148 B.C. Olympiad 158.1

Consuls: Sp. Postumius Sp.f. Albinus Magnus, L. Calpurnius C.f. Piso Caesoninus
Athenian archon: Archon
Achaean General: Diaeus (II?)
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Orthon of Syracuse

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM The Achaeans send Diaeus as envoy to Rome.
* Read Pausanias' account
Paus_7.12'8-9; Just_34.1'4-5; { Green_449.}
2 SYR {21 Peritius -M = February} An earthquake at Antioch.
Malal_207-208; { According to Malalas, this happened 152 years after the foundation of Antioch, but he gives a confused account of the kings of this period.}
3 EGY {Mecheir -E = Feb./March} Document: THI_21, a petition from priests of the Nubian god Mandulis.
3a {22 Mecheir -E = March} Document: AET_7.22, a contract between sculptors and a temple at Tholthis.
4 ROM ?? Marcellus puts up statues of his family.
5 NUM << The dream of Scipio.
Cic:Rep_6'9-29; { This is supposed to have happened while Scipio was in Africa, before the death of Masinissa.}
6 ?? Masinissa returns some huge tusks which were stolen from a temple in Melita.
Cic:Verr_2.4'103; ValMax_1.1e'2.
7 The Roman ambassador M.Marcellus dies in a shipwreck while travelling to visit Masinissa.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Pis_44, :Div_2'14; [Liv]:Per_50, +:EpOx_50'121-122;L  Ascon_12.L 
8 ++ General comments on the long reign of Masinissa, his physical toughness and his loyalty to Rome.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_36.16'1-9, '11; Athen_6.229'd, 12.518'f-519'a<q" PtolEuerg_8>; Sall:Jug_14'18; Diod_32.16'1; Strab_17'833;(3.15)  ValMax_8.13e'1, 9.13e'2; Frontin:Str_4.3'11; Appian:Pun_106'
9 The death of Masinissa; Scipio divides the kingdom of Numidia between Masinissa's sons.
* Read Zonaras' account
~Polyb_36.16'10; Sall:Jug_5'5; Diod_32.16'1; [Liv]:Per_50, +:EpOx_50'117-122;L  Plin:HN_5'25, 7'156; Plut:Mor_791'F; Appian:Pun_105, 106-107;(↓)  Lucian:Macr_17; Eutrop_4.11'1; Oros_4.22'8; ~Zonar_9'27;(p379)  { OCD_m.}
9b ARM << The Parthian king establishes his brother Valarsaces as ruler of Armenia.
Movses_2'3; { What is recorded about Valarsaces is mostly legend, but this is the traditional date for his accession.}
9c PER {Panemus -M = ? June/July} Document: THI_25, the inscription on a statue of Heracles at Behistun.
10 MAC Andriscus defeats the praetor Juventius.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_36.17'1-15; Diod_32.9a'1; [Liv]:Per_50, +:EpOx_50'126;L  Flor_1.30'4-5; Eutrop_4.13'1; Oros_4.22'9; Zonar_9'28;(p385)  { CAH_8'321=149; Walbank_p678.}
11 AFR Manilius captures Tezaga and other towns.
* Read Livy's account
[Liv]:Per_50, +:EpOx_50'125;L  Oros_4.22'8; ~Zonar_9'27;(p381)  { CAH_8'159.}
12 Negotiations between Phameas and Scipio.
* Read Appian's account
Diod_32.17'1; Appian:Pun_107; DioCass_fr.71'2; +Zonar_9'27.(p381) 
13 PEL The Spartans secede from the Achaean League.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_3.5'6; Paus_7.12'9; Trog:Prol_33; { Walbank_p698.}
14 AFR Phameas deserts to the Romans.
* Read Appian's account
~[Liv]:Per_50; Appian:Pun_108-109, 111; +Zonar_9'27.(p381) 
15 ROM Scipio returns from Africa with Phameas.
* Read Appian's account
Appian:Pun_109; +Zonar_9'27.(p383) 
16 AFR Piso is repulsed from Aspis.
* Read Diodorus' account
Diod_32.18'1; +Appian:Pun_110; +Zonar_9'29.(p387) 
17 MAC Andriscus is successful in a cavalry battle.
18 Metellus defeats Andriscus.
* Read Zonaras' account
Diod_32.9b'1, 15'7; [Liv]:Per_50, +:EpOx_52'153<x>;L  Vell_1.11'2; Paus_7.13'1; [Euseb]:Chron_239;(↓)  +Obseq_19; [Vict]:VirIll_61'1; Eutrop_4.13'1; +Zonar_9'28;(p385-7)  { OCD_a; Green_447.}
19 PEL An Achaean army, led by Damocritus, attacks Sparta.
* Read Pausanias' account
Polyb_38.15'6; Paus_7.13'1-5; Just_34.1'1-3; { Walbank_p699.}
20 AFR Piso is repulsed from Hippagreta.
* Read Appian's account
+Appian:Pun_110; +Zonar_9'29.(p387) 
21 MAC ++ General comments on the brief war against Andriscus.
Tac:Ann_12'62; Festus:Brev_7'4; AmmMarc_26.6'20.
22 Metellus captures Andriscus; end of the rebellion in Macedonia.
* Read Diodorus' account
Diod_32.15'7; [Liv]:Per_50, +:EpOx_50'127;L  Flor_1.30'5; Ampel_16'5; [Euseb]:Chron_239;(↓)  Eutrop_4.13'1; +Zonar_9'28;(p387)  { CAH_8'321.}
23 LUS ?? Viriathus becomes the leader of the Lusitanian rebels.
* Read Livy's account
Diod_33.1'1-3, 21a'1; ~[Liv]:Per_52; Flor_1.33'15; DioCass_fr.73'1; Just_44.2'7; [Vict]:VirIll_71'1; Eutrop_4.16'2; Oros_5.4'1; { Some sources say that Viriathus was leader for 14 years, but this is a mistake; 7 years (App:Hisp_75) is more plausible.}
24 AFR The Carthaginians send envoys to Africa, Mauretania, and Macedonia, urging other states to join in the fight against Rome.
* Read Appian's account
+Appian:Pun_111; +Zonar_9'29.(p387) 
25 ROM Scipio is elected consul.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Amic_11; [Liv]:Per_50, +:EpOx_50'123-124;L  Vell_1.12'3; ValMax_8.15'4; Plut:Mor_200'A, 804'F-805'A; +Appian:Pun_112; DioCass_fr.70'2-3; [Vict]:VirIll_58'5; Eutrop_4.12'1; +Zonar_9'29;(p387)  { CAH_8'191; OCD_s.}
26 AFR Hasdrubal, grandson of Masinissa, is murdered at Carthage.
* Read Appian's account
[Liv]:Per_50, +:EpOx_50'122-123;L  +Appian:Pun_111;(↓)  Oros_4.22'8; { CAH_8'159.}
27 ROM Scipio is given command of the war in Africa, and carefully chooses the officers to serve with him there.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Verr_2.2'28-29; ~[Liv]:Per_51; ValMax_8.15'4; Flor_1.31'12; +Appian:Pun_112.(↓) 
28 PEL The Achaeans fine Damocritus for his failure in the war against Sparta.
Paus_7.13'5; { Walbank_p699.}
29 ROM The "regia" at Rome is badly damaged by fire.
+[Liv]:EpOx_50'127-129;L  +Obseq_19.
30 == The birth of M.Perperna, later consul and censor.
~Plin:HN_7'156; { OCD_p.}
31 ?? Cornelia bears twelve children to Ti.Gracchus, alternating between sons and daughters.
* Read Plutarch's account
Sen:Dial_12.16'6; Plin:HN_7'57; Plut:CGrac_1'2.
32 ++ General comments on the patriotic virtues of Ti.Gracchus.
33 ?? Ti.Gracchus the elder dies, shortly after discovering two snakes on his bed.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Div_1'36, 2'62; ValMax_4.6'1; Plin:HN_7'122; Plut:TGrac_1'4-7; [Vict]:VirIll_57'4; { This must have happened at some time between the birth of C.Gracchus (? 154 B.C.) and the start of Ti.Gracchus' public career..}
34 ?? A saying of Cornelia about her young children, Ti. and C.Gracchus.
ValMax_4.4'pr; { As soon as he reached adulthood, Ti.Gracchus went to Africa with Scipio.}

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