168 B.C. Olympiad 153.1

Consuls: L. Aemilius L.f. Paullus (II), C. Licinius C.f. Crassus
Athenian archon: Xenocles
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Aristander of Antissa (Lesbos)

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {15 March -R = January} The consuls enter office; an embassy from Alexandria appeals to the senate for help against Antiochus IV.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_29.2'1-4; +Liv_44.19'1-14.
2 {18 March -R = January} Legates from Macedonia return to Rome at evening time.
3 {19 March -R = January} The legates from Macedonia appear before the senate; Paullus makes a speech to the people.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_29.1'1-3; +Liv_44.20'2-22'15; +Plut:Aem_11'1-4, :Mor_197'F; { CAH_8'315.}
4 {12 April -R = February} Paullus leaves for Macedonia, after celebrating the Latin Festival.
* Read Livy's account
Cic:Att_4.13'2; +Liv_44.19'4, #22'16-17, 45.39'9; { CAH_8'316.}
5 MOE Perseus fails to win the support of the Bastarnae.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_29.9'13; Diod_30.19'1, 21'3, 31.14'1; +Liv_44.26'1-27'7; +Plut:Aem_12'2-13'1; Appian:Mac_18'1-3.(32) 
6 PEL << An embassy from Egypt asks the Achaean assembly for support against Antiochus, but receives no practical help.
~Polyb_29.23'1-25'7; { Walbank_p396.}
7 AEG The Macedonian fleet sails into the Aegean, and surprises a convoy of Pergamene ships.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_44.28'1-29'5, 45.31'14; Appian:Mac_18'4.(34) 
8 EGY Antiochus IV invades Egypt for a second time.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_29.26'1-2; ~2Macc_5'1-4; Diod_31.1'1; +Liv_45.11'9-12'2; Porph:Fr_50; { CAH_8'344.}
8a << Document: BD_40A, describing fighting in Egypt during the invasion by Antiochus.
8b GRE ?? Document: BD_(2)48,B  a decree of Chalcis in response to a consignment of grain from Ptolemy VI.
9 AEG The Rhodians decide to try to mediate between Perseus and the Romans.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_29.10'1-11'6; +Liv_44.29'6-8; { CAH_8'337.}
10 ILL {?May} The praetor L.Anicius arrives in Illyria.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_44.30'1-15; Appian:Ill_9;(↓)  +Eutrop_4.6'4.
11 ITA {May} Paullus sets sail from Brundisium for Corcyra.
* Read Diodorus' account
#Diod_31.11'1; #Liv_45.41'3, '5; +Plut:Aem_12'1, #36'4; Appian:Mac_19'2.(35) 
12 GRE {June} Paullus arrives at Delphi.
* Read Diodorus' account
#Diod_31.11'1; #Liv_45.41'3; #Plut:Aem_36'4; Appian:Mac_19'2;(35)  { Green_430.}
13 MAC {June} Paullus reaches the Roman army at the river Elpeus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Diod_30.20'1, #31.11'1; +Liv_44.32'5-35'5, #45.41'4; ValMax_2.7'14; Plut:Aem_12'1-14'11, :Gal_1'2, :Mor_198'A; #Appian:Mac_19'2;(35)  Just_33.1'6; +Eutrop_4.6'4; +Zonar_9'23.(p341) 
14 ILL {?June} Anicius captures Genthius, the king of the Illyrians.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_44.31'1-32'5, 45.26'13-14, 43'4; Strab_6'287;(4.2)  +Plut:Aem_13'3; Flor_1.29'2; Appian:Ill_9; Festus:Brev_7'5; +Eutrop_4.6'4; +Zonar_9'24;(p349)  { CAH_8'316; OCD_i.}
15 MAC {June} Paullus decides to attack Perrhaebia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Pacuv:Paulus_5;L  +Liv_44.35'6-15; +Plut:Aem_15'1-11; +Zonar_9'23.(p341) 
16 {June} Paullus engages in fighting by the Elpeus.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_29.14'4; +Liv_44.35'16-20; +Zonar_9'23.(p341) 
17 The Romans sustain heavy casualties in further fighting by the Elpeus.
18 {2 September -R = 20 June} Nasica defeats the Macedonian garrison at Pythium.
* Read Plutarch's account
#Diod_31.11'1; +Liv_44.35'23-24, #45.41'4; +Plut:Aem_16'1-4; Flor_1.28'7; +Zonar_9'23;(p343)  { CAH_8'316.}
19 {3 September -R = 21 June} Paullus advances to Pydna; Sulpicius Gallus predicts a lunar eclipse, which occurs during the night.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_29.16'1-3; Cic:Rep_1'23-24; #Liv_44.36'1-37'9; ValMax_8.11'1; Plin:HN_2'53; Quint_1.10'47; Frontin:Str_1.12'8; +Plut:Aem_16'5-17'10, :Mor_198'A-B; Just_33.1'7; +Zonar_9'23;(p343)  { CAH_8'316; OCD_g.}
20 {4 September -R = 22 June} Paullus defeats Perseus at the battle of Pydna.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_29.17'1-4; Pacuv:Paulus_1-4;L  Diod_30.22'1; +Liv_44.37'10-44'3, 45.37'9-10, 41'4-5; Vell_1.9'4; Frontin:Str_2.3'20, 4.5'17; Plut:CatMai_20'10-11, +:Aem_17'11-23'8, 36'4, :Mor_70'A-B; Flor_1.28'8-9, 14-15; Appian:Mac_19'2;(35)  Just_33.2'1-4; [Euseb]:Chron_239; [Vict]:VirIll_58'1; #Eutrop_4.7'1; +Oros_4.20'39; +Zonar_9'23;(p345)  { CAH_8'316; OCD_pa; scenes from the battle of Pydna appear on the Monument of Aemilius Paullus - see the discussion by Michael Taylor.}
21 The Thracian garrison is tricked into leaving Amphipolis.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_44.43'8, 44'4-8; Frontin:Str_3.16'5.
22 ROM P.Vatinius has a divine revelation from the Dioscuri, announcing Paullus' victory.
Cic:ND_2'6, 3'11, '13; ValMax_1.8'1; Plin:HN_7'86; MinFel:Oct_7'3, 27'4.
23 MAC {6 September -R = 24 June} Perseus arrives at Amphipolis.
* Read Livy's account
Diod_30.21'1-2; #Liv_44.45'1-14, 45.41'6; +Plut:Aem_23'9-24'2; +Zonar_9'23.(p345) 
24 AEG {7 September -R = 25 June} Perseus takes refuge in Samothrace.
* Read Livy's account
Diod_29.25'1; #Liv_44.45'14-15, 45.40'2; Vell_1.9'4; ValMax_1.8'1; +Plut:Aem_23'11; Flor_1.28'9; Ampel_16'4; +Zonar_9'23.(p345) 
25 ROM An unsubstantiated rumour about victory in Macedonia spreads at Rome.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_45.1'2-5; +Plut:Aem_24'4-6, 31'6; +Zonar_9'24.(p351) 
26 MAC Paullus reaches Pella.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_44.46'1-11; +Plut:Aem_24'3.
27 PAL Jason attacks Menelaus, who appeals for help to Antiochus.
* Read 2Maccabees' account
2Macc_1'7, ~5'5-10; Joseph:AJ_12'239-240; Hieron:Chron_1845; Malal_206; { CAH_8'348; Green_512.}
28 ROM {16 September -R = 4 July} Official news of the victory at Pydna reaches Rome.
29 AEG A Roman delegation arrives at Samothrace to negotiate with Perseus.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_45.4'2-7; Flor_1.28'10; +Zonar_9'23.(p345) 
30 Euander the Cretan is killed, probably by order of Perseus.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_45.5'1-12; DioCass_fr.66'3; +Zonar_9'23.(p347) 
31 The Macedonian fleet withdraws to Cassandreia after receiving news of the battle of Pydna.
32 A Roman embassy led by Popillius goes to Rhodes, and persuades an assembly to condemn to death those suspected of sympathising with Perseus.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_45.10'4-15; DioCass_fr.68'1.
33 GRE Document: IG_2³.1334, a decree in honour of Calliphanes, an Athenian who was with the Roman army at Pydna.
34 ROM {25 September -R = 13 July} Envoys from Paullus arrive at Rome.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_45.1'5, #2'1-12; ValMax_1.8'1; +Zonar_9'24.(p351) 
35 ?? The first bakers start up business at Rome.
36 AEG ++ The Rhodians and other Greek states fail to give full support to the Romans during the war against Perseus.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_30.7'2-8'8; Sall:Cat_51'5; Diod_31.5'1, '3; Liv_45.31'7, '15, 42'7-10; Vell_1.9'2; Paus_7.10'8-9; Gell_6.3'3-5, '15-16.
37 MAC ++ General remarks about the war between Rome and Perseus, and the Roman conquest of Macedonia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Polyb_30.3'1, 36.9'7; Diod_31.9'1, 32.4'5; Memn_18'4; Plut:Sull_12'9-11, :Tim_40'1-4,(1)  :Mor_474'F-475'A; Malal_208-209; Zonar_9'22.(p335) 
38 AEG Perseus surrenders to the Romans; the end of the war against Perseus, the last king of Macedonia.
* Read Livy's account
Polyb_31.25'6-7; Diod_31.11'2; +Liv_45.6'1-12; Vell_1.9'5; +Plut:Aem_26'1-7; DioCass_fr.66'4; Just_33.2'5; [Euseb]:Chron_241;(↓)  Malal_196; ExcBarb_44A; +Zonar_9'23;(p349)  { CAH_8'316; OCD_p.}
39 EGY {Paoni -E = July} Popillius meets Antiochus near Alexandria, and promptly orders him to withdraw from Egypt.
* Read Polybius' account
#AET_2.3'R4-11, 'V6-13; Daniel_11'29-30; ~Polyb_29.27'1-13; Cic:Phil_8'23; Diod_31.2'1-2; +Liv_45.12'3-8, 23'12; Vell_1.10'1-2; ValMax_6.4'3; Plin:HN_34'24; Plut:Mor_202'E-203'A; Appian:Syr_66; Just_34.3'1-4; Trog:Prol_34; Porph:Fr_50; !Hieron:Chron_1845; Zonar_9'25;(p361)  { CAH_8'344; OCD_p.}
40 << Antiochus carries back a large quantity of loot from his invasions of Egypt.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_30.26'9; Porph:Fr_49.
41 MAC Paullus receives Perseus at the Roman camp.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_29.20'1-21'9; Cic:Tusc_5'118; Diod_30.23'1-2; +Liv_45.7'1-9'1; ValMax_5.1'8; +Plut:Aem_26'8-27'6; Flor_1.28'10-11; DioCass_fr.66'4; +Eutrop_4.7'2; +Zonar_9'23.(p349) 
42 ROM Rhodian envoys, led by Agepolis, address the senate, and are accused of supporting Perseus.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_29.19'1-11; Diod_30.24'1; +Liv_45.3'1-4'1, 23'11-12; Gell_6.3'2-3; { CAH_8'337.}
43 {11 October -R = 28 July} A thanksgiving is held for Paullus' victory.
44 {29 October -R = 15 August} A thanksgiving is held for Anicius' victory.
45 EGY {30 Epeiph -E = August} Document: SelPap_1.97, a letter from Isias to Hephaestion.
46 {Epeiph -E = August} Document: AET_2.3'A-B, a statement by Hor claiming that he foretold the retreat of Antiochus from Egypt.
47 PAL Antiochus captures Jerusalem, and massacres the inhabitants.
* Read 2Maccabees' account
~2Macc_5'11-21; 4Macc_4'21-23; Joseph:BJ_1'19, '32-33, 5'394, 6'436, :AJ_12'248-250; ChronPasc_464'B, 509'B; Hieron:Chron_1857; Sulpit_2'19; Malal_206; ExcBarb_35B; ChronSynt_65, 67;(↓)  Suda_A'2693; { CAH_8'534; Green_513.}
48 CIS The consul Licinius takes charge of an army in Cisalpine Gaul, but remains inactive.
49 MAC Paullus punishes deserters by throwing them under his elephants.
50 Paullus rewards Q.Tubero with some silver from the Macedonian spoils.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_4.3'7; Sen:Ep_95'72-73, 98'13, 104'21, 120'19; Plin:HN_33'142; ~Plut:Aem_28'10-13, :Mor_198'C; { Plinius has confused Q.Aelius Tubero with Sex.Aelius Paetus.}
51 ASI The Galatians attack Eumenes.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_29.22'1-4; Diod_31.12'1-13'1; Liv_45.19'3, 20'1; { CAH_8'333.}
52 ROM Embassies from Antiochus, Ptolemy, Eumenes and Masinissa, and from Pisa and Luna, appear before the senate.
* Read Livy's account
Polyb_30.16'2; +Liv_45.13'1-14'9; ValMax_5.1'1.
53 PON Prusias of Bithynia calls himself a freedman of Rome.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_30.18'3-4; Diod_31.15'2; Liv_45.44'19; Plut:Mor_336'E; Appian:Mith_2; DioCass_fr.69'1; { Appianus states that this was after the capture of Perseus, though Walbank (p441) suggests it may have been in 172 B.C., before the start of the war.}
54 ILL Anicius subdues Illyria and Epirus, and organizes their administration.
* Read Diodorus' account
@  (?) Cato:Orig_5'4;L (96)  Diod_31.8'2-3, '5; ~Liv_45.26'1-15; Strab_7'315;(5.6)  { Walbank_p431.}
55 AEG Deinon and Polyaratus, the most outspoken supporters of Perseus at Rhodes, are brought to Rome.
Polyb_30.6'1-9'21; { Not long after Popilius' mission to Egypt.}
56 EGY The Egyptians set free Menalcidas of Lacedaemon, at the request of Popillius.
Polyb_30.16'1-2; { Walbank_p439.}
57 GRE Paullus tours the Greek cities.
* Read Livy's account
CIL_1.622; Polyb_30.10'1-6; ~Liv_45.27'1-28'6; ~Plut:Aem_28'1-5; { Walbank_p431.}
58 ROM ?? Caecilius' cognomen "Statius" indicates that he was originally a slave.
59 == The death of the dramatist Caecilius Statius.
!Hieron:Chron_1838; { OCD_c.}
60 == Crates of Mallus lectures at Rome.
Suet:Gram_2; { CAH_8'471; OCD_c.}

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