30 B.C. Olympiad 187.3

Consuls: Imp. Caesar Divi f. (IV), M. Licinius M.f. Crassus
Athenian archon: Architimus

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ITA Octavianus quells a mutiny at Brundisium and allocates land in Italy to the veterans.
* Read Dio's account
Aug:ResGest_16; Plut:Ant_73'6; Tac:Ann_1'42; Suet:Aug_17'3; +DioCass_51.4'3-5'1; +Oros_6.19'14; { CAH_10'62.}
2 ASI Octavianus sails back to Greece.
* Read Dio's account
Suet:Aug_17'3, 26'3; +DioCass_51.5'1-2; +Oros_6.19'14.
3 EPI Octavianus constructs monuments to Apollo and Neptune at Actium.
* Read Dio's account
CIL_add.10; Prop_4.6'67; Strab_7'325;(7.6)  SelPap_3.113; Tac:Ann_2'53; Suet:Aug_18'2; DioCass_51.1'2-3; { The formal inauguration of the monuments took place in 29 B.C.}
4 Octavianus founds the city of Nicopolis, near Actium.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_7'324,(7.5)  '325,(7.6)  10'450;(2.2)  AnthPal_9.553<q" Philippus>; Plin:HN_4'5; Joseph:BJ_1'425, :AJ_16'147; Suet:Aug_18'2; Paus_5.23'3, 7.18'8-9, 10.38'4; DioCass_51.1'3, +18'1; +Cassiod:Chr_724; { OCD_n.}
5 GRE Octavianus settles veterans at Patrae.
6 AEG << Turullius, one of the assassins of Julius Caesar, is put to death in Cos.
* Read Dio's account
ValMax_1.1'19; +DioCass_51.8'2-3; Lactant:Inst_2.7'17.(8) 
7 ASI Octavianus punishes Ephesus for its support of Antonius.
8 EGY << Antonius and Cleopatra continue to hold extravagant parties at Alexandria.
~Plut:Ant_71'2-8, 73'5.
9 << Artavasdes, king of Armenia, is executed, by order of Cleopatra.
* Read Dio's account
Strab_11'532;(14.15)  Tac:Ann_2'3; +DioCass_51.5'4-6'3; { CAH_10'61; OCD_a<31>.}
10 Antonius and Cleopatra send envoys to Octavianus.
* Read Dio's account
Plut:Ant_74'2-3; Suet:Aug_17'4; +DioCass_51.6'4-6, 8'1-7; { CAH_10'62.}
11 PAL Hyrcanus is put to death by Herodes.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'433-434, '437, :AJ_15'161-178, '222; Hieron:Chron_2009; Movses_2'24; { Smallwood_p68.}
12 ++ General comments on the mild character of Hyrcanus.
13 SYR Q.Didius prevents a group of gladiators from joining Antonius.
* Read Dio's account
Joseph:BJ_1'392, :AJ_15'195; +DioCass_51.7'1-7; { CAH_10'61.}
14 AEG Herodes meets Octavianus in Rhodes, and is forgiven for his previous support of Antonius.
* Read Josephus' account
Strab_16'765;(2.46)  Joseph:BJ_1'386-393, '399, :AJ_15'183-198; Movses_2'25; { CAH_10'61, '155; Smallwood_p68-69.}
15 PAL Herodes receives Octavianus and his army at Ptolemais.
Joseph:BJ_1'394-395, :AJ_15'198-201.
16 EGY Antonius unsuccessfully attacks Gallus at Paraetonium.
+DioCass_51.9'1-4; +Oros_6.19'15.
17 Octavianus captures Pelusium.
* Read Dio's account
Prop_3.9'55; Plut:Ant_74'1; +DioCass_51.9'5-10'1; +Oros_6.19'14.
18 {31 July} Octavianus defeats Antonius near Alexandria.
* Read Plutarch's account
Strab_17'795;(1.10)  ValMax_3.8'8; Plut:Ant_74'4-76'3; +DioCass_51.10'1-4; +Oros_6.19'16; { CAH_10'63.}
19 {1 August} Octavianus enters Alexandria.
* Read Plutarch's account
#EhrJon:Fast_Aug1; Prop_2.1'30; Hor:Od_4.14'34-38; [Liv]:Per_133; Joseph:Ap_2'60; Plut:Ant_80'1-5, :Mor_207'A-B, 814'D; Julian:Ep_47.433'D; +Oros_6.19'19; { Hölbl_p248; Syme_p298.}
20 {1 August} Antonius commits suicide.
* Read Plutarch's account
Prop_3.9'56; [Liv]:Per_133; Sen:Ben_6.3'1; Plut:Ant_76'4-77'7, 93'4; Suet:Aug_17'4; +DioCass_51.10'5-9; [Vict]:VirIll_85'5; +Oros_6.19'17; +Cassiod:Chr_724; { CAH_10'63.}
20a {1 August} The death of Imhotep-Pedubast, the high priest of Memphis.
AET_4.23; { Bennett, Imhotep-Pedubast.}
21 ?? According to some later writers, Cleopatra built the Pharos at Alexandria.
ExcBarb_36B; Malal_218; ChronPasc_472'A.
22 ++ Dioscurides Phacas, a doctor and writer on medicine, is an associate of Cleopatra.
23 << Tyrannion, a grammarian, is captured by Octavianus.
24 Octavianus visits Cleopatra, but is impervious to her charms.
* Read Plutarch's account
Liv_fr'54;L  AnthPal_7'645<q" Crinagoras>; Plut:Ant_78'1-79'6, 82'1-83'7; Flor_2.21'9; Aelian:Fr_57; +DioCass_51.11'1-13'3.
25 {10 August} Cleopatra commits suicide, probably by the poisonous bite of an asp.
* Read Plutarch's account
Prop_3.11'53-56; Hor:Od_1.37'21-32; Verg:Aen_8'697; Strab_17'795;(1.10)  Plut:Ant_84'1-86'9; Suet:Aug_17'4; Flor_2.21'10-11; Galen_14'235; Aelian:NA_9'11, '61; +DioCass_51.13'4-15'1; [Vict]:VirIll_86'3; +Oros_6.19'18; Malal_220; { CAH_10'63-65.}
26 ++ General comments on the ambitious but flawed characters of Antonius and Cleopatra.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Liv]:Per_133; Sen:Ben_5.16'6, :Ep_83'25; Tac:Ann_1'9; Plut:Ant_88'1-93'2, :Mor_56'E,(12)  319'F; Lucian:Apol_5; Aelian:Fr_55-58, 107; Suda_B'109<q" Aelian:Fr_66>; +DioCass_51.15'2-4.
27 ?? The Egyptian kings send expeditions to explore remote territories.
Strab_2'118,(5.12)  16'770;(4.6)  Diod_3.39'4, 43'5; { see also the elephant hunting expeditions of Ptolemy II, recorded under 246 B.C.}
28 ?? The Egyptian kings keep unusual animals.
Aelian:NA_6'10, 11'33; { see also the separate entries for the first three kings, in 282, 246 and 221 B.C.}
29 The death of Cleopatra marks the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
Trog:Prol_40; [Euseb]:Chron_69-71,(↓)  169, 171; Hieron:Chron_1985; ExcBarb_36B, 46B; Malal_197; ChronPasc_473'A; ChronSynt_91,(↓)  100.
30 In Egypt, the reign of Augustus starts after the death of Cleopatra.
SelPap_1.3'34, 41'6, 105'15; Philo:Leg_148; AstrCan_4; Euseb:HistEc_1.5'2; Eutrop_7.8'1; ChronPasc_465'C, 473'A.
31 Octavianus re-arranges the household of Antonius; Caesarion and Antyllus are killed.
* Read Plutarch's account
Vell_2.100'4; Plut:Ant_81'1-82'1, 87'1-2; Suet:Aug_17'5; +DioCass_51.15'5-7; +Oros_6.19'20; { CAH_10'64; Hölbl_p248.}
32 ROM {13 September} M.Cicero junior, as consul in Rome, receives the official news of the death of Antonius.
* Read Appian's account
Sen:Ben_4.30'2; #Plin:HN_22'13;L  Plut:Cic_49'4; Appian:BCiv_4'51; +DioCass_51.19'1-7.
33 PAL Herodes starts to have acrimonious quarrels with his wife Mariamme.
33a EGY {19 Thoth -E = September} The goddess Hathor officially enters her new temple at Dendera.
34 Egypt is established as a Roman province, with Cornelius Gallus as its praefect.
* Read Velleius' account
Aug:ResGest_27; Strab_17'797;(1.12)  Vell_2.39'2; Tac:Hist_1'11, :Ann_12'60; Justin:Dig_1.17'1<q" Ulpian>; Festus:Brev_13'3; [Vict]:Epit_1'4-6; Eutrop_7.7'1; AmmMarc_22.16'6, '24; Hieron:Chron_1985; Macrob:Sat_1.12'35;L  Malal_224; { CAH_10'74; Hölbl_p250.}
35 Other arrangements made by Octavianus while staying in Alexandria.
* Read Dio's account
Strab_17'795;(1.10)  Plin:HN_35'131; Suet:Aug_18'1-2; +DioCass_51.16'1-18'1.
36 EXT Pharnavaz (Bartom), king of the Iberians, is killed in a battle against Mirvan.
ChronGeorg_4;(↓)  { Traditional date, according to C.Toumanoff.}
37 EGY Herodes meets Octavianus in Egypt.
Joseph:BJ_1'396-397, :AJ_15'215-218; { CAH_10'155; Smallwood_p70.}
38 Octavianus restores statues and other treasures that have been removed from temples by Antonius.
* Read Augustus' account
Aug:ResGest_24; Strab_13'595,(1.30)  14'637;(1.14)  Plin:HN_34'58.
39 Document: SelPap_2.327, a sworn declaration of temple lamplighters at Oxyrhynchus.
40 SYR {9 Apellaeus -M} Document: SEG_54.1625.D, the fourth letter of Octavianus concerning Seleucus of Rhosus.
41 Octavianus reorganises the provinces and kingdoms in the east.
* Read Dio's account
Aug:ResGest_27; Strab_12'547,(3.14)  '574-575,(8.9)  '578;(8.16)  Appian:Mith_121; DioCass_51.2'1-3; Malal_221-223; { Syme_p300.}
42 Artavasdes of Media Atropatene takes refuge with Octavianus.
Aug:ResGest_32; +DioCass_51.16'2; { OCD_a.}
43 Octavianus negotiates an agreement with Phraates of Parthia.
44 ASI >> Octavianus spends the winter in Asia.
45 GRE << The death of Cassius Parmensis, the last surviving member of the conspiracy against Julius Caesar.
* Read Velleius' account
+Vell_2.87'3; ValMax_1.7'7; Oros_6.19'20; { CAH_10'64.}
45a AEG << The tomb of Nicias of Cos is desecrated.
@  (?) SEG_8.13; Strab_14.658;(2.19)  Crinag_9.81; { Probably soon after the battle of Actium - Nicias had been associated with Antonius.}
46 ROM The son of M.Lepidus is accused of treason, and put to death.
* Read Velleius' account
[Liv]:Per_133; ~Vell_2.88'1-3; Appian:BCiv_4'50; { CAH_10'62; OCD_l.}
47 Document: Verg:Georg_, the Georgics of Vergilius.
[Suet]:Verg_22, 25; { Vergilius read the completed poem to Octavianus in 29 B.C.}
48 << Document: Hor:Epod_, the Epodes of Horatius. { CAH_10'996; OCD_h.}
49 Document: Hor:Sat_2.1-8, the second book of Horatius' Satires. { OCD_h.}
50 ++ The impoverished old age of the grammarian Valerius Cato.
Suet:Gram_4, 11; { Valerius Cato was probably born between 100 and 90 B.C.}
51 ?? Seneca the Elder and Latro are students of the rhetorician Marullus.'22,L  '24;L  { Seneca was probably born in about 55 B.C.}
52 SIC ?? Document: Diod_, the Historical Library of Diodorus Siculus.
Diod_1.4'1; Suda_D'1151; { CAH_10'885; OCD_d.}
53 ASI ?? Document: THI_205.B-G, a monument at Cnidus in honour of Theopompus, Artemidorus and their family.

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