222 B.C. Olympiad 139.3

Consuls: Cn. Cornelius L.f. Scipio Calvus, M. Claudius M.f. Marcellus
Athenian archon: Euxenus
Achaean General: Aratus (XII)

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 EGY {13 Choiak -E = January} Document: SelPap_267A, a petition from a widow in the Arsinoite nome.
1a PEL The Achaeans refound Mantineia as "Antigoneia".
2 ROM {10 March -R} Flaminius celebrates a triumph for his victory over the Insubres.
* Read Plutarch's account
Liv_21.63'2, 23.14'4; +FastTr_p101; Plut:Marc_4'6-7; Flor_1.20'4; +Zonar_8'20.(p49) 
3 Flaminius and Furius are forced to resign, and new consuls are elected after a short interregnum.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Marc_4'6, +6'1; +Zonar_8'20.(p49) 
4 ROM {12 March -R} Furius celebrates a triumph over the Gauls.
4a MAC {9 Xandicus -M = March} Document: SEG_60.585, a letter of Antigonus III concerning the son of Nicarchus of Azorus.
4b EGY {Dius -M} Document: SelPap_2.349, a contract for a crop of sesame.
4c MES {Nisanu -B = April/May} Document: Cuneif_BM116690, a contract from Uruk dated to the reign of Seleucus.
4d SYR ?? Mnesiptolemus recites his histories to Seleucus.
Athen_10.432'b-c<q" Epinicus>.
5 Seleucus III is assassinated, and is succeeded by his brother Antiochus III.
* Read Justin's account
+BabylChron_BM.35603'R2-3; Polyb_2.71'4, 4.2'7, 48'6-8, 5.40'6, 39.8'5-6; Appian:Syr_66; Just_29.1'3; Trog:Prol_27; Porph:Fr_44; +[Euseb]:Chron_253, 263; +Hieron:Chron_1794; Sulpit_2'19; Malal_205; ExcBarb_46A; { CAH_7.1'430=223; Errington_p125; according to G.R.F.Assar, the date was April/May 222.}
5a ASI Antiochus appoints Achaeus to command his forces in Asia Minor.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_4.48'9-10, 5.40'7.
5b Ptolemy sends his son Magas to lead Egyptian forces in Asia Minor.
PHaun_6'19, '28-30; { Hölbl_p54; Bennett.}
6 ROM The Gauls buy the support of the Gaesatae, after their attempts to sue for peace are rejected by the consuls.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_2.34'1-2; +Plut:Marc_6'2-4; +Zonar_8'20.(p49) 
7 PEL Cleomenes devastates the countryside around Argos, without meeting any resistance.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_2.64'1-7; ~Plut:Cleom_25'4-8; { CAH_7.1'471.}
8 Cleomenes leads a second raid against Argos.
8a MES {Aiaru -B = May/June} A large quantity of silver and gold is stolen from the Esagila temple at Babylon.
9 CIS The Romans besiege Acerrae.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_2.34'3-4; +Plut:Marc_6'4-5; +Zonar_8'20;(p49)  { CAH_7.2'435.}
10 Marcellus defeats the Gauls at Clastidium, and kills their chief Viridomarus in single combat.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Polyb_2.34'5-9; Prop_4.10'39-44; Liv_27.25'7, 29.11'13; +FastTr_p101; [Liv]:Per_20; ValMax_3.2'5; Frontin:Str_4.5'4; +Plut:Marc_6'6-7'6; +Eutrop_3.6'1; Oros_4.13'15; +Zonar_8'20;(p49)  { CAH_7.2'435; OCD_m.}
11 PEL King Ptolemy withdraws his subsidy to Cleomenes.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_2.63'1-5; ~Plut:Cleom_32'4; { CAH_7.1'471.}
12 Antigonus enters Laconia and encamps opposite Cleomenes at Sellasia.
~Polyb_2.65'1-66'2; { CAH_7.1'471.}
13 ++ General remarks about the war between Cleomenes and the Achaean League.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_4.5'5, 60'2, 76'7.
14 ++ General remarks about the reign of Cleomenes, a brave but ruthless king.
* Read Plutarch's account
Polyb_9.23'3; Liv_34.26'14; Plut:Agis_2'9-11, :Cleom_13'1-9, :CGrac_20'1-24'7; Paus_3.6'9.
15 {July ?} Antigonus defeats Cleomenes at Sellasia, and forces him to escape from Sparta.
* Read Polybius' account
Syll_518; ~Polyb_2.66'4-69'11, 4.69'5; Liv_34.28'1, 40.54'4; ~Plut:Cleom_27'1-29'4, 31'1-12, :Phil_6'1-7'2, :Arat_46'1; Paus_2.9'2-3, 3.10'7, 8.49'5-6; Just_28.4'1-10; Trog:Prol_28; [Euseb]:Chron_243; { CAH_7.1'471-472; Errington_p101.}
16 Antigonus enters Sparta.
* Read Justin's account
~Polyb_2.70'1, 5.9'8-10, 9.31'3-4, 36'1-5, 20.5'12-13; ~Plut:Cleom_30'1, :Mor_234'B-C; Paus_2.9'2, 4.29'9; Just_28.4'12-15; Trog:Prol_28; Suda_A'2659; { Errington_p102; Green_261.}
17 MAC The Macedonians recall Antigonus because of an Illyrian invasion.
* Read Plutarch's account
~Plut:Cleom_27'6-10, 30'1-2; { CAH_7.1'242.}
18 PEL Antigonus attends the Nemean games.
~Polyb_2.70'4-5; { CAH_7.1'472 - these games were probably delayed because of the war..}
19 << The honours given to Antigonus in the Peloponnese annoy the Achaeans.
20 GRE A Boeotian citharode wins the prize at the Pythian games.
21 ASI Achaeus forces Attalus to take refuge in Pergamon.
Polyb_4.48'11; { CAH_7.1'431; Green_265.}
22 CIS Marcellus captures Mediolanum, the capital of the Insubres, and other cities.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Polyb_2.34'10-15; Plin:HN_3'131; +Plut:Marc_7'6-8; +Eutrop_3.6'2; Oros_4.13'15; +Zonar_8'20;(p49)  { CAH_7.2'435.}
23 ROM ?? Hieron of Syracuse sends supplies of corn to Rome.
24 CIS ++ General comments on the Romans' success in the Gallic War.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_2.35'2-10; Strab_5'212,(1.6)  '216,(1.9)  8'385.(7.3) 
25 The Insubres surrender to the Romans; the end of the Gallic War.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_2.35'1-2; [Liv]:Per_20; +Plut:Marc_7'8; Appian:Ill_8; +Zonar_8'20.(p49) 
26 ILL ?? Demetrius of Pharus extends his power over the towns of Illyria.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_3.16'2-3; ~Appian:Ill_8; Zonar_8'20;(p51)  { At the same time as the Romans were fighting against the Gauls.}
27 EGY Cleomenes takes refuge in Alexandria, where Ptolemy gives him a state pension.
~Plut:Cleom_32'1-5; { Errington_p102; Green_261.}
28 << Document: SelPap_2.233, the announcement of an auction of government land and priestly offices.
29 {18 Mesore -E = September} Document: SelPap_1.96, a letter from Andron to Milon.
30 PEL A massacre at Argos, after the departure of Antigonus.
31 Antigonus sends his ward Philippus to visit the Peloponnese.
~Plut:Arat_46'1-3; { CAH_7.1'473.}
32 ROM ?? C.Varro gains popularity with the Roman people by dubious means.
33 ?? Varro, as aedile, organizes the Ludi Circenses.
ValMax_1.1'16; { Varro was praetor in 218 B.C.}

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