59 B.C. Olympiad 180.2

Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar, M. Calpurnius C.f. Bibulus
Athenian archon: Leucius

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {January -R} Cicero sees the young Octavianus while accompanying Caesar, and dreams about his future greatness.
Plut:Cic_44'2-4; Suet:Aug_94'9; Tert:Anim_46; DioCass_45.2'1-2.
2 SYR Cn.Lentulus Marcellinus succeeds Marcius Philippus as governor of Syria.
Appian:Syr_51; { OCD_l.}
3 SPA P.Lentulus Spinther is sent out as governor of Nearer Spain, through the influence of Caesar.
Caes:BCiv_1.22'4; { MRR_2'131.}
4 ROM Caesar proposes an agrarian law, but fails to gain the support of the senate.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fam_13.4'2; +Plut:CatMin_31'6-32'2, +:Caes_14'2-3; +Appian:BCiv_2'10; +DioCass_38.1'1-2'3; { CAH_9'369.}
5 Pompeius and Crassus speak in favour of Caesar's law at an assembly.
* Read Dio's account
+Plut:Caes_14'4-6, :Pomp_47'5-8; +Appian:BCiv_2'10; +DioCass_38.4'1-5'5.
6 Caesar attempts to put Cato in prison.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_2.10'7; +Plut:CatMin_33'2-4, +:Caes_14'11-15; +Suet:Caes_20'4; Gell_4.10'8<q" Capito>; +DioCass_38.3'1-3; { CAH_9'369; there is disagreement between the sources about the context of this incident.}
7 Caesar curbs opposition from Lucullus by threatening him with prosecution.
+Suet:Caes_20'4; { CAH_9'372.}
8 Caesar's agrarian law is passed by the assembly of the people, after his opponents are removed by force.
@  (?) ARS_91; Cic:Vat_21-23; [Liv]:Per_103; Vell_2.44'2; +Plut:CatMin_32'3-4, +:Caes_14'9, :Pomp_48'1-3; +Suet:Caes_20'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'11; +DioCass_38.6'1-4; Schol:Bob_161-162;L  { CAH_9'369-371; OCD_c.}
9 The senators, including Cato, are forced to swear to abide by the terms of Caesar's law.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Plut:CatMin_32'5-11; +Appian:BCiv_2'12; +DioCass_38.7'1-2; Schol:Bob_133.L 
10 Caesar grants a rebate to the contractors for tax-collecting in Asia.
Cic:Planc_35; +Suet:Caes_20'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'13, 5'4;(↓)  +DioCass_38.7'4-5; Schol:Bob_157,L  159;L  { CAH_9'372.}
11 Caesar passes a law to ratify Pompeius' arrangements in the East.
* Read Dio's account
[Caes]:BAlex_68'1; Strab_12'558;(3.33)  Plut:Pomp_48'4; +Appian:BCiv_2'13; +DioCass_38.7'5; { CAH_9'372; OCD_vatinius.}
12 {March -R} Cicero speaks in defence of C.Antonius, but Antonius is convicted of extortion and goes into exile.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Dom_41, :Vat_27-28, :Cael_16, 45, 74; Strab_10'455;(2.13)  ValMax_4.2'6; +Suet:Caes_20'4; +DioCass_38.10'1-11'6; [Vict]:VirIll_81'4; Schol:Bob_94,L  149;L  { CAH_9'372.}
13 Clodius is transferred to the plebeians, after being "adopted" by P.Fonteius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Dom_35-42, 77, :HarResp_45, :Sest_15-16, :ProvCon_42, :Att_8.3'3; [Liv]:Per_103; Ascon_26;L  +Plut:Caes_14'16-17; +Suet:Caes_20'4, :Tib_2'4; +DioCass_38.12'1-2, 39.11'2; { CAH_9'372; OCD_c.}
14 EGY << Diodorus starts the research for his history, by making a visit to Egypt.
* Read Diodorus' account
Diod_1.4'1, 44'1, '4, 46'7, 83'8-9; { OCD_d; when Diodorus visited Egypt, Ptolemy had not yet been recognised by the Romans.}
15 The Romans recognise Ptolemy as a Roman ally, after he pays a large bribe.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_2.16'2, :RabPost_4-6; +Caes:BCiv_3.107'2; Suet:Caes_54'3; { CAH_9'373; Hölbl_p225-226.}
16 ROM {? April -R} The consul Bibulus retires to his home, and refrains from public business.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:HarResp_45; +Vell_2.44'5; Sen:Dial_6.14'1-2; +Plut:Caes_14'9, :Pomp_48'5; +Suet:Caes_20'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'12;(↓)  +DioCass_38.6'4-6; Schol:Bob_147-148;L  { CAH_9'371; according to Plutarch, Bibulus stayed at home for the last eight months of the year.}
17 Pompeius marries Julia, the daughter of Caesar.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Off_3'82; Vell_2.44'3; Plut:CatMin_31'6, :Caes_5'7, +14'7, :Pomp_47'9-10, 70'7; +Suet:Caes_21'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'14; +DioCass_38.9'1; { CAH_9'374; OCD_c.}
18 Caesar shows great respect towards Pompeius, following their marriage alliance.
* Read Gellius' account
Gell_4.10'5-7; +Suet:Caes_21'1, 83'1.
19 Caesar buys an expensive pearl for Servilia, the mother of Brutus.
20 ETR Cicero composes a secret pamphlet against the triumvirate.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_2.6'2; DioCass_39.10'1-3.
21 {April -R} Document: Cic:Att_2.4-15, letters from Cicero to Atticus, written while Cicero was at Antium and Formiae. { OCD_9'373.}
22 {May -R} Document: Cic:Att_2.16 & 2.17, two more letters from Cicero to Atticus, referring to proposals for using Campanian land.
23 ROM Caesar is given the provinces of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, through a law proposed by Vatinius.
* Read Dio's account
Vell_2.44'5; +Plut:CatMin_33'5, +:Caes_14'10, :Pomp_48'4, :Crass_14'3; +Suet:Caes_22'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'13,(↓)  '+14;(↓)  +DioCass_38.8'3-5; Eutrop_6.17'1; Oros_6.7'1; Schol:Bob_146;L  { CAH_9'374; OCD_v.}
24 Caesar marries Calpurnia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Caes_14'8, :Pomp_47'10; +Suet:Caes_21'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'14; +DioCass_38.9'1; { OCD_caes.}
25 Caesar passes a law to distribute the Campanian land, in addition to his previous agrarian law.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_2.18'2; Caes:BCiv_1.14'4; Cic:Phil_2'101; +Vell_2.44'4; Plin:HN_7'176; +Plut:CatMin_33'1, :Cic_26'3; +Suet:Caes_20'3, :Caes_81'1, :Aug_4'1; Appian:BCiv_2'10; +DioCass_38.7'3, 45.12'2.
26 Cicero rejects Caesar's offers of appointments, including a place on the agrarian commission.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_2.18'3, :ProvCon_41-42, :Pis_79; Vell_2.45'2; Plut:Cic_30'2-3; { CAH_9'375.}
27 Metellus Celer dies suddenly, as he is setting out for his province.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Vat_19, :Cael_34, 59-60; Schol:Bob_139,L  147;L  { CAH_9'371.}
28 Vettius claims to be involved in a plot to kill Caesar and Pompeius.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Vat_42-46; Plut:Luc_42'7-8; +Suet:Caes_20'5; +Appian:BCiv_2'12; +DioCass_38.9'2-4; Schol:Bob_139,L  148;L  { CAH_9'375; OCD_v.}
29 Clodius is elected tribune for the following year.
Quint_2.4'35; +Plut:CatMin_33'6; +Appian:BCiv_2'14; +DioCass_38.12'2.
30 Caesar establishes Ariovistus, the king of the Germans, as a Roman ally.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_1.35'2, 40'2; Plut:Caes_19'1; +Appian:Gall_16'1-17'1.(21) 
31 The senate gives the province of Transalpine Gaul to Caesar, in addition to Cisalpine Gaul.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Att_8.3'3; +Suet:Caes_22'1-2; +DioCass_38.8'5; Oros_6.7'1; { CAH_9'274; OCD_c.}
32 Vatinius passes a law, on behalf of Caesar, to send colonists to Novum Comum.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_5'213;(1.6)  Suet:Caes_28'3; Appian:BCiv_2'26; { OCD_v; MRR_2'130.}
32a Diphilus the actor is applauded when he recites a line from a play, "To our misfortune you are Great", with reference to Pompeius.
Cic:Att_2.19'3; ValMax_6.2'9.
32b ++ The philosopher Diodotus lives with Cicero for many years, after he goes blind.
Cic:Tusc_5'113; { Diodotus died in 59 B.C. - see Cic:Att_2.20'6.}
33 << Document: Cic:QFr_1.1, a long letter of advice from Cicero to his brother Quintus.
34 {June/July -R} Document: Cic:Att_2.18-21, four letters from Cicero to Atticus, written after his return to Rome.
35 THR C.Octavius defeats the Bessi.
* Read Suetonius' account
+CIL_6.1311; Vell_2.59'2; Suet:Aug_3'2, 94'5-7; { MRR_2'131.}
35a EGY << Document: CPI_59, an inscription in honour of the nurse of king Ptolemy XII.
36 ROM Caesar passes the Lex Julia de repetundis, a law to prevent extortion by provincial governors.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Sest_135, :Pis_37, 50, 90, :RabPost_12, :Att_5.16'3, :Fam_2.17'2, 5.20'2; Justin:Dig_50.5'3<q" Scaevola>; Justin:Dig_1.9'2<q" Marcellus>, 1.16'10<q" Ulpian>, 48.1.1<q" Macer>, 48.11'1-9; Schol:Bob_140,L  149;L  { CAH_9'377; OCD_c.}
37 The aediles C.Murena and C.Varro import Spartan paintings to display in Rome.
* Read Vitruvius' account
Vitr_2.8'9; Plin:HN_35'173; { MRR_2'130.}
38 Document: Cic:Flac_, Cicero's speech in defence of L.Flaccus.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_2.25'1; (?) ValMax_7.8'7; Macrob:Sat_2.1'13;L  Schol:Bob_93-108;L  { CAH_9'377; OCD_f.}
39 Document: Cic:Att_2.22-25, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
40 {17 October -R} Gabinius and Piso, the nominees of the triumvirs, are elected consuls for the following year.
Cic:RedSen_17, :Pis_3; +Plut:CatMin_33'7, :Pomp_48'4; +Appian:BCiv_2'14; Schol:Bob_108.
41 {? November -R} Document: Cic:QFr_1.2, another letter from Cicero to his brother Quintus.
42 {29 December -R} Clodius prevents Bibulus from making a speech at the end of his year as consul.
43 == Calenus passes a law requiring the votes of the three classes in juries to be recorded separately.
+DioCass_38.8'1; Schol:Bob_97.L 
44 == Caesar publishes the Acts (proceedings) of the Roman senate and people.
+Suet:Caes_20'1; { CAH_9'368; OCD_c.}
45 == The Lex Julia improves the welfare of the citizens of Utica.
[Caes]:BAfr_87'3; { It is not clear which Lex Julia this refers to.}
46 == Cicero unsuccessfully advises Pompeius to curtail his support for Caesar.
47 << Brithagoras goes to visit Caesar, in an attempt to restore the liberty of Heracleia.
Memn_40'1-3; { If it is true that Brithagoras stayed with Caesar for 12 years, this must have been before Caesar left for Gaul.}
48 == Caesar steals 3,000 pounds of gold from the Capitol at Rome.
49 == General comments on Caesar's first consulship.
* Read Suetonius' account
Suet:Caes_9'2, 20'2, 30'3; Appian:BCiv_2'13, 2'25; +DioCass_38.8'2; Schol:Bob_135.L 
50 == The misdemeanours of Vatinius, as tribune.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Vat_5, 13-20, 29-32; Schol:Bob_145-147,L  149-151;L  { MRR_2'130.}
51 == The supposed setting of a literary dialogue between Curio and his son.
52 ?? M.Antonius spends all of the younger Curio's money.
Plut:Ant_2'4-5; { Before Clodius became tribune.}
53 == The birth of the historian T.Livius.
+Hieron:Chron_1958; { OCD_l.}
54 ASI << Q.Cicero has a premonition of his brother's exile.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Div_1'58, 2'136, '140.
55 PAL ?? Menaemus greets the young Herodes as "king of the Jews".
Joseph:AJ_15'373; { Herodes was born in about 73 B.C.}

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