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Fragments of Greek Historians


This is a selection of passages which can be found in Fragmente der Griechischen Historiker, Felix Jacoby's monumental collection of fragments, relating to Hellenistic and Roman history.

There are separate translations of Nicolaus, Porphyrius, Memnon and some Greek chronicles, which are also based on Jacoby's text.


Contents:


73: Diyllus of Athens

Diyllus wrote a history of the Greek world, from 357 B.C. (see Diodorus, 16.14'5) to 297 B.C. (see Diodorus, 16.76'6). Although later writers, including Diodorus, clearly made use of his Histories, only four possible fragments survive.

[1]   Athen_4.155'a   Cassander buries Philippus and Eurydice.

[2] [HARPOCRATION]   Aristion: Hypereides, Against Demosthenes. He was from Samos or Plataea, as Diyllus says, and was a companion of Demosthenes from childhood. He was sent by Demosthenes to Hephaestion for negotiations, as Marsyas says in Book 5 of his History of Alexander.

[3]   Plut:Mor_862'B (26)   The historian Herodotus is given a large reward by the Athenians.

[4]   (Dubious)   Athen_13.593'f   Lampito of Samos is the mistress of Demetrius Phalereus.


154: Hieronymus of Cardia

Hieronymus wrote a history of his own time, from 323 B.C. to at least 272 B.C.

[5] [PARADOX.] Hieronymus relates that in the country of the Nabataean Arabs there is a bitter lake, in which there are neither fish nor other aquatic creatures, but the local people gather blocks of asphalt out of it.


155: "Heidelberg Epitome"

This is an anonymous summary of events after the death of Alexander, from 323 to 316 B.C.

[1] When Alexander died, he left behind his wives and an unborn son by Roxane. His followers quarrelled about who should become king, but Alexander's half-brother Arrhidaeus, who was later called Philippus, was appointed to be king until the son of Alexander reached an appropriate age. 2 Because Arrhidaeus was dull-witted, and also epileptic, Perdiccas was appointed to be guardian and overseer of the royal government. Alexander had given his ring to Perdiccas before he died, considering him to be more trustworthy than the other generals. After due consideration, Perdiccas divided the empire into more than 24 satrapies, and gave each of the generals a satrapy to govern. 3 So they went out to the satrapies which had been allotted to each of them, but still tried to extend their power to other territories whenever possible. Then Perdiccas gathered a large force and marched against Ptolemaeus in Egypt, but there some of his officers plotted against him and murdered him. 4 Then Antipater took over as guardian of the kings, and he also after due consideration changed the satrapies which had been allotted by Perdiccas, giving them to others to govern, except for the satrapies of Ptolemaeus and Lysimachus, which he could not alter. Amongst others, he gave the satrapy of Susiana to Antigonus, and the satrapy of Babylon to Seleucus; and he appointed his own son Cassander to be chiliarch.

5 Then after a while Antipater died, and Polysperchon took over as guardian and overseer of the royal government. At that time Olympias treacherously killed Arrhidaeus and his wife Eurydice. 6 Then Cassander bribed some of the royal attendants, and treacherously killed Olympias, Roxane and Roxane's son Alexander the son of Alexander, who was heir to the whole kingdom. This happened in Macedonia [(?) after the death] of Olympias the mother of Alexander. 7 As a result there was confusion in the satrapies. The officers plotted against each other and added other territory to their own. The more ruthless ones put together large forces and killed the weaker ones. Antigonus, who together with his son Demetrius Poliorcetes gained greater power than the others, called himself king and started to wear a diadem. Therefore the others, in order not to appear inferior to him, also wore diadems and called themselves kings. They were Ptolemaeus in Egypt and Syria; Lysimachus in Thrace; and Seleucus in Babylonia, who became king of all Asia after the death of Antigonus. And when they died, their sons became kings in succession.

[2] After the death of Alexander, the Macedonians carried his body from Babylon to Alexandria. They adorned the body lavishly, with great expense and fine workmanship in silver and gold. They accompanied the body with a large and abundant bodyguard. 2 Then they sent Roxane to Macedonia, along with the son whom she bore to Alexander, who was also called Alexander. They also sent over Philippus Arrhidaeus, who ruled with guardians for a total of six years and four months, until he and his wife Eurydice were cruelly killed by his stepmother Olympias. Shortly afterwards Olympias herself, along with [Alexander's] widow Roxane and her son Alexander, were cruelly killed by Cassander the son of Antipater. 3 After all these murders, Cassander married Thessalonice the stepsister of Alexander the Great, who later founded the city of Thessalonice. Her husband Cassander founded the city of Cassandreia.

[3] Eumenes, one of the cleverest of the generals and successors of Alexander, maintained a genuine devotion to Alexander even after Alexander's death. He often fought against those who were opposing the royal government, and won many great victories over some of the greatest generals of the Macedonians. 2 Then, since Antigonus was ambitiously increasing his power and wished even to take the name of king for himself, the royal family, Olympias, Philippus Arrhidaeus and Roxane, sent a royal summons asking Eumenes to come to their aid. Eumenes was moved by their request. He went off to the satrapies on the far side of Babylonia, and after collecting a large army from there he made war against Antigonus. He won two or three victories, and would perhaps have completely defeated him, if he had not been seized and handed over to Antigonus by some of his own friends, who had formed a plot against Eumenes. After this, Antigonus became extremely powerful and was completely irresistible

[4] After Ptolemaeus defeated Perdiccas in Egypt, as was related previously, he took over as much of Perdiccas' army as he wanted, and he also captured Perdiccas' wife, Cleopatra the stepsister of Alexander the Great, who was the daughter of Philippus, but by a different mother who was also called Cleopatra. Ptolemaeus married Cleopatra, and kept her with his other wives.


156: Arrianus

Some books written by Flavius Arrianus have survived (notably his history of Alexander) but his histories of the Bithynians, the Parthians and the period after the death of Alexander have all been lost, apart from a few fragments.

"Events after the death of Alexander"

[1] [PHOTIUS #92 - from tertullian website] [Arrianus] also wrote an account of what took place after Alexander's death, in ten books. He describes the sedition in the army, the proclamation of Arrhidaeus (the son of Alexander's father, Philippus, by a Thracian woman named Philinna) on condition that Roxana's child, when born, if it were a son, should share the throne with him. Arrhidaeus was then again proclaimed under the name of Philippus. 2 A quarrel broke out between the infantry and the cavalry. The chief and most influential commanders of the latter were Perdiccas the son of Orontes, Leonnatus the son of Anthes, Ptolemaeus the son of Lagus, Lysimachus the son of Agathocles, Aristonus the son of Pisaeus, Pithon the son of Crateuas, Seleucus the son of Antiochus, and Eumenes of Cardia. Meleager was in command of the infantry. 3 Communications passed between them, and at length it was agreed between the infantry, who had already chosen a king, and the cavalry, that Antipater should be general of the forces in Europe; that Craterus should look after the kingdom of Arrhidaeus ; that Perdiccas should be chiliarch of the troops which had been under the command of Hephaestion, which amounted to entrusting him with the care of the whole empire ; and that Meleager should be his lieutenant. 4 Perdiccas, under the pretence of reviewing the army, seized the ringleaders of the disturbance, and put them to death in the presence of Arrhidaeus, as if he had ordered it. This struck terror into the rest, and Meleager was soon afterwards murdered. 5 After this Perdiccas became the object of general suspicion and himself suspected everybody. Nevertheless, he made appointments to the governorships of the different provinces, as if Arrhidaeus had ordered him. Ptolemaeus, son of Lagus, was appointed governor of Egypt and Libya, and of that part of Arabia that borders upon Egypt, with Cleomenes, formerly governor of Egypt under Alexander, as his deputy. The part of Syria adjacent was given to Laomedon; Cilicia to Philotas; Media to Pithon ; Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, and the country on the shore of the Euxine as far as Trapezus (a Greek colony from Sinope), to Eumenes of Cardia; 6 Pamphylia, Lycia, and greater Phrygia to Antigonus ; Caria to Cassander; Lydia to Menander; Phrygia on the Hellespont to Leonnatus. This Phrygia had formerly been given by Alexander to a certain Galas and subsequently handed over to Demarchus. Such was the distribution of Asia.

7 In Europe, Thrace and the Chersonese, together with the countries bordering on Thrace as far as Salmydessus on the Euxine, were given to Lysimachus; the country beyond Thrace, as far as the Illyrians, Triballians, and Agrianians, Macedonia itself, and Epirus as far as the Ceraunian mountains, together with the whole of Greece, to Craterus and Antipater. 8 Such was the division of Europe. At the same time several provinces remained under their native rulers, according to the arrangement made by Alexander, and were not affected by the distribution.

9 Meanwhile, Roxana bore a son, who was immediately acclaimed king by the soldiers. After the death of Alexander there were numerous disturbances. Antipater carried on war against the Athenians and the rest of the Greeks commanded by Leosthenes. He was at first defeated and in great straits, but was subsequently victorious. Leonnatus, however, who came to his assistance, fell in battle. 10 Lysimachus also, recklessly fighting against Seuthes the Thracian with an inferior force, was defeated, although his troops greatly distinguished themselves. 11 Perdiccas also made war upon Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia, because he refused to give up his kingdom to Eumenes, upon whom it had been bestowed. Having defeated him in two battles and taken him prisoner, he hanged him and reinstated Eumenes. 12 Craterus, by the assistance he rendered to Antipater against the Greeks, chiefly contributed to their defeat, after which they unhesitatingly obeyed Craterus and Antipater. This is the contents of the first five books.

[9] [PHOTIUS #92 - from tertullian website] 13 The sixth book relates how Demosthenes and Hypereides, Aristonicus of Marathon and Himeraeus, the brother of Demetrius of Phalerum, fled to Aegina, and, while there, were condemned to death by the Athenians on the motion of Demades, and how Antipater carried out the sentence. 14 How Archias the Thurian, who put them to death, died in the utmost poverty and disgrace. How Demades was soon afterwards sent to Macedonia, where he was put to death by Cassander, after his son had been murdered in his arms. Cassander alleged in excuse that Demades had once insulted his father, Antipater, in a letter which he wrote to Perdiccas, begging him to rescue the Greeks, who were only held together by an old and rotten thread, as he abusively called Antipater. 15 Dinarchus of Corinth was the accuser of Demades, who paid the just penalty for his venality, treachery, and unfaithfulness.

16 The author also relates how Harpalus, who during the lifetime of Alexander had stolen money belonging to him and fled to Athens, was slain by Thibron the Lacedaemonian. Thibron seized all the money that remained, and set out for Cydonia in Crete, whence he crossed over to Cyrene with a body of 6000 men, at the request of some exiles from Cyrene and Barca. 17 After many engagements and mutual intrigues, in which he was sometimes successful and sometimes unsuccessful, he was finally captured during his flight by some Libyan drivers, and taken to Epicydes the Olynthian at Teuchira, which had been entrusted to him by Ophelias a Macedonian, whom Ptolemaeus the son of Lagus had sent to help the Cyrenaeans. 18 The inhabitants, by permission of Ophelias, first tortured Thibron and then sent him to the port of Cyrene to be hanged. 19 But since the Cyrenaeans still persisted in their revolt, Ptolemaeus in person visited the place, and after having restored order, sailed home again.

20 Perdiccas, intriguing against Antigonus, called him to judgment, but Antigonus, aware of the plot, refused to appear. This led to enmity between them. 21 At the same time Iollas and Archias came to Perdiccas from Macedonia, accompanied by Nicaea, the daughter of Antipater, with a proposal of marriage. Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great, also sent to him, offering him the hand of her daughter Cleopatra. Eumenes of Cardia favoured Cleopatra, but his brother Alcetas persuaded him to accept Nicaea. 22 Soon afterwards Cynane was put to death by Perdiccas and his brother Alcetas. This Cynane was the daughter of Philippus, the father of Alexander, her mother being Eurydice, the wife of Amyntas, whom Alexander put to death just before he set out for Asia. This Amyntas was the son of Perdiccas the brother of Philippus, so that he was the cousin of Alexander. 23 Cynane brought her daughter Adea (afterwards called Eurydice) to Asia and offered her hand to Arrhidaeus. The marriage subsequently took place, with the approval of Perdiccas, to appease the increasing indignation of the soldiery, which had been aroused by the death of Cynane. 24 Antigonus, in the meantime, took refuge with Antipater and Craterus in Macedonia, informed them of the intrigues of Perdiccas against him, declaring that they were directed against all alike. He also described the death of Cynane in such exaggerated terms that he persuaded them to make war on Perdiccas. 25 Arrhidaeus, who kept the body of Alexander with him, contrary to the wish of Perdiccas, took it from Babylon by way of Damascus to Ptolemaeus the son of Lagus in Egypt; and though often hindered on his journey by Polemon, a friend of Perdiccas, nevertheless succeeded in carrying out his intention.

26 Meanwhile, Eumenes conveyed gifts from Perdiccas to Cleopatra at Sardis, since Perdiccas had decided to repudiate Nicaea and to marry Cleopatra. When this became known to Antigonus through Menander the governor of Lydia, he informed Antipater and Craterus, who were more than ever determined to make war on Perdiccas. Antipater and Craterus, starting from the Chersonese, crossed the Hellespont, having previously sent messengers to deceive those who guarded the passage. They also sent ambassadors to Eumenes and Neoptolemus, who supported Perdiccas ; Neoptolemus went over to them, but Eumenes refused. 27 Neoptolemus being suspected by Eumenes, war broke out between them, in which Eumenes was victorious. Neoptolemus fled with a few men to Antipater and Craterus, and succeeded in persuading the latter to join him; so both made war against Eumenes. Eumenes did his best to prevent his own men from knowing that Craterus was fighting against him, being afraid that, influenced by his great reputation, they might either desert to him, or, if they remained faithful to him, might lose heart. Successful in scheming, he was also successful in battle. Neoptolemus fell by the hand of Eumenes "the secretary" himself, after having proved himself a brave soldier and commander. Craterus, who fought boldly against all who opposed him and showed himself openly in order to be known, was slain by some Paphlagonians before he was recognized, although he had thrown off his hat. However, the infantry escaped and returned to Antipater, which considerably reassured him. 28 Perdiccas, setting out from Damascus to make war upon Ptolemaeus the son of Lagus, reached Egypt with the kings and a large force. He made many charges against Ptolemaeus, who publicly cleared himself, so that the accusations appeared ill-founded. Perdiccas, notwithstanding the opposition of his troops, decided to carry on the war. He was twice defeated, and, having treated those who were inclined to go over to Ptolemaeus with great severity, and in other respects behaved in camp more arrogantly than became a general, he was slain by his own cavalry during an engagement. 29 After his death Ptolemaeus crossed the Nile to visit the kings, upon whom he bestowed gifts and treated them with the utmost kindness and attention, as well as the other Macedonians of rank. At the same time he openly showed sympathy with the friends of Perdiccas, and did all he could to allay the apprehensions of those Macedonians who imagined they were in peril, so that at once and ever afterwards he was held in great esteem.

30 At a full council of war, Pithon and Arrhidaeus having been appointed commanders-in-chief of all the forces for the time being, about fifty of the supporters of Eumenes and Alcetas were condemned, chiefly because Craterus had met his death in civil strife. Antigonus was summoned from Cyprus, and Antipater ordered to repair with all speed to the kings. 31 Before they arrived, Eurydice refused to allow Pithon and Arrhidaeus to do anything without her permission. At first they did not demur, but afterwards told her that she had nothing to do with public affairs, and that they themselves would look after everything until the arrival of Antigonus and Antipater. 32 When they arrived, Antigonus was placed in chief command. When the army demanded the pay that had been promised them for the campaign, Antipater replied straightforwardly that he had no money, but that, to avoid incurring their censure, he would thoroughly search the treasury and other places where money might be hidden. These words aroused the displeasure of the army. 33 When Eurydice joined in the accusations against Antipater, the people were indignant, and a disturbance took place. Eurydice then delivered a speech against him, in which she was assisted by Asclepiodorus the scribe and supported by Attalus. Antipater barely escaped with his life, after Antigonus and Seleucus, at his earnest request, had addressed the people on his behalf and nearly lost their lives in consequence. Antipater, having thus escaped death, withdrew to his own army, where he summoned the cavalry commanders, and after the disturbance had been put down with difficulty, he was again reinstated in his command.

34 He then made a division of Asia, partly confirming the earlier one and partly altering it as circumstances necessitated. Egypt, Libya, the large tract of country beyond it, and all the territory that had been conquered towards the west, was given to Ptolemaeus ; Syria to Laomedon the Mytilenean; Cilicia to Philoxenus, who had held it before. 35 Of the upper provinces, Mesopotamia and Arbelitis were given to Amphimachus, the king's brother ; Babylonia to Seleucus. To Antigenes, commander of the Macedonian argyraspidae, who had first attacked Perdiccas, was given the whole of Susiana ; to Peucestes Persia; to Tlepolemus Carmania; to Pithon Media as far as the Caspian gates ; to Philippus Parthia; 36 to Strasander the territory of the Arei and Drangeni ; to Stasanor of Soli, Bactria, and Sogdiana ; to Siburtius Arachosia; to Oxyartes the father of Roxana Parapamisus ; to Pithon the son of Agenor the part of India bordering on Parapamisus. Of the adjacent provinces, that on the river Indus, together with Patala, the largest city of India in those parts, to king Porus, and that on the river Hydaspes to Taxiles the Indian, for it would have been no easy matter to displace them, since they had been confirmed in their government by Alexander, and their strength had greatly increased. 37 Of the countries to the north of Mount Taurus, Cappadocia was assigned to Nicanor; Greater Phrygia, Lycaonia, Pamphylia, and Lycia, to Antigonus as before; Caria to Asander; Lydia to Clitus; Phrygia on the Hellespont to Arrhidaeus. 38 Antigenes was appointed to collect the revenues in the district of Susa, 3000 of the Macedonians who were mutinously inclined being sent with him. As the king's bodyguard Antipater appointed Autolycus the son of Agathocles, Amyntas the son of Alexander and brother of Peucestes, Ptolemaeus the son of Ptolemaeus, and Alexander the son of Polysperchon. He made his own son Cassander chiliarch of the cavalry, while Antigonus received command of the forces which had formerly been under Perdiccas, together with the care and custody of the kings' persons and, at his own request, the task of finishing the war against Eumenes. Antipater, having secured the general approval of all that he had done, returned home. With this the ninth book concludes.

[10] [COD.RESCR.VATIC.] This fragment was found in a palimpsest, and like many palimpsests the underlying text is difficult to read and full of gaps.

... the desertion of Arrhidaeus to Ptolemaeus, and the taking of the body of Alexander to Egypt ... the associates of Attalus and Polemon ... of the retreat ... returned to Perdiccas. He was even more determined to make an attack on Egypt, in order to remove Ptolemaeus from power, to set up one of his friends as governor of Egypt, and to recover the body of Alexander. 2 When he arrived with his army in Cilicia with this intention, because he knew that Philotas, the satrap of the country, was a friend of Craterus, he deprived Philotas of his command and set up Philoxenus, an undistinguished Macedonian, as governor in his place ... 3 Sending to Babylon ... Docimus with the leading Macedonians, he appointed him to be satrap of Babylonia, and put Archon, the previous governor, in charge of the collection of revenue ... Docimus, if he reached Babylon and gained control of the satrapy, would remove Archon ... 4 gathering ... and telling them about Perdiccas' change of mind ... to gather ... in order to prevent Docimus from taking over the command. 5 While they were about this, Docimus arrived at Babylon and, ignoring some of the Babylonians in the country who were still resisting ... to the soldiers ... he pressed on and confronted Archon. Most of the places which were resisting and still holding out were subdued. It happened that Archon was wounded in a skirmish and died not long afterwards from his wounds. Then Docimus came up and was received into the satrapy by the Babylonians, and he carried out ... the instructions he had received from Perdiccas.

6 Meanwhile Perdiccas learnt that the kings of Cyprus, Nicocreon of Salamis and his vassals Pasicrates of Soli and Nicocles of Paphos, and also Androcles of Amathus, had made an alliance with Ptolemaeus. They had collected almost two hundred ships and were besieging the city of Marium and its governor. Perdiccas gathered triremes from Phoenicia for an expedition from Cilicia over to Marium, and prepared many merchant ships . He put about 800 mercenaries on the ships, and about 500 cavalrymen. He appointed Sosigenes of Rhodes to be admiral, Medius of Thessaly to be leader of the mercenaries, Amyntas to be leader of the cavalry, and Aristonous the bodyguard of Alexander to be general of the entire force ...

7 ... and Menander the satrap of Lydia, when he learnt of the arrival of Antigonus and the withdrawal of Asander towards him, vigorously ... Perdiccas ... and being angry with Perdiccas because ... the satrapy which he held ... quickly fled to the army ... Cleopatra was ... and of Eumenes ... the roads which led to greater Phrygia.

8 The cities around Ephesus gave him a friendly welcome, and he prepared to march on Sardis [from there]. Meanwhile, Cleopatra heard about Antigonus' arrival and the ambush which he planned for Eumenes, and she passed on the information to Eumenes. About evening time, he gathered together the friends and cavalrymen who accompanied him, and he told them to prepare for a journey and to present themselves as quickly as possible, without waiting for a trumpet or any other obvious signal. 9 He followed the route between them in the direction of the rising sun. He ... was careful not to bring it, guessing that it had been taken ... for this reason it was least expected. Advancing about twenty stades, he turned towards the right and ... of the road which led to greater Phrygia ... 10 The same night Antigonus ... learning of the escape of Eumenes and that ... guessing that they were lying in ambush ... Cleopatra, since Perdiccas ...

[11] [PHOTIUS #92 - from tertullian website] 39 The tenth book relates how Eumenes, having heard what had befallen Perdiccas, and that he himself had been declared an enemy by the Macedonians, made all preparations for war ; how Alcetas, the brother of Perdiccas, took refuge with him on that account; how Attalus, who had been one of the ringleaders in the insurrection against Antipater, also joined the exiles with a force of 10,000 foot and 800 horse; how Attalus and his troops attacked Cnidus, Caunus, and Rhodes. The Rhodians, under their admiral, Demaratus, completely repulsed them. 40 How Eumenes nearly came to blows with Antipater on his arrival at Sardis, but Cleopatra, Alexander's sister, to prevent the Macedonian people accusing her of being the cause of the war, persuaded Eumenes to leave Sardis. Notwithstanding, Antipater reviled her for her friendship with Eumenes and Perdiccas. She defended herself more vigorously than a woman could have been expected to do, brought countercharges against him, and in the end they parted amicably. 41 Eumenes, having unexpectedly attacked those who did not acknowledge his authority, collected much booty and money, which he distributed amongst his soldiers. He also sent messages to Alcetas and his friends, begging them to assemble all their forces in one place so that they might unitedly attack the common enemy. But differences of opinion arose amongst them, and they finally refused. 42 Antipater, not yet daring to engage Eumenes, sent Asander against Attalus and Alcetas; after the battle had long remained undecided, Asander was defeated. 43 Cassander was at variance with Antigonus, but by command of his father, Antipater, he abandoned his opposition. Nevertheless, Cassander, when he met his father in Phrygia, advised him not to get too far from the kings, and to keep watch on Antigonus ; but the latter, by his quiet behaviour, courtesy, and good qualities, did all he could to remove suspicion. Antipater, being appeased, appointed him to the command of the forces which had crossed over with him to Asia - 8500 Macedonian 'infantry, and the same number of foreign cavalry, together with half the elephants (that is, seventy) - to assist him in ending the war against Eumenes. 44 Thus Antigonus began the war. Antipater, with the kings and the rest of his forces, pretended to be going to cross over into Macedonia, but the army again mutinied and demanded their pay. Antipater promised that he would pay them when he reached Abydus, or let them have, if not the whole, at least the greater part of it. 45 Having thus encouraged their hopes, he reached Abydus without disturbance, but having deceived the soldiers, he crossed the Hellespont by night, with the kings, to Lysimachus. On the following day the soldiers also crossed, and for the moment made no further demand for their pay. With this the tenth book ends.

"Bithynica"

[14] [PHOTIUS #93 - from tertullian website] Read [Arrianus'] Bithynica in eight books, containing a detailed account of the mythical and general history of Bithynia. It is a history of his own country, dedicated to it as a patriotic offering. For he tells us definitely in this work that he was born in Nicomedeia, brought up and educated there, and held, the office of priest of Demeter and her daughter, to whom the city was sacred. He mentions various works of his on other subjects, such as the career of the Corinthian Timoleon in Sicily, and the memorable deeds of Dion the Syracusan, who freed Syracuse and the whole of Sicily from the second Dionysius, the son of the first, and from the barbarians,- whom Dionysius had introduced to support his tyranny. It appears that the history of his country was the fourth work he wrote, being written after the histories of Alexander the Great, Timoleon, and Dion. Certainly from the time when he first took to a literary career he had intended to treat of this subject, but the work took some time to complete owing to the lack of material; at least, this is the reason he himself gives for the delay in its production. He begins, as stated, with mythical history and goes down to the death of the last Nicomedes, who at his death left his kingdom to the Romans, who had never had a king since the expulsion of the Tarquins.

[28] [SCHOL.TZETZES] "[Hannibal] died after drinking poison in Bithynia, by a place called Libyssa. He had expected to die in his homeland, in Libya, for an ancient oracle had been written about him as follows: The Libyssan earth will cover the body of Hannibal." This is now called the place of Butius, according to Arrianus in his Bithynica.

[29] [TZETZES] Nicomedes the founder of Nicomedeia, the father of Prusias who had a single bone instead of all his teeth, ... this father of single-toothed Prusias, who founded the city of Prusias by Mount Olympus, the aforementioned Nicomedes had a huge Molossian hound, who was very faithful to him. Once when Queen Ditizele of Phrygia, the wife of Nicomedes and mother of Prusias, was playing with the king, the dog thought she was attacking him. He bit her and tore apart her right shoulder, crushing the flesh and bones with his teeth. She died in the king's arms, and was buried magnificently in Nicomedeia, in a gilded tomb made of stone ... Many people say that the dog went out of sight of the king and ended its life, out of love of the king and grief for his wife. Arrianus tells the story in his Bithynica.

"Parthica"

[30] [PHOTIUS #58 - from tertullian website] Read Arrianus' Parthica (History of Parthia) in seventeen books. He has also written the best account of the campaigns of Alexander of Macedon. Another work of his is Bithynica (History of Bithynia), relating the affairs of his native country. He also wrote an Alanica (History of the Alani). In the Parthica he gives an account of the wars between Parthia and Rome during the reign of Trajan. He considers the Parthians to have been a Scythian race, which had long been under the yoke of Macedonia, and revolted, at the time of the Persian rebellion, for the following reason. Arsaces and Tiridates were two brothers, descendants of Arsaces, the son of Phriapetes. These two brothers, with five accomplices, slew Pherecles, who had been appointed satrap of Parthia by Antiochus Theos, to avenge an insult offered to one of them; they drove out the Macedonians, set up a government of their own, and became so powerful that they were a match for the Romans in war, and sometimes even were victorious over them. Arrianus further relates that during the reign of Sesostris, king of Egypt, and Iandysus, king of Scythia, the Parthians removed from their own country, Scythia, to the land which they now inhabit. The emperor Trajan reduced them to submission but left them free under a treaty, and appointed a king over them.

[31] [SYNCELLUS] The fourth king of Syria was his son Antiochus Callinicus, also called Seleucus . . . In the reign of this Antiochus, the Parthians revolted from the Macedonians and the Seleucids, after being subject to them since the reign of Alexander the founder, for the following reason. Arsaces and Teridates, two brothers who traced their family back to Artaxerxes the king of the Persians, were the satraps of the Bactrians when Agathocles of Macedonia was governor of Persia. Agathocles fell in love with Teridates, one of the brothers, and tried to trap the young man, but failed and was killed by him and his brother Arsaces. Arsaces became king of the Persians, and the kings of the Persians were called Arsacids after him. After two years Arsaces was killed, and his brother Teridates succeeded him as king, for 37 years.

(?) "Events after the death of Alexander"

[56] And on top of this, Leonnatus who had been the shield-bearer of Alexander . . .

[Another two fragments have been discovered since the time of Jacoby]

[181] [papyrus - PSI_1284]   column 82: In order to make their appearance more formidable to the cavalry, they advanced in formation and the mounted troops behind them cast their javelins wherever they could, so as to repel the charge of the cavalry by the constant stream of missiles. 10 But when Eumenes saw that the Macedonians were holding their line of shields tightly together and remained stout-hearted enough to face any danger, then he sent Xennias, a man who could speak like a native Macedonian, 20 with instructions to tell them that [Eumenes] would not fight against them directly, but by following them with his cavalry and with formations of light-armed troops, he would prevent them from gathering provisions. Even if they considered themselves invincible in battle, 30 they would not be able {column 83:} to hold out against hunger and thirst for long . . .

[182] [GÖTEBORG PALIMPSEST]   {When . . . } was {at that} time . . . to all of them, those who were caught inside could neither break out nor come to each others' assistance, because all of them were threatened with personal danger; of those who were trapped one part . . . to themselves . . . of Eumenes, but to the foreigners . . . and on [payment of] ransom . . . in three [days] they had plenty to pay [the soldiers] 10 . . . collecting over 800, except for what . . . they did not pay the price in proportion to what had been taken away - and it was reckoned at not far short of one thousand [talents]. After acquiring this unexpected abundance of resources without any effort or danger, they held Eumenes in high esteem; and the enemy, who were astonished by the speed and the unexpectedness of his attack, still more admired his skill as a general and his very quick-witted intelligence. At the same time, they began to despise Antipater, 20 because although he brought with him much larger and stronger forces to contend the war, after he set up camp near to their enemies he was unable to offer any assistance to his allies. Within sight of him and his army, the allies were captured and destroyed and sold off as booty, while Antipater was nothing better than a spectator of their sufferings.

After achieving this, while it was still winter, Eumenes sent envoys to Alcetas and Attalus and Polemon and Docimus 30 and to the others who had been appointed by Perdiccas as commanders and satraps, but had now been sentenced to death by the Macedonians. He urged them to combine all their forces and jointly undertake the war, because not only would they be a match for he enemy if they were united, but also they would be more effective if they had a common plan. If all their forces were combined, they would be the equal of the enemy in numbers, and they controlled a large amount of territory, from which they could easily support their army. If they prolonged the war, they would consistently gain extra strength, 40 because Antigonus and Antipater were already considered odious, and after failing so far to achieve anything worthy of mention, they were not surprisingly regarded with contempt. Their continual losses would make the enemy weak and easy to defeat, so that if they learned that the others were working together and uniting their forces, they would immediately sue for a truce. They would leave the others in possession of their existing territory, and content themselves with their original allotment, thereby ridding Asia of many evils. 50 If any of the commanders were not convinced by this, he told them to explain what better course they could choose instead of it, to provide deliverance from the present dangers and safety for the future. Alcetas was one of the first to do as Eumenes suggested; he wanted to attach to himself the large Macedonian army which Eumenes commanded, so that if the firm foundation of this force of foot-soldiers {was added} to the cavalry which he already had and to the mass of . . .


176: Sosylus

Sosylus accompanied Hannibal during his invasion of Italy, and later wrote a history of the war between Hannibal and the Romans.

[1] [PAP.WURZBURG] 2 . . . they all fought outstandingly, but most of all the ships of the Massilians, who were the first to join battle and were wholly responsible for the success of the Romans. In sum, their leaders encouraged the others and made them bolder, while they themselves attacked the enemy with exceptional bravery. The Carthaginians suffered a two-fold defeat, because the Massilians knew their particular style of fighting. If the Carthaginians are facing some ships prow to prow, they advance as if they are going to attack, but instead of attacking immediately, they sail through the enemy line, turn round and ram the enemy's ships from the side.

3 The Massilians had found out about a tactic which is said to have employed at Artemisium by Heracleides of Mylasa, who was one of the cleverest men of his time. When they drew up their line, they ordered the front ships to face forwards, but to leave other ships waiting behind them at suitable intervals, which as soon as the first ships had been passed could take the opportunity to attack the enemy's ships as they were still advancing, without moving from their original formation. This is what Heracleides did in past times, and as a result he was responsible for the victory. And now, as we said, the Massilians followed the description of this ancient event. 4 As the Carthaginians advanced in the anticipated fashion . . . they fought alongside . . . the Carthaginians turned to flight . . .

Book 4 of the Deeds of Hannibal, by Sosylus.


241: Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes (late third century B.C.) was the first writer to produce a systematic list of numbered Olympiads, which became the standard method of dating events in Greek chronicles.

[8] [SCHOL.MENANDER] Many of the comic poets mention Astyanax of Miletus. He was the greatest pancratiast of his time, and also competed in the boxing. Eratosthenes in .... of the Olympic Victors, talking about the 116th Olympiad, says:
"Astyanax of Miletus for the (?) third time won at all the games"


257: Phlegon

Phlegon's "Olympiades" was a detailed list of events and Olympic victors from the first Olympiad (776 B.C.) down to 140 A.D. Phlegon's book survived until the ninth century, when the Byzantine scholar Photius declared himself disgusted by "his ill-timed, if laborious, diligence in reckoning the Olympiads, his lists of names of the victors and their achievements, and his accounts of the oracles", but only a few fragments now remain.

[9] [PHILOPONUS] Phlegon states that, in the 124th Olympiad, Lysimachus the Macedonian's body, which lay unburied for many days, was protected by his dog who kept the wild animals away from the corpse, until Thorax of Larissa came by and buried him.

[12] [PHOTIUS] About the 177th Olympiad See the translation of Photius [ #97 ].

[16] [ST.JEROME] About an eclipse of the sun at the time of the death of Jesus. See the translation of St. Jerome [Olympiad 202.3].

[40] [ZOSIMUS] About the Secular Games See the translation of Zosimus [beginning of book 2].


257a: ? Phlegon

The format of this anonymous fragment is very similar to fragment 12 of Phlegon's Olympiades. The beginning provides unique information about internal strife at Athens, but unfortunately gaps in the papyrus make the meaning unclear in some places.

[1] [POxy_2082] A dispute broke out between the generals of the Athenians, Charias the commander of the hoplites and Lachares the commander of the mercenaries. Charias seized the acropolis ... after the expedition and prevented food reaching the people ... in the war ... but Lachares with the mercenaries ... 2 ... established ... and expelled Charias and the soldiers of Peiraeus. After overpowering the men who had seized the acropolis with Charias, he sent them away under a truce, but Charias and Peithias and Lysander the son of Calliphon and Ameinias took refuge in the temple [of Athene]. They held an assembly and sentenced them all to death ... on the motion of Apollodorus. The soldiers of Peiraeus also captured Peiraeus with the [men] from the city ...

3 ... besieged [them] in Peiraeus. Cassander the king of the Macedonians fell ill and died on the [21st] day of the intercalary month of Artemisius. He was succeeded by Philippus, the eldest of his sons, who was king for [4] months ... the historian Diyllus the son of Phanodemus [ended] ... year, Philippus [the king of] the Macedonians ... died ...

4 ... and the golden [statue] of Athene, and from [this loot] he provided pay for the mercenaries.

121[st Olympiad]

[Victors in the Olympic games:]

5 The men of Thurii ... the country ... Agathocles ...

7 In the [first] year the Romans fought ...


523: ? Zenon of Rhodes ( P.Köln 247 )

The Greek text of the legible part of this papyrus fragment, along with a historical commentary, was published by G.A.Lehmann (ZPE, 1988). Because of the emphasis on the Rhodians, it is likely that the fragment comes from a local history written by Zenon in the first half of the second century B.C. The surviving portion describes events of 306/5 B.C.; Lehmann points out that the remarks in column III, about the importance to the Rhodians of trade with Egypt, are echoed in Diodorus' account of this year ( 20.81'4 ).

[I] . . . Alcetas, son of Orontes, brother of Perdiccas . . . Eumenes . . . Silver Shields { Argyraspides } . . . Antigonus, the son of Philippus, 20 was the first to proclaim himself king, in the belief that he would easily remove all the others in positions of power, and that he would prevail 25 over the entire world { oikoumene } and just like Alexander take over the affairs . . .

[II] . . . 5 complete days they proclaimed him king before they wrote to the people, without . . . against the Rhodians and the others, 10 but responding to what was written by each of them. Therefore, he { Ptolemaeus } troubled Antigonus, but he was (?) useful to the people. 15 For Ptolemaeus after he received (?) what was written in the documents, took for himself the dignity of a king . . . His friends considered him worthy of the royal 30 title, among them the Rhodians, because they expected that the aggrandisement of Antigonus would be oppressive to them, 35 but they they believed that Ptolemaeus would stay within his realm { hegemonia } and in no way would . . . in so far as it related to them. For indeed a king in Asia 40 less suitable . . .

[III] . . . and since they { the Rhodians } rather harboured affection for the one who ruled 25 over Egypt and its existing territory; for in respect of both the increase in income and the volume of business or the corn 30 . . . a change of mind . . .


723: Eupolemus

Eupolemus lived in the second century B.C. and wrote a history "On the Kings in Judaea", of which a few fragments have survived in quotations by later Christian writers, although it appears that they found the quotations in the writings of Alexander Polyhistor, rather than directly reading the history.

[1] [EUSEB:PE.9.25.4]   And concerning Moses the same author [Alexander Polyhistor] again brings forward many things, which are worth hearing. But Eupolemus says that the first wise man was Moses, and that he was the first to teach the Jews letters, and from the Jews the Phoenicians received them, and from the Phoenicians the Greeks, and that Moses was the first to give written laws to the Jews.   [CLEM.AL:STROM.1.23]   And Eupolemus, in his book On the Kings in Judaea, says that "Moses was the first wise man, and the first that imparted grammar to the Jews, that the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians."

[2] [CLEM.AL:STROM.1.21]   Accordingly it is easy to perceive that Solomon, who lived in the time of Menelaus (who was during the Trojan war), was earlier by many years than the wise men among the Greeks. And how many years Moses preceded him we showed, in what we said above. And Alexander, surnamed Polyhistor, in his work on the Jews, has transcribed some letters of Solomon to Vaphres king of Egypt, and to the king of the Phoenicians at Tyre, and theirs to Solomon; in which it is shown that Vaphres sent eighty thousand Egyptian men to him for the building of the temple, and the other as many, along with a Tyrian artificer, the son of a Jewish mother, of the tribe of Dan, as is there written, of the name of Hyperon.   [EUSEB:PE.9.30.1-8]   But Eupolemus says, in some (?) comment on the prophecy of Elias, that Moses prophesied forty years; then Jesus the son of Nave thirty years, and he lived a hundred and ten years, and pitched the holy tabernacle in Silo. And afterwards Samuel rose up as a prophet: and then by God's will Saul was chosen king by Samuel, and died after a reign of twenty-one years. Then his son David reigned, who subdued the Syrians which live beside the river Euphrates, and Commagene, and the Assyrians in Galadene, and the Phoenicians; he also made expeditions against the Edomites, and Ammonites, and Moabites, and Ituraeans, and Nabathaeans, and Nabdaeans. And again he made an expedition against Suron king of Tyre and Phoenicia; and compelled these nations to pay tribute to the Jews; and contracted a friendly alliance with Vaphres king of Egypt. And when David wished to build a temple for God, he entreated God to point out to him a place for the altar; whereupon there appeared to him an angel standing above the place, where the altar is built in Jerusalem, who commanded him not to build the temple, because he was defiled with men's blood and had passed many years in war. And the angel's name was Dianathan; and he bade him commit the building of the temple to his son, but himself to prepare the things pertaining to the building, gold, silver, brass, stones, cypress wood and cedar. And on bearing this David built ships in (?) Aïlana, a city of Arabia, and sent miners to the island Urphe which lies in the Red Sea, and contains gold mines. And thence the miners transported the gold into Judaea. When David had reigned forty years he gave over the government to Solomon his son, who was twelve years old, in the presence of Eli the High Priest and the twelve princes of the tribes, and delivered to him the gold and silver and brass and stone and cypress wood and cedar. Then David died, and Solomon was king, and wrote to Vaphres king of Egypt the letter which is transcribed below.

[3] [EUSEB:PE.9.34.20]   And Eupolemus says that Solomon made also a thousand golden shields, each of which weighed five hundred staters of gold. He lived fifty-two years, of which he reigned forty in peace.

[4] [CLEM.AL:STROM.1.21]   Besides, Eupolemus, in (?) the same work, says that all the years from Adam to the fifth year of king Demetrius, and the twelfth year of Ptolemaeus king of Egypt [? 158 B.C.], when added, amount to five thousand one hundred and forty-nine; and from the time that Moses brought out the Jews from Egypt to the above-mentioned date, there are, in all, two thousand five hundred and eighty years. And from this time till the consulship in Rome of Gaius Dometianus and Casianus [? Gnaeus Domitius and Asinius, 40 B.C.], a hundred and twenty years are computed.

[5] [EUSEB:PE.9.39.1-5]   Besides this, as [Alexander] Polyhistor has made mention of the prophecy of Jeremiah, it would be a most unreasonable thing for us to pass it over in silence. Let this then also be set down:

Then Jonachim: in his time prophesied Jeremiah the prophet. He was sent by God, and found the Jews sacrificing to a golden image, the name of which was Baal. And he foreshowed to them the calamity which was to come. Jonachim then attempted to burn him alive: but he said that with that fuel they should cook food for the Babylonians, and as prisoners of war should dig the canals of the Tigris and Euphrates. When Nebuchadnezzar, king of the Babylonians, had heard of the predictions of Jeremiah, he summoned Astibares, the king of the Medes, to join him in an expedition. And having taken with him Babylonians and Medes, and collected a hundred and eighty thousand infantry and a hundred and twenty thousand cavalry, and ten thousand chariots, he first subdued Samaria, and Galilee, and Scythopolis, and the Jews who lived in the region of Gilead; and afterwards took Jerusalem, and made Jonachim, the king of the Jews, a prisoner. And the gold that was in the temple, and the silver and brass, they chose out and sent to Babylon, except the Ark and the tables that were in it: but this Jeremiah retained.


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