Olympiad [323 B.C.] [p241] until the fourth year of the 157th Olympiad [149 B.C.], the kingdom of the Macedonians lasted for 43 Olympiads and two extra years, which is a total of 174 years.
These are the kings of the Macedonians after Alexander the son of Philippus:
After that, they were subject to the Romans.
The kings of the Thessalians:
For a long time, the Thessalians and Epirus had the same rulers as the Macedonians. They were granted independence by the Romans after Philippus was defeated by the Roman general Titus in Thessaly. But eventually, for the same reason as the Macedonians, they were made tributary to the Romans.
Like the Macedonians, they were ruled by Aridaeus, also called Philippus, for seven years after the death of Alexander. Then his successor Cassander ruled over Epirus and the Thessalians for 19 years. After him, his son Philippus [ruled] for 4 months. Then his brothers Antipater and Alexander [ruled] for 2 years and 6 months. And then Demetrius the son of [Antigonus ruled] for 6 years and 6 months. After him, Pyrrhus [ruled] for 4 years and 4 months. Then Lysimachus the son of Agathocles [ruled] for 6 years. [p243] And Ptolemaeus, who was called Ceraunus, [ruled] for one year and 5 months. Then Meleager [ruled] for 2 months. After him, Antipater the son of Lysimachus [ruled] for 45 days. After him, Sosthenes [ruled] for one year. Then there was anarchy for 2 years and 2 months, after which Antigonus the son of Demetrius [ruled] for 34 years and 2 months.
During this time, Pyrrhus won over Antigonus' army and ruled over a few regions, but he lost control of them when he was defeated by Demetrius the son of Antigonus in a battle at Derdia. Shortly afterwards Antigonus died, and his son Demetrius reigned for 10 years. After him, Antigonus, the son of Demetrius who went off to Cyrene and of Olympias the daughter of Pauliclitus of Larisa, [ruled] for 9 years. Antigonus came to the aid of the Achaeans, defeated Cleomenes the king of the Spartans in battle, and liberated Sparta. Therefore the Achaean people honoured him like a god.
After him, Philippus the son of Demetrius reigned for 23 years and 9 months, until he was defeated in a battle in Thessaly by Titus the Roman general. Then the Romans allowed the Thessalians to be autonomous, along with the rest of the Ionians [? Greeks] who had been subject to Philippus. For the first year there was anarchy in Thessaly, but then they started to elect annual leaders from amongst the people.
The first to be elected was Pausanias the son of Echecrates, from Pherae. Then Amyntas the son of Crates, from [?] Pieria; in his year, Titus returned to Rome. Then Aeacides the son of Callas, from Metropolis. Then Epidromas the son of Andromachus, from Larisa, for 8 months only; for the remaining 4 months of the year, the leader was Eunomus the son of Polyclitus, from Larisa. Eunomus was leader again for the whole of the following year. Then Aeacides the son of Callas, from Metropolis, for a second time. Then Pravilus the son of Phaxas, from Scotussa. Then Eunomus [p245] the son of Polyclitus, from Larisa, for a second time. Then Androsthenes the son of Italas, from Gortona. Then Thrasymachus the son of Alexander, from [?] Atrax. Then Laontomenes the son of Damothon, from Pherae. Then Pausanias the son of Damothon. Then Theodorus the son of Alexander, from Argos. Then Nicocrates the son of Paxinas, from [?] Scotussa. Then Hippolochus the son of Alexippus, from Larisa. Then Cleomachides the son of Aeneus, from Larisa. Then Phyrinus the son of Aristomenes, from Gomphi.
In his year, Philippus the king of Macedonia died, and was succeeded by his son Perseus. As we said, Philippus reigned over the Thessalians for 3 years and 9 months, but in all he reigned over the Macedonians for 42 years and 9 months. From the start of the reign of Philippus [Aridaeus] until the death of Philippus the son of Demetrius, that is from the second year of the 114th Olympiad [323 B.C.] until the fifth month of the second year of the 150th Olympiad [179 B.C.], is a total of 144 years and five months.
A summary of the kings of the Thessalians:
And then the following [annual] leaders: Pausanias, Amyntas, Aeacides, Epidromus, Eunomus, Aeacides again, Praviles, Eunomus again, Androsthenes, Thrasymachus, Laontomenes, Pausanias, Theodorus, Nicocrates, Hippolochus, Cleomachides, Phyrinus, and Philippus.
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