Pliny,   Natural History

-   Book 5 ,   sections 75-151

Translated by H.Rackham (1952), with some minor alterations. Click on the L symbols to go to the Latin text of each chapter.

In this web version, many of the place names have been altered to reproduce the Latin spellings - for instance, 'Massilia' instead of 'Marseilles'. Wherever possible, links are provided to further information about the places.

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{17.} L   [75] From this point we must go back to the coast and to Phoenicia. There was formerly a town called Crocodilon, and there is still a river of that name; and the cities of Dora and Sycaminum, of which only the memory exists. Then comes Cape Carmel, and on a mountain the town of the same name, formerly called Acbatana. Next are Getta, Geba, and the river Pacida or Belus, which covers its narrow bank with sand of a kind used for making glass; the river itself flows out of the marsh of Cendebia at the foot of Mount Carmel. Close to this river is Ptolemais, a colony of the Emperor Claudius, formerly called Acce; and then the town of Ecdippa, and the White Cape. [76] Next Tyre, once an island separated from the mainland by a very deep sea-channel 700 yards wide, but now joined to it by the works constructed by Alexander when besieging the place, and formerly famous as the mother-city from which sprang the cities of Leptis, Utica and the great rival of Rome's empire in coveting world-sovereignty, Carthage, and also Gades, which she founded outside the confines of the world; but the entire renown of Tyre now consists in a shell-fish and a purple dye! The circumference of the city, including Old Tyre on the coast, measures 19 miles, the actual town covering 2 miles. Next are Sarepta and Ornithon, and the mother-city of Thebes in Boeotia, Sidon, where glass is made.

[77] Behind Sidon begins Mount Libanus, a chain extending as far as Zimyra in the district called Coele-Syria, a distance of nearly 190 miles. Facing Libanus, with a valley between, stretches the equally long range of Antilibanus, which was formerly connected with Lebanon by a wall. Behind Antilibanus inland is the region of the Decapolis, and with it the tetrarchies already mentioned, and the whole of the wide expanse of Palestine; [78] while on the coast, below Mount Libanus, are the river Magoras, the colony of Berytus called Julia Felix, the town of Leontes, the river Lycus, Palaebyblos, the river Adonis, the towns of Byblos, Botrys, Gigarta, Trieris, Calamos; Tripolis, inhabited by people from Tyre, Sidon and Aradus; Orthosia, the river Eleutheros, the towns of Zimyra and Marathos; and facing them the seven-stades town and island of Aradus, 330 paces from the mainland; the region in which the mountain ranges above mentioned terminate; and beyond some intervening plains Mount Bargylus.

{18.} L   [79] At this point Phoenicia ends and Syria begins again. There are the towns of Carne, Balanea, Paltos and Gabala; the cape on which the free town of Laodicea is situated; and Dipolis, Heraclea, Charadrus and Posidium. Then the cape of Antiochian Syria, and inland the city of Antioch itself, which is a free town and is called 'Antioch Near Daphne,' and which is separated from Daphne by the river Orontes; while on the cape is the free town of Seleucia, called Pieria. [80] Above Seleucia is a mountain having the same name as the other one, Casius, which is so extremely lofty that in the fourth quarter of the night it commands a view of the sun rising through the darkness, so presenting to the observer if he merely turns round a view of day and night simultaneously. The winding route to the summit measures 19 miles, the perpendicular height of the mountain being 4 miles. On the coast is the river Orontes, which rises between Libanus and Antilibanus, near Heliopolis. The towns are Rhosos, - and behind it the pass called the Gates of Syria, in between the Rhosos Mountains and Mount Taurus, - and on the coast the town of Myriandros, and Mount Amanus, on which is the town of Bomitae. This mountain separates Cilicia from Syria.

{19.} L   [81] Now let us speak of the places inland. Coele-Syria contains the town of Apamea, separated by the river Marsyas from the tetrarchy of the Nazerini; Bambyce, which is also named the Holy City, but which the Syrians call Mabog - here the monstrous goddess Atargatis, the Greek name for whom is Derceto, is worshipped; the place called Chalcis on Belus, which gives its name to the region of Chalcidene, a most fertile part of Syria; and then, belonging to Cyrrhestica, Cyrrhus, Gazetae, Gindaros and Gabeni; the two tetrarchies called Granucomatitae; the Hemeseni, the Hylatae, the Ituraei tribe and a branch of them called the Baethaemi; the Mariamnitani; [82] the tetrarchy called Mammisea; Paradisus, Pagrae, Penelenitae; two places called Seleucia in addition to the place of that name already mentioned, Seleucia on the Euphrates and Seleucia on Belus; and the Tardytenses. The remainder of Syria (excepting the parts that will be spoken of with the Euphrates) contains the Arethusians, the Beroeans, the Epiphanians on the Orontes, the Laodiceans by Libanus, the Leucadii and the Larisaeans, besides seventeen tetrarchies divided into kingdoms and bearing barbarian names.

{20.} L   [83] A description of the Euphrates also will come most suitably at this place. It rises in Caranitis, a prefecture of Greater Armenia, as has been stated by two of the persons who have seen it nearest to its source - Domitius Corbulo putting its source in Mount Aga and Licinius Mucianus at the roots of a mountain the name of which he gives as Capotes, twelve miles above Zimara. Near its source the river is called Pyxurates. Its course divides first the Derzene region of Armenia and then the Anaetic from Cappadocia. [84] Dascusa is 75 miles from Zimara; and from Dascusa the river is navigable to Sartona, a distance of 50 miles, to Melitene in Cappadocia 24 miles, and to Elegea in Armenia 10 miles, receiving the tributary streams Lycus, Arsania and Arsanus. At Elegea it encounters Mount Taurus, which however does not bar its passage although forming an extremely powerful barrier 12 miles broad. The river is called the Omma where it forces its way into the range, and later, where it emerges, the Euphrates; beyond the range also it is full of rocks and has a violent current. [85] From this point it forms the frontier between the district of Arabia called the country of the Orroei on the left and Commagene on the right, its breadth being three cables' length, although even where it forces its passage through the Taurus range it permits of a bridge. At Claudiopolis in Cappadocia it directs its course towards the west; and there for the first time in this combat Mount Taurus carries the stream out of its course, and though conquered and cleft in twain gains the victory in another manner by breaking its career and forcing it to take a southerly direction. Thus this duel of nature becomes a drawn battle, the river reaching the goal of its choice but the mountain preventing it from reaching it by the course of its choice. After passing the Cataracts the stream is again navigable; and 40 miles from this point is Samosata the capital of Commagene.

{21.} L   [86] Arabia above mentioned contains the towns Edessa, which was formerly called Antiochia, Callirrhoe, named from its spring, and Carrhae, famous for the defeat of Crassus there. Adjoining it is the prefecture of Mesopotamia, which derives its origin from the Assyrians and in which are the towns of Anthemusia and Nicephorium. Then comes the Arab tribe called the Praetavi, whose capital is Singara. Below Samosata, on the Syrian side, the river Marsyas flows into the Euphrates. At Cingilla the territory of Commagene ends and state of the Imenei begins. The towns washed by the river are Epiphania and Antioch (called Antioch on the Euphrates), and also Zeugma, 72 miles from Samosata, famous as a place where the Euphrates can be crossed, Apamea on the opposite bank being joined to it by a bridge constructed by Seleucus, the founder of both towns. [87] The people contiguous to Mesopotamia are called the Rhoali. In Syria are the town of Europus and the town formerly called Thapsacus and now Amphipolis, and an Arab tribe of Scenitae. So the river flows on to the place named Sura, where it takes a turn to the east and leaves the Syrian desert of Palmyra which stretches right on to the city of Petra and the region called Arabia Felix.

[88] Palmyra is a city famous for its situation, for the richness of its soil and for its agreeable springs; its fields are surrounded on every side by a vast circuit of sand, and it is as it were isolated by Nature from the world, having a destiny of its own between the two mighty empires of Rome and Parthia, and at the first moment of a quarrel between them always attracting the attention of both sides. It is 337 miles distant from Parthian Seleucia, generally known as Seleucia on the Tigris, 203 miles from the nearest part of the Syrian coast, and 27 miles less from Damascus.

[89] Below the Desert of Palmyra is the district of Stelendena, and Hierapolis, Beroea and Chalcis already mentioned. Beyond Palmyra also a part of this desert is claimed by Hemesa, and a part by Elatium, which is half as far as Damascus is from Petra. Quite near to Sura is the Parthian town of Philiscum on the Euphrates; from Philiscum to Seleucia is a voyage of ten days, and about the same to Babylon. [90] At a point 594 miles from Zeugma, the Euphrates divides round the village of Masice, the left branch passing through Seleucia itself into Mesopotamia and falling into the Tigris as it flows round that city, while the right-hand channel makes for  Babylon, the former capital of Chaldea, and passing through the middle of it, and also through the city called Mothris, spreads out into marshes. Like the Nile, the Euphrates also increases in volume at fixed periods with little variation, and floods Mesopotamia when the sun has reached the 20th degree of the Crab; but when the sun has passed through the Lion and entered Virgo it begins to sink, and when the sun is in the 29th degree of Virgo it returns to its channel entirely.

{22.} L   [91] But let us return to the coast of Syria, adjoining which is Cilicia. Here are the river Diaphanes, Mount Crocodilus, the Gates of Mount Amanus, the rivers Androcus, Pinarus and Lycus, the Gulf of Issos, the town of Issos, likewise Alexandria, the river Chlorus, the free town of Aegaeae, the river Pyramus, the Cilician Gates, the towns of Mallos and Magirsos and in the interior Tarsus, the Aleian Plains, the towns of Casyponis, Mopsos (a free town on the river Pyramus), Tyros, Zephyrium and Anchiale; [92] and the rivers Saros and Cydnos, the latter cutting through the free city of Tarsus at a great distance from the sea; the district of Celenderitis with its town, the place Nymphaeum, Soloi of Cilicia now Pompeiopolis, Adana, Cibyra, Pinare, Pedalie, Alae, Selinus, Arsinoe, Iotape, Dorion, and on the coast Corycos, there being a town and harbour and cave of the same name. Then the river Calycadnus, Cape Sarpedon, the towns of Holmoe and Myle, and the promontory and town of Venus, a short distance from which lies the island of Cyprus. [93] On the mainland are the towns of Mysanda, Anemurium and Coracesium and the river Melas, the former boundary of Cilicia. Places worthy of mention in the interior are Anazarbus (the present Caesarea), Augusta, Castabala, Epiphania (previously called Oeniandos), Eleusa, Iconium, and beyond the river Calycadnus Seleucia, called Seleucia Tracheotis, a city moved from the seashore, where it used to be called Hermia. Besides these there are in the interior the rivers Liparis, Bombos and Paradisus, and Mount Imbarus.

{23.} L   [94] All the authorities have made Pamphylia join on to Cilicia, overlooking the people of Isauria. The inland towns of Isauria are Isaura, Clibanus and Lalasis; it runs down to the sea over against Anemurium above mentioned. Similarly all who have written on the same subject have ignored the tribe of the Omanades bordering on Isauria, whose town of Omana is in the interior. There are 44 other fortresses lying hidden among rugged valleys.

{24.} L   The crest of the mountains is occupied by the Pisidians, formerly called the Solymi, to whom belong the colony of Caesarea also named Antioch and the towns of Oroanda and Sagalessos.

{25.} L   [95] The Pisidians are bordered by Lycaonia, included in the jurisdiction of the province of Asia, which is also the centre for the peoples of Philomelium, Tymbriada, Leucolithium, Pelta and Tyriaeum. To that jurisdiction is also assigned a tetrarchy that forms part of Lycaonia in the division adjoining Galatia, consisting of 14 states, the most famous city being Iconium. Notable places belonging to Lycaonia itself are Thebasa on Mount Taurus and Ida on the frontier between Galatia and Cappadocia. At the side of Lycaonia, beyond Pamphylia, come the Milyae, a tribe of Thracian descent; their town is Arycanda.

{26.} L   [96] Pamphylia was previously called Mopsopia. The Pamphylian Sea joins on to the Sea of Cilicia. Pamphylia includes the towns of Side and, on the mountain, Aspendus, Plantanistus and Perga, Cape Leucolla and Mount Sardemisus; its rivers are the Eurymedon flowing past Aspendus and the Catarrhactes on which are Lyrnessus and Oibia and Phaselis, the last place on the coast.

{27.} L   [97] Adjoining Pamphylia are the Sea of Lycia and the Lycian tribe, at the point where Mount Taurus coming from the Eastern shores forms the Chelidonian Promontory as a boundary between vast bays. It is itself an immense range, and holds the balance between a countless number of tribes; its right-hand side, where it first rises out of the Indian Ocean, faces north, and its left-hand side faces south; it also stretches westward, and would divide Asia in two at the middle, were it not that in dominating the land it encounters the opposition of seas. It therefore recoils in a northerly direction, and forming a curve starts on an immense route, Nature as it were designedly throwing seas in its way at intervals, here the Phoenician Sea, here the Black Sea, there the Caspian and the Hyrcanian, and opposite to them the Maeotis. [98] Consequently owing to their impact the mountain twists about between these obstacles, and nevertheless sinuously emerging victorious reaches the kindred ranges of the Ripaean Mountains. The range is designated by a number of names, receiving new ones at each point in its advance: its first portion is called Imaus, then Emodus, Paropanisus, Circius, Cambades, Pariades, Choatras, Oreges, Oroandes, Niphates, Taurus, and where it overtops even itself, Caucasus, while where it occasionally throws out arms as if trying to invade the sea, it becomes Sarpedon, Coracesius, Cragus, and once again Taurus; [99] and even where it gapes open and makes a passage for mankind, nevertheless claiming for itself an unbroken continuity by giving to these passes the name of Gates: in one place they are called the Armenian Gates, in another the Caspian, and in another the Cilician. Moreover when it has been cut short in its career, retiring also from the sea, it fills itself on either side with the names of numerous races, on the right-hand side being called the Hyrcanian Mountain and the Caspian, and on the left the Parihedrian, Moschian, Amazonian, Coraxian, Scythian; whereas in Greek it is called throughout the whole of its course the Ceraunian Mountain.

{28.} L   [100] In Lycia therefore after leaving the promontory of Mount Taurus we have the town of Simena, Mount Chimaera, which sends forth flames at night, and the city-state of Hephaestium, which also has a mountain range that is often on fire. The town of Olympus stood here, and there are now the mountain villages of Gagae, Corydalla and Rhodiopolis, and near the sea Limyra with the river of which the Arycandus is a tributary, and Mount Masicitus, the city-state of Andria, Myra, the towns of Aperlae and Antiphellos formerly called Habesos, and in a corner Phellos. Then comes Pyrrha, and also Xanthus 15 miles from the sea, and the river of the same name; and then Patara, previously Pataros, and Sidyma on its mountain, and Cape Cragus. [101] Beyond Cape Cragus is a bay as large as the one before; here are Pinara and Telmessus, the frontier town of Lycia. Lycia formerly contained 70 towns, but now it has 36; of these the most famous besides those mentioned above are Canas, Candyba the site of the famous grove of Eunia, Podalia, Choma past which flows the Aedesa, Cyaneae, Ascandiandalis, Amelas, Noscopium, Tlos, Telandrus. It includes also in its interior Cabalia, with its three cities, Oenianda, Balbura and Bubon. [102] After Telmessus begins the Asiatic or Carpathian Sea, and Asia properly so called. Agrippa divided this country into two parts. One of these he enclosed on the east by Phrygia and Lycaonia, on the west by the Aegean Sea, on the south by the Egyptian Sea, and on the north by Paphlagonia; the length of this part he made 470 miles and the breadth 320 miles. The other half he bounded on the east by Lesser Armenia, on the west by Phrygia, Lycaonia and Pamphylia, on the north by the Province of Pontus and on the south by the Pamphylian Sea, making it 575 miles long and 325 miles broad.

{29.} L   [103] On the adjoining coast is Caria and then Ionia and beyond it Aeolis. Caria entirely surrounds Doris, encircling it right down to the sea on both sides. In Caria are Cape Pedalium and the river Glaucus, with its tributary the Telmedius, the towns of Daedala and Crya, the latter a settlement of refugees, the river Axon, and the town of Calynda. The river Indus, rising in the mountains of the Cibyratae, receives as tributaries 60 streams that are constantly flowing and more than 100 mountain torrents. [104] There is the free town of Caunos, and then Pyrnos, Port Cressa, from which the island of Rhodes is 20 miles distant, the place Loryma, the towns of Tisanusa, Paridon and Larymna, Thymnias Bay, Cape Aphrodisias, the town of Hydas, Schoenus Bay, and the district of Bubassus; there was formerly a town Acanthus, otherwise named Dulopolis. On a promontory stand the free city of Cnidus, Triopia, and then Pegusa, also called Stadia. After Pegusa begins Doris.

[105] But before we go on it may be as well to describe the back parts of Caria and the jurisdictions of the interior. One of these is called Cibyratica; the actual town of Cibyra belongs to Phrygia, and is the centre for 25 city-states, the most famous being the city of Laodicea. Laodicea is on the river Lycus, its sides being washed by the Asopus and the Caprus; its original name was the Diospolis, and it was afterwards called Rhoas. The rest of the peoples belonging to the same jurisdiction whom it may not be amiss to mention are the Hydrelitae, Themisones and Hierapolitae. Another centre has received its name from Synnada; it is the centre for the Lycaones, Appiani, Corpeni, Dorylaei, Midaei, Julienses and 15 other peoples of no note. [106] A third jurisdiction centres at Apamea, previously called Celaenae, and then Cybotos; Apamea is situated at the foot of Mount Signia, with the rivers Marsyas, Obrima and Orba, tributaries of the Maeander, flowing round it; the Marsyas here emerges from underground, and buries itself again a little later. Aulocrene is the place where Marsyas had a contest in flute-playing with Apollo: it is the name given to a gorge 10 miles from Apamea, on the way to Phrygia. Out of this jurisdiction it would be proper to name the Metropolitae, Dionysopolitae, Euphorbeni, Acmonenses, Pelteni and Silbiani; and there are nine remaining tribes of no note.

[107] On the Gulf of Doris are Leucopolis, Hamaxitos, Eleus, Etene; then there are the Carian towns of Pitaium, Eutane and Halicarnassus. To the jurisdiction of Halicarnassus six towns were assigned by Alexander the Great, Theangela, Side, Medmassa, Uranium, Pedasum and Telmisum; the last is situated between two bays, those of Ceramus and Iasus. Next we come to Myndus and the former site of Old Myndus, Nariandos, Neapolis, Caryanda, the free town Termera, Bargylia and Iasus, the town that gives its name to the bay. [108] Caria is especially distinguished for the famous list of places in its interior, for here are Mylasa, a free town, and Antiochia which occupies the sites of the former towns, of Symmaethus and Cranaos; it is now surrounded by the rivers Maeander and Orsinus. This region formerly also contained Maeandropolis; in it are Eumenia on the river Cludrus, the river Glaueus, the town of Lysias, and Orthosia, the district of Berecynthus, Nysa, and Trallis also called Euanthia and Seleucia and Antiochia. It is washed by the river Eudon and the Thebais flows through it; [109] some record that a race of Pygmies formerly lived in it. There are also Thydonos, Pyrrha, Eurome, Heraclea, Amyzon, the free town of Alabanda which has given its name to this jurisdiction, the free town of Stratonicea, Labrayndos, Ceramus, Troezene and Phorontis. At a greater distance but resorting to the same centre for jurisdiction are the Orthronienses, Alindienses, Euhippini, Xystiani, Hydissenses, Apolloniatae, Trapezopolitae and Aphrodisienses, a free people. Besides these places there are Coscinus and Harpasa, the latter on the river Harpasus, which also passes the site of the former town of Trallicon.

{30.} L   [110] Lydia, bathed by the ever-returning sinuosities of the river Maeander, extends above Ionia; it is bordered by Phrygia to the east and Mysia to the north, and with its southern portion it embraces Caria. It was previously called Maeonia. It is specially famous for the city of Sardis, situated on the vine-clad side of Mount Tmolus, the former name of which was Timolus. From Tmolus flows the Pactolus, also called the Chrysorrhoas, and the source of the Tarnus; and the city-state of Sardis itself, which is famous for the Gygaean Lake, used to be called Hyde by the people of Maeonia. [111] This jurisdiction is now called the district of Sardis, and besides the people before-named it is the centre for the Macedonian Cadieni, the Philadelphini, and the Maeonii themselves who are situated on the river Cogamus at the foot of Mount Tmolus, the Tripolitani, also called Antoniopolitae - their territory is washed by the river Maeander - the Apollonhieritae, the Mysotimolitae and other people of no note.

{31.} L   [112] At the Gulf of Iasus Ionia begins. It has a winding coast, with a rather large number of bays. The first is the Royal Bay, then the cape and town of Posideum, and the shrine once called the oracle of the Branchidae, now that of Didymaean Apollo, 4 miles from the coast; and 24 miles from it. Miletus, the capital of Ionia, which formerly bore the names of Lelegeis and Pityusa and Anactoria, the mother of over 90 cities scattered over all the seas; nor must she be robbed of her claim to Cadmus as her citizen, the author who originated composition in prose. [113] From the mountain lake of Aulocrene rises the river Maeander, which washes a large number of cities and is replenished by frequent tributaries; its windings are so tortuous that it is often believed to turn and flow backwards. It first wanders through the region of Apamea, afterwards that of Eumenia, and then the plains of Hyrgale, and finally the country of Caria, its tranquil waters irrigating all these regions with mud of a most fertilising quality; and it glides gently into the sea a mile and a quarter from Miletus. Next comes Mount Latmus, the towns of Heraclea belonging to the mountain so designated in the Carian dialect, Myus which is recorded to have been first founded by Ionian emigrants from Athens, Naulochum, and Priene. At the part of the coast called Troglea is the river Gessus. The district is sacred with all Ionians, and is consequently called Panionia. [114] Next there was formerly a town founded by refugees - as its name Phygela indicates - and another called Marathesium. Above these places is Magnesia, distinguished by the name of Magnesia on Maeander, an offshoot from Magnesia in Thessaly; it is 15 miles from Ephesus, and 3 miles more from Tralles. It previously had the names of Thessaloche and Androlitia. Being situated on the coast it has appropriated the Derasides islands from the sea. Inland also is Thyatira, washed by the Lycus; once it was called Pelopian or Euhippian Thyatira.

[115] On the coast again is Matium, and Ephesus built by the Amazons, previously designated by many namesthat of Alope at the time of the Trojan War, later Ortygia and Amorge; it was also called Smyrna Trachia and Haemonion and Ptelea. It is built on the slope of Mount Pion, and is watered by the Cayster, which rises in the Cilbian range and brings down the waters of many streams, and also drains the Pegasaean Marsh, an overflow of the river Phyrites. From these comes a quantity of mud which advances the coastline and has now joined the island of Syrie on to the mainland by the flats interposed. In the city of Ephesus is the spring called Callippia, and a temple of Diana surrounded by two streams, both called Selinus, coming from different directions.

[116] After leaving Ephesus there is another Matium, which belongs to Colophon, and Colophon itself lying more inland, on the river Halesus. Then the temple of Clarian Apollo, Lebedos - formerly there was also the town of Notium - Cape Cyrenaeum, and Mount Mimas which projects 150 miles into the sea and slopes down into the plains adjoining. It was here that Alexander the Great had given orders for a canal 7 miles long to be cut across the level ground in question so as to join the two bays and to make an island of Erythrae with Mimas. [117] Near  Erythrae were formerly the towns of Pteleon, Helos and Dorion, and there is now the river Aleon, Corynaeum the promontory of Mimas, Clazomenae, and Parthenie and Hippi, which were called the Chytrophoria when they were islands; these Alexander also ordered to be joined to the mainland by a causeway a quarter of a mile in length. Places in the interior that exist no longer were Daphnus and Hermesta and Sipylum previously called Tantalis, the capital of Maeonia, situated where there is now the marsh named Sale; Archaeopolis which replaced Sipylum has also perished, and later Colpe which replaced Archaeopolis and Libade which replaced Colpe.

[118] On returning thence to the coast, at a distance of 12 miles we come to  Smyrna, founded by an Amazon and restored by Alexander; it is refreshed by the river Meles which rises not far off. The mast famous mountains of Asia mostly lie in this district: Mastusia behind Smyrna and Termes, joining on to the roots of Olympus, ends, and is followed by Mount Draco, Draco by Tmolus, Tmolus by Cadmus, and that range by Taurus. [119] After Smyrna the river Hermus forms level plains to which it gives its name. It rises at the Phrygian city-state of Dorylaum, and has many tributary rivers, among them the Phryx which forms the frontier between the race to which it gives its name and Caria, and the Hyllus and the Gryos, themselves also augmented by the rivers of Phrygia, Mysia and Lydia. At the mouth of the Hermus there was once the town of Temnos, and now at the end of the bay are the rocks called the Ants, the town of Leucae on a headland that was formerly an island, and Phocaea, the frontier town of Ionia. [120] The jurisdiction of Smyrna is also the centre resorted to by a large part of Aeolis which will now be described, and also by the Macedonians called Hyrcani and the Magnesians from Sipylus. But Ephesus, the other great luminary of Asia, is the centre for the Caesarienses, Metropolitae, Upper and Lower Cilbiani, Mysomacedones, Mastaurenses, Briullitae, Hypaepeni and Dioshieritae.

{32.} L   [121] Next is Aeolis, once called Mysia, and Troas lying on the coast of the Hellespont. Here after passing Phocaea we come to Port Ascanius, and then to the place where once stood Larisa and where now are Cyme, Myrina which styles itself Sebastopolis, and inland Aegaeae, Itale, Posidea, Neon Teichos, Temnos. On the coast are the river Titanus and the city-state named after it, and also once there was Grynia, now only a harbour, formerly an island that had been joined to the mainland; the town of Elaea and the river Caicus coming from Mysia; the town of Pitane; the river Canaitis. [122] Canae has disappeared, as have Lysimachea, Atarnea, Carene, Cisthene, Cilla, Cocylium, Thebe, Astyre, Chrysa, Palaescepsis, Gergith, Neandros; but there still exist the city-state of Perperene, the district of Heracleotes, the town of Coryphas, the rivers Grylios and Ollius, the district of Aphrodisias which was formerly Politice Orgas, the district of Scepsis, and the river Euenus, on the banks of which stood Lyrnesus and Miletos, both now in ruins. In this region is Mount Mount_Ida_(Turkey) Ida, and on the coast Adramytteos, formerly called Pedasus, which has given its name to the bay and to the jurisdiction, and the rivers Astron, Cormalos, Crianos, Alabastros, and Holy River coming from Mount Ida; inland are Mount Gargara and the town of the same name. [123] On the coast again are Antandros previously called Edonis, then Cimmeris, and Assos, which is the same as Apollonia; and formerly there was also the town of Palamedium. Then Cape Lectum which marks the frontier between Aeolis and the Troad; also there was once the city-state of Polymedia, and Chrysa and another Larisa: the temple of Zmintheus still stands. Colone inland has disappeared. Adramytteum is resorted to for legal business by the people of Apollonia on the river Rhyndaeus, the Eresi, Miletopolitae, Poemaneni, Macedonian Asculacae, Polichnaei, Pionitae, the Cilician Mandacandeni, the Mysian peoples known as the Abretteni and the Hellespontii, and others of no note.

{33.} L   [124] The first place in the Troad is Hamaxitus, then comes Cebrenia, and then Troas itself, formerly called Antigonia and now Alexandria, a Roman colony; the town of Nee; the navigable river Scamander; and on a promontory was formerly the town of Sigeum. Then the Harbour of the Achaeans, into which flows the Xanthus united with the Simois, and the Palaescamander, which previously forms a marsh. Of the rest of the places celebrated in Homer, Rhesus, Heptaporus, Caresus, Rhodius, no traces remain; and the Granicus flows by a different route into the Propontis. However there is even now the small city-state of Scamander, and 4 miles from its harbour Ilium, a town exempt from tribute, the scene of all the famous story. [125] Outside the bay, are the Rhoetean coasts, occupied by the towns of Rhoeteum, Dardanium and Arisbe. Formerly there was also the town of Achilleon, founded near to the tomb of Achilles by the people of Mitylene and afterwards rebuilt by the Athenians, where the fleet of Achilles was stationed at Sigeum; and also there once was Aeantion, founded by the Rhodians on the other horn of the bay, which is the place where Ajax was buried, at a distance of 3 miles from Sigeum, and from the actual place where his fleet was stationed. Inland behind Aeolis and a part of the Troad is the district called Teuthrania, inhabited in ancient times by the Mysians - this is where the river Caicus already mentioned rises; Teuthrania was in a considerable independent clan, even when the whole district bore the name of Mysia. [126] Places in Teuthrania are Pioniae, Andera, Idale, Stabulum, Conisium, Teium, Balce, Tiare, Teuthranie, Sarnaca, Haliseme, Lycide, Parthenium, Cambre, Oxyopum, Lygdamum, Apollonia, and by far the most famous place in Asia, Pergamum, which is traversed by the river Selinus and bordered by the river Cetius, flowing down from Mount Pindasus. Not far away is Elaea, which we mentioned, on the coast. The jurisdiction of this district is called the Pergamene, and it is the centre for the Thyatireni, Mossyni, Mygdones, Bregmeni, Hierocometae, Perpereni, Tiareni, Hierolophienses, Hermocapelitae, Attalenses, Panteenses, Apollonidienses and other city-states of no note. [127] At a distance of 8 miles from Rhoeteum is the small town of Dardanium. Eighteen miles from it is Cape Trapeza, from which point the Hellespont starts. A list of Asiatic races now extinct given by Eratosthenes includes the Solymi, Leleges, Bebryces, Colycantii and Tripsedi; Isidorus gives the Arienei and the Capreatae at the place where Apamea stands, founded by King Seleucus, between Cilicia, Cappadocia, Cataonia and Armenia. Apamea was originally called Damea because he had subdued some extremely fierce tribes.

{34.} L   [128] Of the islands off the coast of Asia the first is at the Canopic mouth of the Nile, and takes its name, it is said, from Menelaus's helmsman Canopus. The second, called Pharos, joined by a bridge to Alexandria, was settled by the dictator Caesar; it was formerly a day's sail from Egypt, but now it carries a lighthouse to direct the course of vessels at night; for owing to the treacherous shoals Alexandria can be reached by only three channels of the sea, those of Steganus, Posideum and Taurus. Then in the Phoenician Sea off Joppa lies Paria, the whole of which is a town - is said to have been the place where Andromeda was exposed to the monster - and Arados, mentioned already; between which and the mainland, according to Mucianus, fresh water is brought up from a spring at the bottom of the sea, which is 75 feet deep, by means of a leather pipe.

{35.} L   [129] The Pamphylian Sea contains some islands of no note. The Cilician Sea has five of considerable size, among them Cyprus, which lies east and west off the coasts of Cilicia and Syria; it was formerly the seat of nine kingdoms. Its circumference is given by Timosthenes as measuring 427 miles and by Isidorus as 375 miles. Its length between the two capes of Clidae and Acamas, the latter at its west end, is given by Artemidorus as 1624 and by Timosthenes as 200 miles. According to Philonides it was previously called Acamantis, according to Xenagoras Cerastis and Aspelia and Amathusia and Macada, and according to Astynomus Cryptos and Colinias. [130] It contains 15 towns, New and Old Paphos, Curias, Citium, Corinaeum, Salamis, Amathus, Lapethos, Soloe, Tamasos, Epidaurus, Chytri, Arsinoe, Carpasium and Golgoe; and formerly there were also Cinyria, Mareum and Idalium. It is 50 miles from Anemurium in Cilicia; the sea lying between is called the Cilician Aulon. In the same neighbourhood is the island of Eleusa, and the four Clides off the cape facing Syria, and again off a second headland Stiria, and towards New Paphos Hiera and Cepia, and towards Salamis the Salaminiae. [131] In the Lycian Sea are Illyris, Telendos, Attelebussa, the three barren Cyprian islands and Dionysia, formerly called Charaeta; then opposite to Cape Taurus, the Chelidonian islands, the same in number, fraught with disaster for passing vessels. Next to these the Pactyae with the town of Leucolla, Lasia, Nymphais, Maeris and Megista, the city-state on which has ceased to exist; and then a number of islands of no note. But opposite to Chimaera are Dolichiste, Choerogylion, Crambusa, Rhoge, the eight called the Xenagora islands, the two called Daedaleon, and the three called Cryeon; Strongyle, and opposite Sidyma Antiochi and towards the river Glaucus Lagussa, Macris, Didymae, Helbo, Scope, Aspis and Telandria (the town on which has ceased to exist) and nearest to Caunus Rhodussa.

{36.} L   [132] But the most beautiful is the free island of Rhodes, which measures 125, or, if we prefer to believe Isidorus, 103 miles round, and which contains the cities of Lindus, Camirus and Ialysus, and now that of Rhodes. Its distance from Alexandria in Egypt is 583 miles according to Isidorus, 468 according to Eratosthenes, 500 according to Mucianus; and it is 176 miles from Cyprus. It was previously called Ophiussa, Asteria, Aethria, Trinacrie, Corymbia, Poeeessa, Atabyria after its king, and subsequently Macaria and Oloessa. [133] Islands belonging to the Rhodians are Carpathus which has given its name to the Carpathian Sea, Casos, formerly Achne, Nisyros, previously called Porphyris, 15 miles distant from Cnidus, and in the same neighbourhood lying between Rhodes and Cnidus, Syme. Syme measures 37 miles in circumference; it provides the welcome of eight harbours. Other islands in the neighbourhood of Rhodes besides those mentioned are Cyclopis, Teganon, Cordylusa, the four Diabatae, Hymos, Chalce with its town, Teutlusa, Narthecusa, Dimastos, Progne, and in the direction of Cnidus Cisserusa, Therionarcia, Calydne with the three towns of Notium, Nisyrus and Mendeterus, and the town of Ceramus on Arconnesus. Off the coast of Caria are the Argiae, a group of twenty islands, and Hyetusa, Lepsia and Leros. [134] But the most famous island in this gulf is that of Cos, which is 15 miles distant from Halicarnassus and 100 miles in circumference; it is generally believed to have been called Merope, but according to Staphylus its former name was Cea and according to Dionysius Meropis and later Nymphaea. On Cos is Mount Prion; and the island of Nisyros, formerly called Porphyris, is believed to have been severed from Cos. Next to Cos we come to Caryanda with its town; and not far from Halicarnassus, Pidossus. In the Ceramic Bay are Priaponesus, Hipponesus, Pserema, Lampsa, Aemyndus, Passala, Crusa, Pyrrhaeciusa, Sepiusa, Melano, and at only a small distance from the mainland the island named Cinaedopolis, because certain persons of disgraceful character were deposited there by Alexander the Great.

{37.} L   [135] Off the coast of Ionia are Aegeae and Corseae, and Icarus previously mentioned, Lade, formerly called Late, and among some islands of no importance the two Camelitae near Miletus, the three Trogiliae near Mycale, Phulios, Argennos, Sandalios, and the free island of Samos, which measures 87, or according to Isidorus, 100 miles in circumference. Aristotle records that it was first called Parthenia, afterwards Dryusa, and then Anthemusa; Aristocritus adds the names Melamphyllus, and later Cyparissia, others Parthenoarrhusa and Stephane. Samos contains the rivers Imbrasus, Chesius and Hibiethes, the springs Gigartho and Leucothea, and Mount Cercetius. Adjacent islands are Rhypara, Nymphaea and Achillea.

{38.} L   [136] Ninety-four miles from Samos is the equally famous free island of Chios with its town. This island Ephorus designates by its ancient name of Aethalia, while Metrodorus and Cleobulus call it Chia after the nymph Chione, though some say that name is derived from the Greek word for snow. Other names for it are Macris and Pityusa. It contains Mount Pelinnaeus, in which Chian marble is quarried. Its circumference amounts to 125 miles, according to old accounts, but Isidore adds 9 miles to that figure. It is situated between Samos and Lesbos and directly opposite to Erythrae. [137] Neighbouring islands are Tellusa, by other writers called Daphnusa, Oenusa, Elaphitis, Euryanassa and Arginusa with its town. These islands bring us to the neighbourhood of Ephesus, where are also those called the Islands of Pisistratus, Anthinae, Myonnesus, Diarrheusa (the towns on both these islands have disappeared), Pordoselene with its town, Cerciae, Halone, Commone, Illetia, Lepria, Aethre, Sphaeria, Procusae, Bolbulae, Pheate, Priapos, Syce, Melane, Aenare, Sidusa, Pele, Drymusa, Anhydros, Scopelos, Sycussa, Marathusa, Psile, Perirrheusa, and many others of no note. [138] Out at sea is the famous island of Teos with its town, 71 miles from Chios and the same distance from Erythrae. Near Smyrna are the Peristerides, Carteria, Alopece, Elaeusa, Bacchina, Pystira, Crommyonnesos, Megale. Off the Troad are Ascaniae, the three Plateae, then Larniae, the two Plitaniae, Plate, Scopelos, Getone, Arthedon, Coele, Lagusae, Didymae.

{39.} L   [139] The most famous island is Lesbos, 65 miles from Chios; it was formerly called Himerte and Lasia, Pelasgia, Aegira, Aethiope and Macaria. It had nine noteworthy towns: of these Pyrrha has been swallowed up by the sea, Arisbe destroyed by earthquake and Antissa absorbed by Methymna, which itself lies near nine cities of Asia, along a coastline of 37 miles. Agamede and Hiera have also ceased to exist; but there remain Eresos, Pyrrha and the free city of Mytilene, which has been powerful for 1500 years. The circuit of the whole island measures 168 miles according to Isidorus and 195 miles according to old authorities. [140] The mountains on Lesbos are Lepetyrnnus, Ordymnus, Macistus, Creone and Olympus. It is 7 miles distant from the nearest point of the mainland. Adjacent islands are Sandalium and the five Leucae, which include Cydonea with its hot spring; four miles from Aege are the Arginussae and then Phellusa and Pedna. Outside the Hellespont and opposite the coast of Sigeum lies Tenedos, also called Leucophrys and Phoenice and Lyrnesos; it is 56 miles from Lesbos and l2 from Sigeum.

{40.} L   [141] Here the current of the Hellespont becomes stronger, and comes into collision with the sea, undermining the bar with its eddies until it separates Asia from Europe. We have already given the name of the promontory here as Trapeza. Ten miles from it is the town of Abydus, where the strait is only 7 stades wide; then the town of Percote, and Lampsacus formerly called Pityusa, the colony of Parium, called by Homer Adrastia, the town of Priapos, the river Aesepus, Zelia, and the Propontis (the name given to the Straits where the sea widens out), the river Oranicus and the harbour of Artace, where there once was a town. [142] Beyond is the island which Alexander joined to the mainland and on which is the Milesian town of Cyzicus, formerly called Arctonnesus and Dolionis and Didymis; above it is Mount Didymus. Then the towns of Placia, Ariace and Scylace, and in their rear the mountain called the Mysian Olympus and the city-state of Olympena. The rivers are the Horisius and the Rhyndacus, formerly called the Lycus: this rises in the marsh of Artynia near Miletopolis, and into it flow the Macestos and several other rivers; it forms the boundary between Asia and Bithynia. [143] This district was formerly named Cronia, then Thessalis, and then Malianda and Strymonis; its inhabitants were called by Homer the Halizones, as the tribe is 'girdled by the sea.' It once had a vast city named Atussa, and it now includes twelve city-states, among them Gordiu Come otherwise called Juliopolis, and on the coast Dascylos. Then there is the river Gelbes, and inland the town of Helgas, also called Germanicopolis, another name for it being Boos Coete; as also Apamea now known as Myrlea of the Colophonians; and the river Echeleos which in early times was the frontier of the Troad, and at which Mysia began. [144] Afterwards the bay in which are the river Ascanius, the town of Bryalion, the rivers Hylas and Cios, with the town also named Cios, formerly a trading station for the neighbouring district of Phrygia, founded by the people of Miletus but on a site formerly known as Ascania of Phrygia: consequently this is as suitable a place as any other to speak about Phrygia.

{41.} L   [145] Phrygia lies behind the Troad and the peoples already mentioned between Cape Lectum and the river Echeleus. On its northern side it marches with Galatia, on its southern side with Lycaonia, Pisidia and Mygdonia, and on the east it extends to Cappadocia. Its most famous towns beside the ones already mentioned are Ancyra, Andria, Celaenae, Colossae, Carina, Cotyaion, Ceraine, Conium and Midaium. Some authorities say that the Mysians, Phrygians and Bithynians take their names from three parties of immigrants who crossed over from Europe, the Moesi, Brygi and Thyni.

{42.} L   [146] At the same time it seems proper to speak also about Galatia, which lies above Phrygia and holds lands that for the most part were taken from that country, as was Gordium, its former capital. This district is occupied by Gallic settlers called the Tolistobogii, Voturi and Ambitouti, and those occupying the Maeonian and Paphlagonian region are the Trogmi. Along the north and east of Galatia stretches Cappadocia, the most fertile part of which has been occupied by the Tectosages and Toutobodiaci. These are the races that inhabit the country; the peoples and tetrarchies into which they are divided number 195 in all. The towns are Ancyra belonging to the Tectosages, Tavium to the Trogmi and Pisinus to the Tolistobogii. [147] Noteworthy people besides these are the Actalenses, Alassenses, Comenses, Didienses, Hierorenses, Lystreni, Neapolitani, Oeandenses, Seleucenses, Sebasteni, Timoniacenses and Thebaseni. Galatia also touches on Cabalia in Pamphylia and the Milyae about Baris; also on Cyllanicum and the district of Oroanda in Pisidia, and Obizene which is part of Lycaonia. The rivers in it beside those already mentioned are the Sangarius  and the Gallus; from the latter the Galli, the priests of the Mother of the Gods take their name.

{43.} L   [148] Now we give the remainder of the places on this coast. Inland from Cios, in Bithynia, is Prusa, at the foot of Olympus, founded by Hannibal - from there to Nicaea is 25 miles, the Ascanian Lake coming in between - then, on the innermost bay of the lake, Nicaea, which was formerly called Olbia, and Prusias; then a second place also named Prusias at the foot of Mount Hypius. Places that exist no longer are Pythopolis, Parthenopolis and Coryphanta. On the coast are the rivers Aesius, Bryazon, Plataneus, Areus, Aesyrus and Geudos, another name for which is Chrysorrhoas, and the headland on which formerly the town of Megarice stood: owing to which the gulf used to have the name of Craspedites, because that town was a sort of tassel on its fringe. There was also formerly the town of Astacus, owing to which the gulf in question was also called Astacus Bay. Also there was a town called Libyssa at the place where there is now only the tomb of Hannibal; and also at the far extremity of the bay stands the famous city of Bithynian Nicomedia. [149] Cape Leucatas which shuts in Astacus Bay is 37 miles from Nicomedia; and then the coastlines come together again, forming narrows that extend as far as the Thracian Bosporus. On these narrows are the free city of Calchadon, previously called Procerastis, 62 miles from Nicomedia, then Colpusa, afterwards Blind Men's Town - a name implying that its founders did not know how to choose a site, Byzantium a site so much more attractive in every respect being seven stades away! Inland in Bithynia are the colony of Apamea, Agrippenses, Juliopolis and Bithynion. The rivers are the Syrium, Laphias, Pharnacias, Alces, Serinis, Lilaeus, Scopius and Hieros, which forms the frontier between Bithynia and Galatia. [150] Beyond Calchadon formerly stood Chrysopolis. Then Nicopolis, from which comes the name still given to the bay containing Port of Amycus; then Cape Naulochum, Hestiae and Neptune's Temple. Then come the Bosporus, the channel half a mile wide which again separates Asia from Europe, 12 miles from Calchadon. Then the mouth of the Straits, 8 miles wide, where once stood the town of Spiropolis. The whole of the coast is inhabited by the Thyni and the interior by the Bithynians. This is the end of Asia and of the 282 peoples who can be counted between the frontier of Lycia and this point. The length of the Hellespont and the Propontis to the Thracian Bosporus we stated above as 239 miles, and the distance from Calchadon to Sigeum is given by Isidorus as 322 miles.

{44.} L   [151] The islands in the Propontis are, Elaphonnesus off Cyzicus, from which is obtained the Cyzicus marble - it is also called Neuris and Proconnesus  and then Ophiussa, Acanthus, Phoebe, Scopelos, Porphyrione, Halone with its town, Delphacie, Polydora and Artacaeon with its town. Also off Nicomedia is Demonnesus, and also beyond Heraclea and off Bithynia Thynias, the native name of which is Bithynia. There is also Antiochia, and off the mouth of the Rhyndacus Besbicos, an island 18 miles in circumference; and also Elaea and the two Rhodusae, Erebinthote, Megale, Chalcitis and Pityodes.

Book 6

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