231 B.C. Olympiad 137.2

Consuls: M. Pomponius M'.f. Matho, C. Papirius C.f. Maso
Athenian archon: (?) Jason
Achaean General: Aratus (VIII)

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 EGY {Hyperberetaeus -M = May/June} Document: BD_125A, a contract between Sosus, a flutist, and Olympias, a dancer.
2 ?? The Stoic philosopher Sphaerus goes to Egypt at the request of king Ptolemy.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Athen_8.354'e-f; DiogLaert_7'177, '185; { Diogenes Laertius calls the king Philopator, but he also says that Sphaerus was sent out by Cleanthes, and it is unlikely to have been after the death of Cleomenes.}
3 GRE ?? Chrysippus attends the lectures of Cleanthes.
* Read Diogenes' account
Cic:Acad_2'143; DiogLaert_7'179, '182; Suda_K'1711.
3a ?? Cleanthes witnesses an ant's funeral during one of his lectures.
4 ?? Sayings of Cleanthes, addressed to Sositheus and others.
* Read Diogenes' account
Cic:Fin_2'69; DiogLaert_7'171-174.
5 ++ The frugal lifestyle of Cleanthes.
* Read Diogenes' account
Phld:Sto_18-25; ValMax_8.7e'11; Sen:Ep_44'3; Plut:Mor_1034'A;(2)  Fronto:Ep_2'p64; Aelian:Fr_1; DiogLaert_7'170.
6 << The death of the Stoic philosopher Cleanthes.
* Read Diogenes's account
Phld:Sto_26-29; Strab_13'610;(1.57)  Lucian:Macr_19; ClemAl:Strom_1'14;(↓)  Censor:DN_15'3 DiogLaert_7'176; Suda_Ch'568; { CAH_7.1'506; OCD_c.}
7 SAR The Romans suppress further rebellions in Sardinia and Corsica.
* Read Zonaras' account
~[Liv]:Per_20; +Zonar_8'18.(p29) 
8 SPA ?? Hamilcar defeats the Tartessians and their Celtic allies.
9 EPI Agron, king of Illyria, sends a force which defeats the Aetolians near Medion.
~Polyb_2.2'1-4'5; { CAH_7.1'506; Green_253.}
10 ILL The death of Agron, who is succeeded by Teuta.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_2.4'6-9; Appian:Ill_7; Aelian:VH_2'41; DioCass_fr.49'2; ~Zonar_8'19;(p33)  { CAH_7.1'506; Errington_p95.}
11 EGY {2 Phaophi -E = November} Document: BD_81, a tax receipt issued by Apollophanes.
12 CIS >> The Gaesatae join the league of Gauls against Rome.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_2.22'1-8; Plut:Marc_3'1-2.
13 ROM >> Papirius dedicates a temple to Fons.
~Cic:ND_3'52; { CAH_7.2'671.}
14 SPA >> Hamilcar justifies his conquests in Spain to a Roman embassy.
+DioCass_fr.48'1; { CAH_7.2'454; OCD_h.}
15 ROM C.Duilius is appointed dictator, to hold the elections for new consuls.
16 >> Sp.Carvilius divorces his wife, which is the first divorce since the foundation of Rome.
* Read Gellius' account
ValMax_2.1'4; ~Plut:Rom_35'4, :Num_25'13, :Mor_267'C; ~Gell_4.3'1-2, ~17.21'44; { This is the commonly accepted date, but there is some disagreement in the manuscripts as to the exact year. Carvilius was consul in 234 B.C..}
17 == T.Manlius Torquatus is forced to resign as censor, because of a fault in the election procedure.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_23.34'15, 25.5'3, 27.11'10; +FastCap_p58.

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