47 B.C. Olympiad 183.2

Consuls: Q. Fufius Q.f. Calenus, P. Vatinius P.f.
Athenian archon: Diocles

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 EGY Caesar sets fire to warships in the harbour of Alexandria, and the fire spreads to destroy part of the library.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BCiv_3.111'1-112'9; Sen:Dial_9.9'5; Lucan_10'486-505; Plut:Caes_49'6; Flor_2.13'59; Gell_7.17'3; DioCass_42.38'2-3; AmmMarc_22.6'13; Oros_6.15'31-32.
2 Caesar puts Pothinus to death, but Arsinoe escapes and joins Achillas.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BCiv_3.112'10-12; Lucan_10'505-529; DioCass_42.39'1-4.
3 Achillas is killed by Arsinoe, who puts Ganymedes in command of the Egyptian army.
* Read Caesar's account
[Caes]:BAlex_1'1-4'2; Liv_fr'41;L  Appian:BCiv_2'90.
4 The Egyptians attempt to cut off Caesar's water supply.
* Read Caesar's account
[Caes]:BAlex_5'1-9'4; Plut:Caes_49'6.
5 Caesar defeats the Alexandrians in a sea battle.
6 ITA {Jan. -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.9-10, two letters from Cicero to Atticus, written at Brundisium.
7 Document: Cic:Fam_14.16, a letter from Cicero to his wife Terentia.
8 EGY During a attack on the island of Pharos, Caesar is forced to escape from his enemies by swimming to a ship.
* Read Plutarch's account
Strab_17'792;(1.6)  Plut:Caes_17'1-21'5; Lucan_10'529-546; Plut:Caes_49'7-8; Suet:Caes_64'1; Flor_2.13'59-60; Appian:BCiv_2'90, '150; DioCass_42.40'1-5; Oros_6.15'33-34; { Green_667.}
9 PAL Antipater brings some Jewish soldiers to join the forces that Mithridates of Pergamon is leading to relieve Caesar.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'187-188, :AJ_14'128-129, '138-139<q" Strab>, '383, 16'52, :Ap_2'61; Movses_2'18; { OCD_a=48.}
10 EGY Caesar releases Ptolemy, who immediately joins the Egyptian forces.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAlex_22'1-24'6; Plut:Caes_49'9; DioCass_42.42'1-5; Oros_6.16'1.
11 Ti.Claudius Nero defeats the Egyptians near Canopus, despite the death of Euphranor, the Rhodian admiral.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAlex_25'1-6; Suet:Tib_4'1; Appian:BCiv_2'101; DioCass_42.40'6.
12 ILL Gabinius, the general of Caesar, is defeated by the Illyrians, and dies soon afterwards at Salonae.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_11.16'1; +[Caes]:BAlex_43'1-3; Appian:Ill_12, 27, 28, :BCiv_2'59; { OCD_g.}
13 EGY Mithridates of Pergamon captures Pelusium.
* Read Caesar's account
[Caes]:BAlex_26'1-3; Joseph:BJ_1'189, :AJ_14'130; DioCass_42.41'1-3.
14 {27 March -R} Ptolemy is defeated and killed in a battle by the river Nile.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAlex_27'1-31'6; [Liv]:Per_112; Ovid:Met_15'753-754; Plut:Caes_49'1; Joseph:BJ_1'190-192, :AJ_14'131-136; Flor_2.13'60; Appian:BCiv_5'9; DioCass_42.43'1-4; [Euseb]:Chron_167;(↓)  Hieron:Chron_1970; Oros_6.16'1-2; { CAH_9'434; the death of Ptolemy occurred in January according to the Julian calendar - see Bennett.}
15 {March -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.11-13, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
16 SPA Trebonius arrives as the new governor of Spain.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAlex_64'1-2; Liv_fr'39;L  { OCD_t; MRR_2'195.}
17 Q.Cassius is drowned while attempting to sail out of the river Ebro.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAlex_64'2-3; DioCass_42.16'2; { OCD_c.}
18 Pharnaces captures Amisus and wins over the rest of Pontus.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_15.15'2; +[Caes]:BAlex_41'1-2; Strab_12'547;(3.14)  +DioCass_42.46'3.
19 EGY Caesar establishes Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV as joint rulers of Egypt.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAlex_32'1-33'5; Strab_17'796;(1.11)  Plin:HN_5'128; Joseph:Ap_2'58; Plut:Caes_49'10; Suet:Caes_35'1; Appian:BCiv_4'59; DioCass_42.44'1-45'1; [Euseb]:Chron_167,(↓)  169; Eutrop_6.22'2; +Hieron:Chron_1970; { OCD_p.}
20 ITA {April -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.14, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
21 ROM M.Antonius fails to suppress disturbances caused by the tribune P.Dolabella.
* Read Dio's account
+[Caes]:BAlex_65'1; [Cic]:InSall_17-18;(6)  [Liv]:Per_113; Plut:Ant_9'1-4, +:Caes_51'3; Appian:BCiv_2'92; DioCass_42.27'1-32'3; { CAH_9'435.}
22 == M.Antonius divorces his wife Antonia, alleging that she had an affair with Dolabella.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_2'99; Plut:Ant_9'2-3.
23 Further misdeeds of M.Antonius, while acting as magister equitum in Caesar's absence.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_2'62-63; Plin:HN_8'55; Plut:Ant_9'5-9, +:Caes_51'3-4; DioCass_45.28'1-29'4, 46.13'1-16'5; { OCD_d.}
24 EGY Caesar goes on a cruise up the river Nile with Cleopatra.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Ant_25'4-5; Suet:Caes_52'1; Appian:BCiv_2'90, '154; { CAH_9'434; according to Appian, Caesar remained in Egypt until June, in the Roman calendar.}
25 ITA {14 May -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.15, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
26 BOS Asander rebels against Pharnaces.
* Read Appian's account
Appian:Mith_120; +DioCass_42.46'4.
27 PAL Caesar confirms Antipater and Hyrcanus as rulers of Judaea.
* Read Josephus' account
~Joseph:BJ_1'193-200, :AJ_14'137-148; Hieron:Chron_1950.
28 SYR Caesar settles affairs in Syria and surrounding regions.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_11.20'1; +[Caes]:BAlex_65'2-66'5; Appian:BCiv_3'77, 4'58; DioCass_47.26'3.
29 CIL Caesar stays at Tarsus, where C.Cassius surrenders to him.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_11.13'1, 15'2, :Fam_15.15'3, :Phil_2'26; Plut:Brut_6'5; DioCass_42.13'5; [Vict]:VirIll_83'6; { OCD_cass.}
30 AEG Brutus visits M.Marcellus in exile, at Mytilene.
Sen:Dial_12.9'4-10'1; { Around this time, Brutus went to meet Caesar at Nicaea (Cic:Att_14.1'2).}
31 ITA {June -R} Document: Cic:Fam_14.8 & 14.21, two letters from Cicero to his wife Terentia.
32 {June -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.16-18, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
33 Document: Cic:Fam_14.11 & 14.15, two letters from Cicero to his Terentia.
34 GLT Caesar meets Deiotarus, and allows him to retain his status as a tetrarch.
* Read Cicero's account
+[Caes]:BAlex_67'1-68'2; Cic:Brut_21, :Deiot_8-10, 14-24, 36-38, :Phil_2'94; Plut:Brut_6'5-9.
35 AFR Scipio is chosen to be overall commander of the Pompeian army in Africa.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_113; Vell_2.54'2-3; Plut:CatMin_57'1-7; +DioCass_42.57'1-5; [Vict]:VirIll_80'3; Eutrop_6.23'1-2.
36 ILL Vatinius defeats Octavius in a sea battle near the island of Tauris.
+[Caes]:BAlex_43'4-47'5; { OCD_v.}
37 PAL Antipater appoints his sons Phasaelus and Herodes to govern Jerusalem and Galilee.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'201-207, :AJ_14'156-162; { OCD_h.}
37a GRE << Document: Syll_761, decrees of the Amphictyons and Delphi in honour of citizens of Delphi.
38 ITA {July -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.23 & 11.25, two letters from Cicero to Atticus.
39 {July -R} Document: Cic:Fam_14.10 & 14.13, two letters from Cicero to his wife Terentia.
40 {22 July -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.19, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
41 PON Caesar negotiates with Pharnaces, while advancing against him.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAlex_69'1-71'2; Appian:BCiv_2'91; +DioCass_42.47'1-4, 44.45'3.
42 {1 August -R} Caesar defeats Pharnaces at Zela, and says: "veni, vidi, vici".
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAlex_72'1-77'2; Cic:Deiot_14; [Liv]:Per_118; Seneca:Suas_2'22; Frontin:Str_2.2'3; Plut:Caes_50'2-4, :Mor_205'E; Suet:Caes_35'2; Flor_2.13'63; Appian:BCiv_2'91, :Mith_120; +DioCass_42.47'5-48'2, 44.46'1; Eutrop_6.22'2; { CAH_9'434; OCD_z.}
43 Caesar establishes Mithridates of Pergamon as tetrarch and king of Bosporus.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAlex_78'1-5; Strab_13'625;(4.3)  Appian:Mith_121; +DioCass_42.48'3-4.
44 ASI Document: Sherk_80,B  concessions granted to Pergamon by Caesar.
45 PAL Hyrcanus summons Herodes to stand trial, but then releases him.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'208-211, ~:AJ_14'163-177, '182, 15'4, '16.
46 ITA {August -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.24 & 11.20-21, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
47 {August -R} Document: Cic:Fam_14.23-24, letters from Cicero to his wife Terentia.
48 {August -R} Document: Cic:Fam_15.15, a letter from Cicero to C.Cassius.
49 AFR Cato fortifies the city of Utica.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Caes]:BAfr_88'5; [Liv]:Per_113; Plut:CatMin_58'1-12.
50 ITA {1 September -R} Document: Cic:Fam_14.22, a letter from Cicero to his wife Terentia.
51 {September -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.22, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
52 ASI Caesar extracts large amounts of money from individuals and cities, as he returns to Rome.
* Read Dio's account
Appian:BCiv_2'92; +DioCass_42.49'1-50'5.
52a GRE Document: Syll_759, a statue of Julius Caesar at Athens.
53 SYR Sex.Caesar appoints Herodes to be governor of Coele Syria.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'212-215, ~:AJ_14'178-184.
54 ITA {25 September -R} Cicero meets Caesar at Brundisium, and is treated with respect.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Lig_7, :Marc_13; Seneca:Suas_7'1; Plut:Cic_39'3-5.
55 ITA {1 October -R} Document: Cic:Fam_14.20, a letter from Cicero to Terentia, written near Venusia.
56 ROM Caesar introduces measures to help the poor and reduce the unrest at Rome.
* Read Dio's account
DioCass_42.33'1-3, +51'1-5; { CAH_9'797; OCD_c.}
57 Gold denarii coins are produced with a weight of one fortieth of per pound.
Plin:HN_33'47; { see Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage,}
58 Consuls are eventually elected for the current year; and Caesar is elected as consul for the following year.
* Read Dio's account
+Plut:Caes_51'1, :Ant_10'2; DioCass_42.20'4, +55'4, 43.1'1-3; Eutrop_6.23'1; Oros_6.16'3; Macrob:Sat_2.3'5;L  { CAH_9'435.}
59 Octavianus appears in the forum during the Latin Festival.
60 Caesar sells off the property of Pompeius and his other enemies.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_13.8'1-3, :Phil_2'64-69, '103-104, :Off_1'43; Plut:Ant_10'3; Macrob:Sat_2.2'5;L  { CAH_9'435.}
61 PAL Hyrcanus sends envoys to Rome, to confirm a treaty of friendship.
Joseph:AJ_14'185-210; { just before Caesar set out for Africa.}
62 Caesar quells a mutiny in Campania, after the soldiers threaten the praetor C.Sallustius.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_113; Frontin:Str_1.9'4; Tac:Ann_1'42; +Plut:Caes_51'2; Suet:Caes_70'1; Appian:BCiv_2'92-94; Polyaen_8.23'15; +DioCass_42.52'1-55'3; { CAH_9'435.}
63 BOS Pharnaces is killed by Asander, who seizes control of Bosporus.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_13'625;(4.3)  Appian:Mith_120;(↓)  Eutrop_6.22'2; { OCD_p.}
64 ROM Cicero divorces Terentia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Cic_41'2-3; DioCass_46.18'3; { OCD_c<47/6>.}
65 << The death of Brithagoras of Heracleia.
Memn_40'3-4; { Brithagoras visited Caear in about 59 B.C., and died 12 years later.}
66 Octavianus is persuaded by his mother Atia that he should not go to Africa with Caesar.
67 SIC {17 December -R} Caesar joins his army at Lilybaeum, to prepare for the invasion of Africa.
* Read Caesar's account
#[Caes]:BAfr_1'1-5; +Plut:Caes_52'1-2; Appian:BCiv_2'95.
68 AFR {25 December -R} Caesar sails from Lilybaeum, and reaches Africa near Hadrumetum.
* Read Caesar's account
#[Caes]:BAfr_2'1-5'1; Cic:Div_2'52; Frontin:Str_1.12'2; +Plut:Caes_52'2, '4-5; Suet:Caes_59'1; Appian:BCiv_2'95; MinFel:Oct_26'4; +DioCass_42.56'1, 58'1-3; { CAH_9'435; OCD_c.}
69 ROM ++ Calvus is one of the leading orators of his generation.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Brut_283-284, :Fam_15.21'4; Plin:HN_34'166; { OCD_c.}
70 == Omens at Rome.
71 == The poet Vergilius makes a speech in a court case, on only one occasion.
[Suet]:Verg_15-16; { the approximate date is suggested by Tenney Frank in chapter 2 of his biography of Vergil.}
72 SYR == Laodiceia is made autonomous and inviolable, and adopts a new 'Julian' era.
73 EXT == The start of the era of Azes in Gandhara.
CKI_405; { see S.Baum(2017), p. 62.}

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