Chronicon Paschale

    - Olympiads 112 to 187

The Chronicon Paschale is a chronicle which was written in about 630 A.D. It is an important source of information about the Byzantine Empire of that time, but for earlier periods it concentrates on sacred (Jewish) history. It also contains a list of Roman consuls, which is not translated here.

Translated from Dindorf's text (in Migne, PG.92; the references in red are the page numbers of that edition). A copy of PG.92, with the Greek text and a Latin translation, can be found in Google Books.

[420'A] [Ol. 112.1] Dareius Alexander, the son of Arsames, became the 13th king [of Persia] for 6 years. In total, 5,181 years [from the creation].

 [Ol. 113.2] Alexander captured Babylon, and the kingdom of Persia came to an end, after lasting for 246 years, from the first year of Cyrus up until the present 6th year of Dareius the son of Arsames. This kingdom was like a statue, whose hands and chest and arms were made of silver.

Alexander founded 12 cities, which were called as follows:

  1. Alexandria by the Pentapolis, previously called Chettus, the port of Memphis
  2. Alexandria in Egypt
  3. Alexandria by the (?) Harpasus
  4.  Alexandria Cabiosa
  5. Alexandria, also called Scythia, in (?) Aegaei
  6. Alexandria by Porus
  7. Alexandria on the river Cypris
  8. Alexandria in the Troad
  9. Alexandria in Babylonia
  10. Alexandria in (?) the Mesasgages
  11. Alexandria in Persia
  12. [421'A] Alexandria Casus

When he was 32 years old, Alexander was poisoned and died at Babylon.

[Ol. 113.3] The 12 Lagides, kings of Egypt:

Ptolemy, the son of Lagus and Arsinoe, became the first [king] of Egypt, for 40 years. In total, 5,221 years.

[Ol. 114.1] Papirius Cursor was appointed dictator, with Drusus as magister equitum.

 The consul Camillus executed his own son, because he joined battle contrary to his father's orders, even though he won the battle.

[Ol. 116.1] Eleazar became the 8th high priest at Jerusalem, for 15 years. In total, 230 years.

 [Ol. 117.3] Rullus and Rutilius were consuls. The Syro-Macedonians, that is the inhabitants of Apameia, count their Paschal era from the year of these consuls.

[424'A] In the year of these consuls, Bubulcus was appointed magister equitum.

 [Ol. 119.4] Simon became the 9th high priest, for 14 years. In total, 240 years.

[Ol. 120.2] Menander, the writer of comedies, died.

 [Ol. 123.2] Onias, the son of Simon, became the 10th high priest, for 32 years. In total, 272 years.

[425'A] [Ol. 123.3] Ptolemy Philadelphus, the son of Berenice and Ptolemy Soter, became the second king of Egypt, for 38 years. In total, 5,259 years.

[Ol. 123.4] Ptolemy Philadelphus freed the Jewish captives who had been brought to Egypt by his father Ptolemy, and sent royal offerings to Onias Simon, the brother of Eleazar, who was high priest at Jerusalem. In order to translate the Jewish scriptures from Hebrew into Greek, he locked away 72 of the Hebrew wise men on Pharos, the island of Proteus, in 72 separate dwelling places.  He had placed the scriptures in the libraries which he had created at Alexandria, along with many other books of all sorts which he had collected from every city. When he saw that the books which he had brought from Jerusalem were written in letters of gold, he was amazed, and after having copies made he returned them together with gifts. The scriptures were translated within 72 days on the island of Pharos. The 72 wise men caused astonishment because they had each translated the scriptures while separated from each other, but when they came into Ptolemy' presence and compared the translations,  they were found to be identical. Then glory was given to God, and the scriptures were recognised as being truly inspired, because they had all produced the same translation. Therefore the nations of today believe that it was by the inspiration of God that the scriptures were translated within 72 days on the island of Pharos.

[428'A] [Ol. 126.3] Licinius and Cambias were consuls. In the year of these consuls, silver coinage was minted for the first time at Rome.

 [Ol. 128.3] Nicomedes the king of Bithynia refounded Astaceia and called it Nicomedeia.

 [Ol. 131.2] Manasses became the 11th high priest of the Jews, for 26 years. In total, 298 years.

[429'A] [Ol. 131.2] Ptolemy Euergetes, who was also called Tryphon, became the 3rd king of Egypt, for 26 years. In total, 5,285 years.

 [Ol. 134.1] Seleucus Callinicus founded the city of Callinicum in Mesopotamia.

 [Ol.137.4] Maximus and Arustius were consuls.

Simon became the 12th high priest at Jerusalem, for 22 years. In total, 320 years.

[432'A] In the time of this high priest, Jesus the son of Sirach composed the book of wisdom called Panareton, in which he makes mention of Simon.

In the year of these consuls, the [events of] the first book of Maccabees took place.

[Ol. 138.2] Some [Vestal] virgins at Rome were defiled, and they were buried alive.

Caria and Rhodes were shaken by an earthquake, and the Colossus at Rhodes fell down.

 The composition of the second book of Maccabees started [from this year].

[Ol. 138.3] Eratosthenes was in his prime.

[Ol. 139.1] The engineer Archimedes was in his prime.

[Ol. 139.3] Ptolemy Philopator, who was also called Gallus, the son of Ptolemy Euergetes called Tryphon, became the 4th king of Egypt, for 17 years. In total, 5,302 years.

 The Jews were defeated by this Ptolemy. They lost 40,000 soldiers, and the prisoners were taken off to Jerusalem. There, on the orders of Ptolemy, five hundred elephants, who were equipped for fighting, were given a mixture of wine and frankincense to drink for three days, so that they would destroy all the Jews in a single attack. When the fourth day came, the Jews offered up prayers, and the elephants trod down the Egyptians' own soldiers and [433'A] people, destroying the best part of them because of the madness which took hold of them. So the Jews were saved, and returned with thanksgiving to their homes.

 [Ol. 141.3] The image of Rhea, the mother of the gods, was brought to Rome from Phrygia.

 [Ol. 143.2] Onias the second became the 13th high priest at Jerusalem, for 24 years. In total, 344 years.

[Ol. 143.4] Ptolemy Epiphanes, the son of Ptolemy Philopator called Gallus, became the 5th king of Egypt, for 24 years. In total, 5,326 years.

 Antiochus the king of Syria made a treaty of friendship with Ptolemy [436'A] Epiphanes, and gave his daughter Cleopatra to be Ptolemy' wife. Antiochus handed over Syria, Phoenicia, Samaria and Judaea as her dowry.

 [Ol. 148.4] Simon, the supervisor of the temple at Jerusalem, was a political opponent of Onias the high priest, and brought before Seleucus Nicator accusations of every sort against the Jewish nation. Since he was unable to harm Onias, and was forced into exile, he decided to betray his country.  So he went to Apollonius, the governor of Syria, Phoenicia, and Cilicia, and promised to provide money for him. He said that the treasury at Jerusalem contained much private money, which properly belonged not to the temple but to the king.

Apollonius reported this to king Seleucus, and on receiving authority from the king he went to Jerusalem, accompanied by Simon and a very strong army. The people and the priests of the temple met him with protests, but Apollonius cowed them with threats and forced his way into the temple. The people prayed for God to protect his temple, [437'A] and suddenly angels riding on horses appeared from heaven. The angels struck down Apollonius, who fell half-dead to the floor of the crowded precinct of the temple. He stretched out his hands and begged the people to pray to God to save him. Onias the high priest was moved by his entreaty, and so that Seleucus should not suspect that Apollonius had been killed by human agency, prayed to God on his behalf. Then Apollonius was saved, and went back to king Seleucus to inform him of what had happened.

 [Ol. 149.2] Jesus became the 14th high priest, for 16 years. In total, 360 years.

[Ol. 149.4] Ptolemy Philometor, the son of Ptolemy Epiphanes, became the 6th king of Egypt, for 35 years. In total, 5,361 years.

 [Ol. 150.3] Aristobulus, the Jewish Peripatetic philosopher, was in his prime. He dedicated his commentaries on the books of Moses to Ptolemy Philometor.

[440'A] [Ol. 153.2] Onias, who was also called Menelaus, became the 15th high priest at Jerusalem, for 7 years. In total, 367 years.

[Ol. 154.3] Judas, who was also called Maccabaeus, the son of Mattathias, became the first leader of the Jews, in the third year of the 154th Olympiad.

 Onias, who was also called Menelaus, the Jewish high priest who had betrayed his country to Antiochus Epiphanes, was killed by Antiochus Eupator. Then Alcimus, who was not from a priestly family, obtained the high priesthood by bribery. Because of this, Onias the son of the high priest Onias went off to Egypt and founded the city there which is called "the city of Onias", where he built a temple similar to the temple at Jerusalem.

Alcimus the high priest contended against Judas Maccabaeus, but before long he was struck down by a blow from God, and died. Then the entire Jewish people assigned the high priesthood to Judas Maccabaeus.  After becoming high priest, he sent a delegation to the Romans, and the senate decreed that the Jews should be entrolled amongst the friends and allies of the Roman people, as is related in the history of the Maccabees.

[Ol. 154.4] When the young Antiochus Eupator came to Antioch, he found Philippus acting as king, and killed him. After this he attacked Jerusalem and was defeated by Judas Maccabaeus, the general of the Jews. This Antiochus killed the high priest Onias, also called Menelaus, through the agency of his general Andronicus. After Onias came Alcimus, who was not from a priestly family.

[441'A] [Ol.155.1] Judas Maccabaeus became the 16th high priest at Jerusalem, for 33 years. In total, 400 years.

The second book of Maccabees contains the events which took place under Seleucus Ceraunus, Antiochus the Great, Seleucus Philopator, Antiochus Epiphanes and the young Antiochus Eupator, up until the fifth year of Demetrius Soter and the time of Judas Maccabaeus the son of Mattathias. After Judas, his brother Jonathan, another son of Mattathias, became leader [of the Jews].

 [Ol. 155.2] Aristarchus the grammarian was in his prime.

[Ol. 157.3] The Samaritans and Jews disputed in the presence of Ptolemy Philopator about the religious observances of their nations,  and the Jews were victorious.

[Ol. 158.3] Ptolemy, who was called the second Euergetes, became the 7th king of Egypt, for 29 years. In total, 5,390 years.

Ptolemy the second Euergetes gave his daughter in marriage to Alexander, the king of Syria and Asia.

[444'A] [Ol. 159.2] Alexander the king of Syria and Asia was killed by his father-in-law Ptolemy.

[Ol. 159.3] Ptolemy the second Euergetes gave his daughter, who had previously been the wife of Alexander, in marriage to Demetrius, Alexander's successor as king of Syria and Asia.

 [Ol. 163.1] Demetrius Sidetes, the king of Syria, attacked Jerusalem and began to besiege it. After agreeing peace terms with Judas Maccabaeus, he was killed at a feast by the soldiers of Ptolemy the second Euergetes.

[445'A] [Ol. 163.2] Jonathan Maccabaeus became the 17th high priest of the Jews, for 17 years. In total, 417 years.

[Ol. 164.4] Jonathan Maccabaeus, the high priest of the Jews, besieged Samaria, the city of the Samaritans which is now called Sebaste, and razed it to the ground. Later Herodes, who was king of the Jews though a foreigner, rebuilt the city and called it Sebaste.

 [Ol. 165.3] Ptolemy Physcon, who was also called Soter, the son of Cleopatra, became the 8th king of Egypt, for 17 years. In total, 5,407 years.

[Ol. 165.4] Jonathan Maccabaeus, the high priest of the Jews, was a distinguished leader of Judaea.

[448'A] [Ol. 167.3] Simon, the brother of Jonathan Maccabaeus, became the 18th high priest of the Jews, for 8 years. In total, 425 years.

[Ol. 169.4] The inhabitants of Seleuceia, near Antioch in Syria, count their era from this year.

 [Ol. 169.1] The inhabitants of Ascalon count their era from this year.

[Ol. 169.3] Jonathan became the 19th high priest at Jerusalem, for 27 years. In total, 452 years.

[Ol. 169.4] Jonathan, the high priest and leader [of the Jews], waged war on the Hyrcani, and was given the name Hyrcanus. He sent an embassy to the Romans and was recognised as their ally by a decree of the senate.

 [Ol. 170.1] Ptolemy Alexander, the son of Ptolemy the second Euergetes and Philometor, became the 9th [king] of Egypt, for 10 years. In total, 5,417 years.

[449'A] [Ol. 172.2] Sallustius was born on the Kalends of October.

Ptolemy Alexander, the son of Ptolemy the second Euergetes and of Cocce, was driven out of his kingdom and was killed at Myra in Lycia.

[Ol. 172.3] Ptolemy Potheinus, also called Physcon and Soter, the son of Cleopatra, returned from exile and became the 10th king of Egypt, for 8 years. In total, 5,425 years.

 [Ol. 174.3] Ptolemy the new Dionysus, who was also called Auletes, the son of Ptolemy Physcon called Soter, and the brother of Cleopatra, became the 11th king of Egypt, for 30 years. In total, 5,455 years.

[452'A] [Ol. 176.2] Aristobulus became the 20th high priest at Jerusalem, for one year. In total, 453 years.

This Aristobulus, the son of Jonathan Hyrcanus, was the first to assume the royal diadem as well as the title of high priest. He reigned for one year, in the [527th] year from the start of the Babylonian captivity.

 [Ol. 176.3] Jannaeus, who was also called Alexander, became the 20th high priest, and king as well, for 30 years. In total, 483 years. He was a very cruel ruler.

It should be noted from this that the succession of the kings of Judaea had come to an end. After the death of Zorobabel who was of the tribe of Judah, following the return from captivity, the predicted succession did not occur until the advent of Christ, so that the promised Christ was looked for from that time onwards. Therefore the saints, who expected to see the advent of Christ appearing in the flesh, deservedly found what they desired. They understood that, after the death of Zorobabel,  the saying [Genesis_49'10] "The sceptre will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until he comes to whom it belongs, and the obedience of the nations is his" would clearly be fulfilled by the birth in the flesh of the Christ. For this reason, as I think, the disciples of Christ who were learned in the law said [? John_1'41]: " We have found the Messiah, that is the Christ, about whom Moses and our prophets wrote".

Virgilius was born.

[453'A] [Ol. 178.1] Pompeius, who had been appointed general of the Romans for the second time, attacked and besieged Jerusalem. He entered as far as the "adyta", that is the Holy of holies of the temple, and despoiled the temple, seizing many treasures from it. He led back Aristobulus and his children as captives to Rome.

[Ol. 178.3] Pompeius the Great captured Jerusalem and despoiled the temple. He took away the Holy Scriptures,  the vessels, the golden engravings, the golden vine, the couch of Solomon and many other holy objects.

He handed over the position of high priest to Hyrcanus, the son of Alexander and Alexandra Salina, and appointed a certain Antipater of Ascalon to govern Palestine. He forced the entire nation of the Jews to become tributary to the Romans, and led off many of them as captives to the senate at Rome.

Hyrcanus rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem, which had been destroyed by Pompeius.

 [Ol. 179.2] The inhabitants of Philadelphia count their era from this year.

[Ol. 179.3] Pompeius the Great was proclaimed supreme leader of the Romans, and he laid the foundations of a theatre at Rome.

[Ol. 179.4] The inhabitants of Gaza count their era from this year.

[456'A] [Ol. 180.2] The orator Cicero was recalled from exile after 16 months.

Ptolemy the new Dionysus, who was also called Auletes, fled to Rome.

[Ol. 180.3] Gaius Julius Caesar waged war against the Greeks.

[Ol. 180.4] Pompeius the Great dedicated the theatre which he had built, and celebrated games in it, with [40] elephants, 300 cavalrymen, 800 foot-soldiers, and 1,000 gladiators,  including an elephant-fight.

[Ol. 182.2] Cleopatra, the daughter of Ptolemy the new Dionysus, became the 12th [ruler] of Egypt, for 22 years. In total, 5,477 years.

 The domination of Gaius Julius Caesar, Pompeius, and Lepidus [at Rome].

Gaius Julius Caesar returned to Rome after completing the conquest of Gaul.

[Ol. 183.1] Pansa and Hirtius were consuls.

Gaius Julius Caesar was appointed to be the first emperor of the Romans.

[457'A] Up to this point, the Roman government was administered by Brutus, Collatinus, and the other consuls who followed them, for 393 years up until the year of these consuls, which was the 5th year of Cleopatra and the first year of Gaius Julius Caesar.

The dictator Julius Caesar was not born in the normal way, but after his mother died in the ninth month [of pregnancy] she was cut open and the baby was pulled out. Therefore the baby was called Caesar, which in Latin means "cut out". When he had grown up and shown great bravery, he was created triumvir along with Pompeius and Crassus, who were ex-consuls, in the first year of this 180th Olympiad, and the government of Rome was controlled by these three men.

 After the death of Crassus, who was killed by the Persians in a battle fought in the region of Persia, the dictator Caesar remained with his army to fight in the west. Then he was removed from the office of consul, or triumvir, by the decree of the whole Roman senate, with the agreement of his father-in-law Pompeius the Great. Angered by this, Julius Caesar established a tyranny over the Romans. He waged war against the Romans, and attacked Pompeius the Great and the Roman senate. After marching on Rome and capturing it, he killed the senators.

This Julius Caesar, as dictator or emperor, ruled over everyone in an arrogant and tyrannical fashion for 4 years and 7 months, from 12th May of the first indiction.  In Antioch the Great the freedom of the city, after it had come under Roman control, was proclaimed on the 20th day of the month of Artemisius, as authorised by Julius Caesar. And this Julius Caesar was proclaimed dictator in Antioch the Great on the 23rd day of the same month of Artemisius. [460'A] In commemoration of this event, the first year of the era of Antioch the Great and the first year of the 15-year cycle of indictions are counted from the first year of the reign of Gaius Julius Caesar.

[Ol. 183.2] Gaius Julius Caesar was the first emperor of the Romans. In his reign the Roman state prospered, and the rulers after him were called Caesars. He was consul and the first emperor of the Romans. He was an excellent orator.

The start of the indictions:

The inhabitants of Antioch count their era from the 12th day of the month of Artemisius in the first year of Gaius Julius Caesar, which was the year of the consuls Lepidus and Plancus, [461'A] and the beginning of the indictions is counted from the first day of the month of Gorpiaeus.

[Ol. 183.3] Antonius and Isauricus were consuls.

The inhabitants of Laodiceia count their era from this year.

In the year of these consuls, a war against the Isauri took place.

The consul Antonius decreed that the month of Quintilis should be called July, because [Julius Caesar] was born in that month.

 Julius Caesar added 11 days to this year, to be in line with the course of the sun and the moon.

[Ol. 183.4] In the third year of his reign, Julius Caesar fought against Scipio and the high priest Hyrcanus. He routed them, and held celebratory games for six days.

These are the high priests who held office [464'A] after the return from the 70 years' captivity, that is from the 8th year of Dareius the son of Hystaspes, which was the second year of the 63rd Olympiad:

The annointed leaders lasted from the time of Cyrus up to this year for 483 years, which is 69 "sevens" of years, as was foretold by the prophet Daniel as follows [9'25]: "Know and understand this. From the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until the Anointed One, the ruler, comes, there will be seven 'sevens' and sixty-two 'sevens' ".

 After the native Jewish high priests and kings had come to an end, the foreigner Herodes became king. [465'A] He was the son of Antipater of Ascalon and Cypris of Arabia. He was granted the kingdom of the Jews by the Romans, at the time when, as the birth of Christ drew near, the traditional succession of the high priests and kings of the Jews came to an end, in fulfilment of the prophecy of Moses [Gen_49'10]: "The sceptre will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until he comes to whom it belongs, and the obedience of the nations is his."

At this time the annointed leader that had been predicted by Daniel came to an end, because up until the time of Herodes the leaders had been annointed. These were the high priests, who ruled over the nation starting from the completion of the restoration of the temple in the reign of Dareius son of Hystaspes,  which happened in the second year of the [183rd] Olympiad. The intervening period was 483 years, which is 69 "sevens" of years, the same figure which was pronounced in the prophecy of Daniel.

[Ol. 184.1] Sallustius died on May 13th.

[Ol. 184.2] Gaius Julius Caesar returned and was killed in Rome by the second Brutus and some other senators.

 After the death of Gaius Julius Caesar, the senate chose Octavius Augustus, a relative of Caesar, Antonius, the husband of Augustus' sister, and Lepidus. These three became triumvirs, with authority to govern the Roman state until their death and to nominate the consuls.

[Ol. 184.3] Caesar Augustus, also called Octavius, became the second emperor of the Romans, for 56 years and 6 months. He reigned for 12 years before the death of Cleopatra, and for another 30 years after her death when he conquered Egypt, until our Lord [468'A] Jesus Christ was born in the flesh at Bethlehem in Judaea. After this, it is clear that he reigned for a further 14 years. In total, 5,521 years.

Agrippa and Gallus were consuls.

By a decree of the senate, the triumvirs divided the world between them. Firstly, Caesar Augustus was given the west with Italy; secondly, Antonius was given the east with Asia; and thirdly, Lepidus was given Africa.

The Roman emperors were called Augusti after this Augustus.

In the year of these consuls, the orator Cicero died on May 1st.

 [Ol. 184.4] There was an eclipse of the sun.

Herodes summoned a certain Ananelus from Babylon, and appointed him to be high priest of the Jews. Soon afterwards he deposed Ananelus and gave the title of high priest to his wife's brother, Aristobulus the son of Hyrcanus. A year later he killed Aristobulus, and made Ananelus high priest again.

 [Ol. 185.4] There was an eclipse of the sun.

[469'A] [Ol. 186.2] Antipater of Ascalon, the son of a certain Herodes who was an attendant at the temple of Apollo, had assisted Hyrcanus the king of the Jews in many matters, and was appointed by Herodes to be governor of Judaea.

In the 8th year of Augustus Caesar, the Romans gave the kingdom of Judaea to Herodes the son of Antipater and of Cypris, an Arabian woman.  Herodes killed Hyrcanus and bestowed the high priesthood not according to the traditional succession, but to some insignificant men.

Herodes was king of the Jews for 37 years. In his 35th year, Jesus Christ was born at Bethlehem in Judaea.

After Herodes, his son Archelaus [was king] for 9 years.

 After him, Herodes the tetrarch, the brother of Archelaus, [was king] for 28 years. In his reign, Christ our Lord and Saviour suffered [on the cross].

[Ol. 187.1] Octavius was given the name Augustus, and the month of Sextilis was renamed to August, because it was in that month that he was given the name Augustus.

[472'A] [Ol. 187.2] The Egyptians and Cleopatra wielded great power. Cleopatra built the Pharus [lighthouse] at Alexandria the Great on the so-called island of Proteus. Because the island is four miles off the shore of Alexandria, she constructed a causeway of earth and stones out to sea so that men could walk out as far as the island and the Pharus. Dexiphanes of Cnidus was the engineer who carried out this awesome task for her,  turning the sea into land. When the Romans learnt of the power of the Egyptians and Cleopatra, Antonius left Rome and led an army against Cleopatra and the Egyptians, and as far as the region of Persia, because they were causing turmoil in the East.

Sosibius says that at this time a certain senator of Antioch who had returned to Rome with Augustus, died and bequeathed his wealth to his home city, on condition that every five years, for the thirty days of the month of Peritius, they should hold contests there of recitation, theatre, drama and athletics, as well as horse races.

[473'A] Sosibius also says that Augustus was the first emperor of the Romans, and used the following titles: "Augustus Caesar Octavianus, triumphator, Augustus, unconquered, imperator (that is, emperor)."

Augustus invaded Egypt and conquered it. He put an end to the kingdom of the Ptolemaei, which had lasted for 296 years.

[Ol. 187.3] Augustus Octavius was sole emperor for 44 years. In total, 5,521 years.

Some reckon this as the first year of Augustus' reign.  The comparison to a statue in the book of Daniel [2'40] calls the Roman empire a kingdom of iron, as if weakening. The Babylonian empire is gold, the Persian empire is silver, and the Macedonian empire is bronze. Daniel [2'33] says that part of the statue was of iron, and part was of clay; which signifies the conjunction of the empire of the Romans and the kingdom of the Egyptians, because the Roman empire is iron and the Egyptian kingdom is clay.

[Another list of Jewish high priests appears later in the chronicle ...]

[508'C] [Ol. 201.4]

[John the Baptist] when he saw Jesus approaching him, said "Behold the Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world".

The high priests who were leaders of the Jews, or Hebrews, after the return from Babylon to Jerusalem:

The annointed leaders lasted from Cyrus the king of the Persians up until Jannaeus Alexander, for 483 years, which is 69 "sevens" of years, which were foretold by Daniel in this way.

Until Jannaeus, who was also called Alexander, there were annointed leaders; but with him the succession of high priests who led the nation came to an end. They were called Christs by the prophets.

Attalus' home page   |   27.02.18   |   Any comments?