56 B.C. Olympiad 181.1

Consuls: Cn. Cornelius P.f. Lentulus Marcellinus, L. Marcius L.f. Philippus
Athenian archon: Coïntus (Quintus)
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Lamachus of Tauromenium

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM << Despite pressure from Pompeius and Lentulus Spinther, the Romans do not agree to restore Ptolemy as king of Egypt.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Pis_50; Strab_17'796;(1.11)  Seneca:Suas_6'11; ~Plut:Pomp_49'9-12; DioCass_39.12'3, +15'1-16'2, 56'4; Schol:Bob_144;L  { CAH_9'391-392; the debate about Ptolemy started in the second half of the previous year, and ended in January of this year.}
2 {17 January -R} Document: Cic:QFr_2.2, a letter from Cicero to his brother Quintus in Sardinia.
3 {28 January -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.4, a short letter from Cicero to Atticus.
4 {7 February -R} Pompeius speaks in defence of Milo, who is prosecuted by Clodius for hiring the support of gladiators.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:QFr_2.3'1-2, :Mil_68; +DioCass_39.18'1-20'1; Schol:Bob_122,L  151;L  { CAH_9'393.}
5 {11 February -R} Cicero defends Bestia against a charge of bribery.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:QFr_2.3'6, :Cael_26; Plin:HN_27'4;L  Tac:Dial_39'5.
6 Document: Cic:QFr_2.3, a letter from Cicero his his brother Quintus, describing recent events at Rome.
7 Cicero removes the tablets about his exile, which were placed on the Capitol by Clodius.
* Read Dio's account
~Plut:CatMin_40'1, :Cic_34'1-2; +DioCass_39.20'1-21'4.
8 Vatinius presents a gladiatorial show.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Vat_37, :Sest_133-135; Macrob:Sat_2.6'1.L 
9 ASI Ptolemy despairs of gaining Roman support, and goes away to the temple at Ephesus.
+DioCass_39.16'3; { CAH_9'392.}
10 ROM Pompeius carries out a census of freedmen, in order to assess the scope of the corn dole.
11 CIS {3 March -R} Envoys from Issa meet Caesar at Aquileia.
11a EGY {3 Phamenoth -E = March} Document: THI_198, a grant of inviolability by queen Berenice.
12 ROM Document: Cic:Vat, Cicero's invective against Vatinius, who is appearing as a witness against Sestius.
* Read Cicero's account
~Cic:QFr_2.4'1, :Fam_1.9'7; Sen:Dial_2.17'3; Quint_6.3'77; Plut:Cic_26'2; Schol:Bob_170; { OCD_v.}
13 {14 March -R} Document: Cic:Sest, Cicero's speech in defence of P.Sestius, who is accused of violence in opposing Clodius.
#Cic:QFr_2.4'1; Schol:Bob_125-144; { OCD_s.}
14 Cato returns to Rome with the treasure he has collected from Cyprus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Vell_2.45'5; ValMax_8.15'10; Sen:Dial_6.20'6; Plin:HN_7'113, 34'92; ~Plut:CatMin_39'1-5; Festus:Brev_13'1; AmmMarc_14.8'15; { MRR_p144.}
15 Cato defends the legality of Clodius' acts as tribune, including his own appointment in Cyprus.
* Read Plutarch's account
~Plut:CatMin_40'1-4; +DioCass_39.22'1.
16 Cato declines an offer by the senate to allow him to stand as candidate for praetor before the normal time.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_4.1'14; ~Plut:CatMin_39'3; +DioCass_39.23'1.
17 Document: Cic:QFr_2.4-5, two letters from Cicero to his brother Quintus.
18 EGY << Seleucus Cybiosactes is summoned to be the consort of Berenice, but Berenice puts him to death soon after his arrival.
@  (?) Strab_17'794,(1.8)  '796;(1.11)  Suet:Vesp_19'2; DioCass_39.57'1-2; { CAH_9'397; Hölbl_p227.}
19 GAL << The Veneti seize some Roman soldiers, who came to demand provisions.
* Read Caesar's account
~Caes:BGall_3.12'1-14'1; +DioCass_39.40'1; Oros_6.8'6-8.
20 ROM {5 April -R} Cicero proposes a motion to revise Caesar's allotment of Campanian land.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:QFr_2.6'1, #:Fam_1.9'8-9.
21 Clodius, as aedile, brings slaves onto the stage during the Megalensia.
Cic:HarResp_22-29; { MRR_2'142.}
22 ETR {April -R} Document: Cic:QFr_2.6 & Cic:Att_4.7, letters from Cicero, travelling in Latium, to his brother Quintus and to Atticus.
23 CIS {April -R} Caesar, Pompeius and Crassus meet at Luca, and agree to renew their political alliance.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Cic:Fam_1.9'9; ~Plut:CatMin_41'1-3, :Caes_21'3-9, :Crass_14'4-6, ~:Pomp_51'1-5; Suet:Caes_24'1; Appian:BCiv_2'17; (?) +DioCass_39.24'3-26'4; { CAH_9'394; OCD_l.}
24 SAR Pompeius instructs Cicero (via his brother Quintus) to abandon the motion about Campanian land.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:QFr_2.7'2, +:Fam_1.9'9-10.
25 GAL Caesar returns to Gaul, and sends out forces to stop the spread of the revolt to other tribes.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_3.9'1-11'5; +DioCass_39.40'2; Oros_6.8'9.
26 The senate sends out a commission of ten men to organise Gaul into a Roman province.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_1.7'10, :ProvCon_28, :Balb_61; (?) +DioCass_39.25'1; { CAH_9'393.}
27 ROM Document: Cic:Cael_, Cicero's speech in defence of M.Caelius.
Quint_6.3'25; { OCD_c.}
28 {? May -R} Document: Cic:HarResp_, Cicero's speech "On the answers of the Haruspices", rebutting religious objections to the rebuilding of his house. { See D.R.Shackleton Bailey, "Cicero: Back from Exile", p.103, for the date of this speech.}
29 {15 May -R} The senate refuses to grant a supplication for the victories of Gabinius in Syria.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:QFr_2.7'1-2, :Phil_14'24.
30 ?? Arcesilaus makes models and statues for L.Lucullus.
31 ++ Lucullus spends the last part of his life in decadence and luxury.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Leg_3'30,L  :Acad_2'4, :Off_1'140; Hor:Epist_1.6'40-44; Vell_2.33'4; Plin:HN_28'56,L  36'49; Plut:Cim_3'1, :Luc_1'6, 38'1-42'8, 44'3-6, :Pomp_2'11-12, :Mor_785'F-786'A, 792'B; Athen_6.274'e-f, 12.543'a; [Vict]:VirIll_74'7-8.L 
32 << The death of L.Lucullus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Vell_2.48'6; Plin:HN_25'25;L  Plut:Luc_43'1-44'1, :Mor_792'C; { OCD_l.}
33 {June -R} Document: Cic:ProvCon_, Cicero's speech about the allocation of provinces for the next year.
* Read Cicero's account
@  (?) Cic:Pis_88; Ascon_2;L  { CAH_9'394; OCD-c.}
34 ETR {June -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.5 & 4.8, letters from Cicero to Atticus, written at Antium.
35 EGY Archelaus is installed as the consort of Berenice.
* Read Dio's account
Strab_12'558,(3.34)  17'796;(1.11)  DioCass_39.57'2-3; [Euseb]:Chron_167; { CAH_9'397; Strabo says that Archelaus reigned in Egypt for 6 months.}
36 GAL Caesar constructs ships in preparation for an attack on the Veneti.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_3.12'1-14'1; (?) Appian:Gall_17a; +DioCass_39.40'3-4; Oros_6.8'10.
37 PAL Aristobulus escapes from Rome and returns to Judaea.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'171, :AJ_14'92; { CAH_9'396.}
38 GAL P.Crassus conquers Aquitania.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_3.30'1-27'2; Athen_6.249'a-b<q" NicDam_80>; +DioCass_39.46'1-4; Oros_6.8'19-22.
39 ROM Clodius denounces Cato's conduct in Cyprus.
* Read Dio's account
Seneca:Contr_10.1'8;L  ~Plut:CatMin_45'2-3; +DioCass_39.23'1-4.
40 GAL D.Brutus defeats the Veneti in a naval battle.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_3.14'1-16'4; [Liv]:Per_104; Strab_4'194-195;(4.1)  Flor_1.45'5; +DioCass_39.40'5-43'5; Oros_6.8'11-16; { OCD_v.}
41 Caesar punishes the Veneti and puts their leaders to death.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_3.16'4; +DioCass_39.43'5; Oros_6.8'17.
42 Titurius Sabinus defeats the Venelli.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_3.17'1-19'6; Frontin:Str_3.17'7; +DioCass_39.45'1-7; Oros_6.8'18.
43 PAL The Romans defeat and capture Aristobulus at Machaerus.
* Read Josephus' account
~Joseph:BJ_1'171-174, :AJ_14'92-97; !DioCass_39.56'6.
44 GAL Caesar attacks the Morini and Menapii, but they avoid battle until the onset of winter.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_3.28'1-29'3; Flor_1.45'6; +DioCass_39.44'1-2.
45 ROM Pompeius and Crassus seek to be elected as consuls, although they have not formally declared themselves as candidates.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Att_4.8a'2; [Liv]:Per_105; Vell_2.46'1; Plut:Crass_15'1-2, ~:Pomp_51'6-8, :Mor_204'C; +DioCass_39.27'1-3; { CAH_9'396.}
46 The senate vote to put on mourning clothes in protest at delays in the holding of elections.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_105; ValMax_6.2'6; +DioCass_39.28'1-30'4.
47 {November -R} The senators refuse to participate in the Latin Festival.
DioCass_39.30'4; { At the same time as the "epula Iovis" which was regularly held in November.}
48 ETR {November -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.8a, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
49 ROM Domitius ceases to canvas for votes, after he is violently attacked by supporters of Pompeius and Crassus.
* Read Plutarch's account
~Plut:CatMin_41'3-42'1, :Crass_15'2-4, 35'1, ~:Pomp_52'1-2; Appian:BCiv_2'17;(↓)  ~DioCass_39.31'1.
50 MAC Piso commits further outrages in Macedonia, after hearing that he is about to be replaced as governor.
Cic:Pis_88-91; { MRR_2'143.}
51 ROM Pompeius successfully restores Rome's corn supply.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Scaur_3; ~Plut:Pomp_50'1-3, :Mor_204'C.
52 Document: Cic:Balb, Cicero's speech in defence of L.Balbus' claim to Roman citizenship.
Plin:HN_7'136; { OCD_b.}
53 Document: Cic:Fam_13.6 & 13.6a, two letters from Cicero to Q.Valerius Orca, the governor of Africa.
54 SPA Document: Cic:Fam_5.3, a letter from Metellus Nepos to Cicero.
55 ETR Cicero attempts to buy a property at Lanuvium, because of the expense of rebuilding his existing houses.
56 ROM The senate passes a decree to safeguard a loan given by M.Scaptius to the town of Salamis in Cyprus.
56a == Cicero writes a speech for the tribune L.Racilius, a vigorous opponent of P.Clodius.
Cic:Planc_77; Schol:Bob_166;L  { MRR_2'143.}
57 == Cn.Plancius behaves with moderation in his year as tribune.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Planc_28, 77; Schol:Bob_157,L  165;L  { OCD_p; MRR_2'143.}
58 == Lentulus Marcellinus is an eloquent consul.

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