44 B.C. Olympiad 184.1

Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar (V), M.Antonius M.f.
Athenian archon: (?) Leucius
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Theodorus of Messene (II)

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The events of this year have been split into two parts.

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71 The death of Servilius Isauricus, at the age of 90 years.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fam_16.23'2; +DioCass_45.16'1-2; Suda_A'3213<q" Aelian:Fr_110>; { OCD_s.}
72 {May} Document: Cic:Fam_11.2, a letter from Brutus and Cassius to Antonius.
73 {May} Document: Cic:Att_14.15-15.8 & Cic:Fam_12.16, letters from Cicero to Atticus and from Trebonius to Cicero.
74 Document: Cic:Fam_6.16 & 16.23, letters from Cicero to Bithynicus and Tiro.
75 {1 June} Antonius summons a meeting of the senate, but then cancels it.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.14'4, '6, 22'2, :Fam_11.2'3, #:Phil_1'6, 2'100, #'108-109.
76 {2 June} The comitia pass a law, which transfers command of the province of Cisalpine Gaul to Antonius, for a period of 5 years.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_1'19, 2'109, 5'7; [Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'120-122; Vell_2.60'5; +Appian:BCiv_3'27-30; +DioCass_45.9'2-3, 22'3, 25'1-2, 46.23'4-5; { CAH_9'474.}
77 M.Antonius passes an agrarian law, which appoints seven commissioners, led by his brother Lucius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.19'2, :Phil_5'7-9, '20-21, 6'12-15, 7'16-17, 12'20, '23, 13'37; DioCass_45.9'1; { CAH_9'474.}
78 The consuls are authorised to make a decision about land at Buthrotum.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.12'1, 14'2-3, 19'1, 16.16a'4-6, 16b'8, 16c'11, 16d'14, 16f'18.
79 ETR {7 June} Cicero meets Brutus and Cassius at Antium, after they are offered an appointment as corn commissioners.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.9'1, 10'1, #11'1-4, 12'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'6, '35,(↓)  4'57; { CAH_9'475.}
80 Cicero declines the offer of an appointment to serve on the staff of Dolabella in Syria.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.8'1, 11'4, 20'1; Plut:Cic_43'2.
81 {June} Document: Cic:Att_15.9-25 & Cic:Fam_7.21-22, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Trebatius.
82 {July} Document: Cic:Fam_11.29, a letter from Cicero to Oppius.
83 {11 July} Cicero decides to travel to Greece.
#Cic:Att_16.2'4, :Phil_1'6-7.
84 ROM {13 July} C.Antonius presides over the Ludi Apollinares, on behalf of M.Brutus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Att_15.10'1, 11'2, 26'1, 16.2'3, 4'1, 5'1, :Phil_1'36, 2'31, 10'7-8; Plut:Brut_21'3-6; +Appian:BCiv_3'23-24; DioCass_47.20'2; { CAH_9'475.}
85 Document: Cic:Att_16.16a-16f, letters from Cicero to Plancus, Capito and Cupiennius about the Buthrotum affair.
86 Brutus and Cassius issue a manifesto, stating that they wish to be excused from further public duties.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.7'1, :Fam_11.3'3, :Phil_1'8.
87 Document: Cic:Top_, the "Topica", a rhetorical treatise by Cicero.
Cic:Top_1-4, :Fam_7.19'1; { OCD_c.}
88 EGY {27 Epeiph -E = 26 July} Document: SelPap_1.40A (POxy_1629), a contract between Theon and Apollonius Arbichis at Oxyrhynchus. { This document is dated to the reign of Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV.}
89 ROM Octavianus holds the Ludi Victoriae Caesaris, during which a comet appears, and is interpreted as Julius Caesar going up to heaven.
* Read Nicolaus' account
Cic:Att_15.2'3, :Fam_11.27'7, 28'6; Prop_3.18'33-34; Ovid:Met_15'848-850; Aug:Fr_12'7; NicDam_130'108-114; Plin:HN_2'93-94; Suet:Caes_88'1, :Aug_10'1; +DioCass_45.6'4-7'1; Obseq_68; { CAH_9'475.}
90 {July} Document: Cic:Att_15.26-16.6 & Cic:Fam_7.19-20, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Trebatius.
91 MOE ?? Burebistas increases the power of the Dacians, by conquering neighbouring tribes.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_7'303,(3.11)  '304,(3.12)  '313;(5.2)  Trog:Prol_32; { OCD_b.}
92 NUM Sittius is defeated and killed by Arabio.
Appian:BCiv_4'54; { OCD_s.}
93 SPA Lepidus agrees the terms of a truce with Sex.Pompeius, which is ratified by the senate.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_5'39-41, 13'8-10; +Appian:BCiv_3'4, '36, '57, 4'84, '94, '96; +DioCass_45.9'4, 10'4<Lepidus>, 48.17'1; { OCD_p.}
94 ILL The Illyrians defeat Baebius, an officer of Vatinius.
~Appian:Ill_13; { MRR_2'220.}
95 SYR Bassus defeats Murcus, the general sent against him by Caesar.
* Read Appian's account
Joseph:BJ_1'217, :AJ_14'270; Appian:BCiv_3'77,(↓)  4'58;(↓)  { MRR_2'220.}
96 ROM {1 August} Piso criticises Antonius at a meeting of the senate.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_16.7'5, '7, :Fam_12.2'1, #:Phil_1'10, '14-15, 5'19; { CAH_9'476.}
96a SIC {1 August} Cicero arrives at Syracuse.
97 ROM {4 August} Document: Cic:Fam_11.3, a letter from Brutus and Cassius to Antonius.
98 ITA Cicero decides to return home, after being driven back by contrary winds to Leucopetra, near Rhegium.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.7'1-2, :Fam_10.1'1, 11.29'1, 12.25'3, :Phil_1'7-9; Plut:Cic_43'3; DioCass_46.3'2.
99 {17 August} M.Brutus meets Cicero at Velia.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_16.7'5, :Phil_1'9, :AdBrut_18'4,(1.10)  23'5.(1.15) 
100 {19 August} Document: Cic:Att_16.7, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
101 GRE Cicero orders his son to stop meeting the rhetorician Gorgias.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_16.21'1-6; Plut:Cic_24'6.
102 EGY Cleopatra kills her young brother, Ptolemy XIV.
Joseph:AJ_15'89, :Ap_2'58; [Euseb]:Chron_167-169;(↓)  { OCD_p; for the date, see the notes on Ptolemy XIV by Bennett .}
103 ROM {1 September} Antonius summons a meeting of the senate, but Cicero decides not to attend.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_1'11-13, #5'19; Plut:Cic_43'4-5; { CAH_9'477.}
104 {2 September} Cicero makes a speech (the "First Philippic") at another meeting of the senate.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_1'1-38, 2'6-7, #5'19, :Fam_12.2'1, 20'1, 25'3-4; { OCD_c.}
105 EGY {2 September} Caesarion, the son of Cleopatra, is offically recognised as joint king of Egypt.
DioCass_47.31'5; { See the notes on Ptolemy XV by Bennett .}
106 ROM Octavianus visits Cicero and wins some support from him.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Cic_44'1, 45'1-2, :Brut_22'4-6, :Ant_16'3; +DioCass_45.15'3-4; [Vict]:VirIll_81'5.
107 ITA Brutus and Cassius leave Italy, without revealing their real destinations.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Fam_12.2'3, :Phil_10'8, 11'28; Nepos:Att_8'5-6; NicDam_130'135; Plut:Brut_23'1-24'1; Flor_2.17'4; +Appian:BCiv_3'24; { CAH_9'476: OCD_b.}
108 MAC Antonius is given command of the army in Macedonia, and summons it back to Brundisium.
* Read Appian's account
+Appian:BCiv_3'24-25, '37; DioCass_45.20'4, 25'1, 46.24'1-2, 25'1-3.
109 ROM Cicero offends Antonius by speaking in defence of Sicca.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.11'1, :Phil_2'3.
110 {19 September} At a meeting of the senate, Antonius rebukes Cicero in a strongly worded speech.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_10.2'1, #12.2'1, :Phil_2'1, '3, '7, '11, '17-20, '23, '28, '31, '76, #5'17-20; { CAH_9'477.}
111 Antonius prevents Octavianus from standing for election as tribune.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.60'3; Plut:Ant_16'5; +Appian:BCiv_3'31; +DioCass_45.6'1-3; { CAH_9'472.}
112 The soldiers in Rome bring about a reconciliation between Antonius and Octavianus.
* Read Appian's account
NicDam_130'115-119; Plut:Ant_16'6; +Appian:BCiv_3'32-39; +DioCass_45.7'3-8'2.
113 {? 25 September} Document: Cic:Fam_12.2, a letter from Cicero to Cassius.
114 Octavianus is accused of plotting to murder Antonius.
* Read Nicolaus' account
Cic:Att_15.13'6, 16.11'5, :Fam_12.23'2; NicDam_130'123-128; Plut:Ant_16'7-8; Suet:Aug_10'3; +Appian:BCiv_3'39; +DioCass_45.8'3-4; { CAH_9'477.}
115 Document: Cic:Fam_11.2 & 11.6, letters of Cicero to and from D.Brutus.
116 {September} Document: Cic:Fam_10.1-2 & 12.20-22, letters from Cicero to Plancus and Cornificius.
117 {9 October} Antonius leaves Rome to join the legions at Brundisium.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_15.13'2, :Fam_12.23'2, :Phil_5'22.
118 Dolabella leaves Italy in order to take over the province of Asia.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_15.13'5, :AdBrut_19'1;(1.11)  +Appian:BCiv_3'24; +DioCass_45.15'2, 47.21'3, 29'1; { CAH_9'477.}
119 {October} Document: Cic:Fam_12.3 & 12.23, letters from Cicero to Cassius and Cornificius.
120 Document: Cic:Fam_11.27-28, letters of Cicero to and from Matius.
121 Document: Cic:Att_15.13 & Cic:Fam_16.25, letters from Cicero to Atticus and from M.Cicero Junior to Tiro.
122 GRE Brutus arrives in Athens and begins to gather money and supporters.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_1.5'7; Plut:Brut_24'1-7; DioCass_47.20'4.
123 SYR Marcius Crispus, the governor of Bithynia, intervenes in Syria and besieges Bassus.
Appian:BCiv_3'77-78,(↓)  4'58;(↓)  { MRR_2'219.}
124 ROM Document: Cic:Amic_, Cicero's treatise "De Amicitia" (On Friendship). { CAH_9'477; Cicero wrote this treatise in between "De Divinatione" and "De Officiis".}
125 Antonius condemns Cn.Seius to death.
Gell_3.9'1-4; { before or at the same time as Dolabella left Italy.}
126 Octavianus brings a large number of veterans to Rome, but they refuse to fight against Antonius.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_16.8'1-2, 11'6, :Fam_11.7'2, :Phil_3'3, 4'3-4, 5'3, '23, '43-46; [Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'130-138; Aug:ResGest_1; Vell_2.61'1-2; Tac:Ann_1'10; +Appian:BCiv_3'40-42, '58; +DioCass_45.12'1-6, 38'3, 55.24'8; { CAH_9'478.}
127 {November} Document: Cic:Att_16.8-15 & Cic:Fam_16.24, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Tiro.
128 Document: Cic:Off_, Cicero's treatise "De Officiis" (On Duties).
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.13'6, 16.11'4, 14'3; { OCD_c.}
129 ITA Two legions desert from Antonius to Octavianus, while marching from Brundisium to Rome.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_16.8'2, :Fam_11.7'2, :Phil_3'3-7, '10, 4'4-6, 5'4, '22-23, '42, '52, 12'12, 13'18; [Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'129, '139; Vell_2.61'2; Tac:Ann_1'10; +Appian:BCiv_3'43-45, '52,(↓)  '56, '67;(↓)  +DioCass_45.13'1-4, 35'3, 38'5; { CAH_9'478.}
130 ROM {24 November} Antonius summons a meeting of the senate, but then postpones it.
#Cic:Phil_3'19-20, 5'23, 13'19.
131 {28 November} Antonius holds a hurried meeting of the senate, before going to meet his troops.
#Cic:Phil_3'20-25; { CAH_9'478.}
132 Antonius formally leaves Rome, and sets off for Cisalpine Gaul.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_3'1-2, '11, '24, '31, 5'24, 13'20; +Appian:BCiv_3'46; +DioCass_45.13'5, 20'4.
133 GER Plancus founds a Roman colony at Raurica, on the river Rhine.
CIL_10.6087; { Probably after an expedition against the Rhaeti - see MRR_2'230.}
134 MAC Brutus seizes control of Macedonia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_10'24-26, 11'27; Vell_2.62'2-3; Plut:Brut_25'1-3; :Mor_694'C; Appian:Ill_13,(↓)  :BCiv_5'6; DioCass_47.20'4-21'5; { CAH_9'481.}
135 CIL >> Cassius persuades the inhabitants of Cilicia, including Tarsus, to support him.
136 ETR Document: Cic:Phil_2, Cicero's "Second Philippic", a passionate invective against Antonius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Att_15.13'1, 16.11'1-2, :Phil_2'110; Juvenal_10'120-126; { CAH_9'477.}
137 ROM {9 December} Cicero returns to Rome.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.15'6, #:Fam_11.5'1; { CAH_9'479.}
138 Document: Cic:Fam_10.3, a letter from Cicero to Plancus.
139 Octavianus offers to use his legions to fight on behalf of the senate against Antonius.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.61'3; Tac:Ann_1'10; +Appian:BCiv_3'47-48, '75, '87; +DioCass_45.14'1-15'3.
140 Omens precede the outbreak of civil war between Antonius, Octavianus and their enemies.
* Read Vergilius' account
Verg:Georg_1'466-488; Plin:HN_2'99; Obseq_68.
141 CIS Decimus Brutus refuses to surrender Cisalpine Gaul to Antonius, and prepares for war.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_11.6'2, 7'3, :Phil_3'8-12, '37, 4'7, 6'8-9, 7'24; { OCD_b.}
142 ROM {20 December} Document: Cic:Phil_3 & 4, two speeches of Cicero, to the Roman senate and people.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Fam_11.6'2-3, 12.22a'3, 25'2, :Phil_5'2-3, '28-30, 6'1-2, 10'23, 14'20; { CAH_9'479.}
143 {December} Document: Cic:Fam_11.5-7 & 12.22a, letters from Cicero to Decimus Brutus and Cornificius.
144 CIS M.Antonius enters Cisalpine Gaul, and starts to besiege Decimus Brutus at Mutina.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_5'24-25, 13'20; [Liv]:Per_117; Flor_2.15'3; +Appian:BCiv_3'49; Oros_6.18'3; { CAH_9'479.}
145 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_10.4 & 16.26-27, letters from Plancus to Cicero and from Q.Cicero to Tiro.
146 ++ As a student, the geographer Strabo is taught by Aristodemus, Tyrannion and Xenarchus.
* Read Appian's account
Strab_12'548,(3.16)  14'650,(1.48)  '670,(5.4)  16'757;(2.24)  { Strabo probably received much of his education at Rome, which he first visited in 44 B.C.}

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