280 B.C. Olympiad 125.1

Consuls: P. Valerius Laevinus, Ti. Coruncanius Ti.f.
Athenian archon: (?) Telocles
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Ladas of Aegium

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 EGY {Hathyr -E = January} Document: AET_8.6, honours for a wool-trader in Naucratis.
2 ROM {1 April -R} The triumph of Marcius, over the Etruscans.
3 EGY << Ptolemy II authorises the translation of the Jewish Bible into Greek, and sends gifts to the high priest Eleazar.
* Read Aristeas' account
Aristeas_28-120; Joseph:AJ_12'34-84; Euseb:HistEc_5.8'11<q" Irenaeus>; Tert:Apol_18'5-6; +Hieron:Chron_1736; August:DeCiv_8'11,(↓)  18'42; Syncell_325; Tzetz:ProlCom_21.
4 Eleazar sends seventy Jewish scholars to assist Ptolemy, who holds a banquet in their honour.
* Read Aristeas' account
Aristeas_121-300; Joseph:AJ_12'85-102; Euseb:HistEc_5.8'12<q" Irenaeus>; Tert:Apol_18'7; ClemAl:Strom_1'22; August:DeCiv_18'42,(↓)  '43.
5 GRE {29 Thargelion -G = June} Document: IG_2³.883, an Athenian decree in honour of the people of Tenos.
6 ITA Pyrrhus sends Cineas ahead to Tarentum.
* Read Plutarch's account
~Plut:Pyrrh_15'1; Zonar_8'2.(p303-7) 
7 EPI Pyrrhus sets sail for Italy.
* Read Plutarch's account
Ennius:Ann_177; ~Plut:Pyrrh_15'2-7; Just_18.1'3; +Zonar_8'2.(p309-13) 
8 ITA Pyrrhus arrives in Italy, bringing elephants to back up his army.
* Read Plutarch's account
Polyb_2.41'11; Liv_31.3'6; ~[Liv]:Per_12; Plin:HN_8'16; ~Plut:Pyrrh_15'8-16'3; Appian:Sam_8'1-3;(18)  Paus_1.12'2; Gell_17.21'37; Just_18.1'3; ~Oros_4.1'5-6; +Zonar_8'2;(p313-7)  { CAH_7.2'466; Green_230.}
9 ITA The Samnites join Pyrrhus.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_23.42'2, '6, 31.7'11.
10 Pyrrhus offers to negotiate with the Romans.
* Read Dionysius' account
DionHal_19.9'1-10'5; ~Plut:Pyrrh_16'4-5; DioCass_fr.40'13; +Zonar_8'3;(p317-9)  { CAH_7.2'467-468.}
11 ETR Coruncanius leads an army against the Etruscans.
* Read Livy's account
~[Liv]:Per_13; +Zonar_8'4.(p331) 
12 A Roman garrison is sent to Rhegium.
* Read Dionysius' account
Polyb_1.7'6; ~Diod_22.1'2, '13; Liv_31.31'6; DionHal_20.4'1-2; ~[Liv]:Per_12; DioCass_fr.40'7; { CAH_7.2'539=282/0; OCD_r.}
13 Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at the battle of Heracleia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Syll_392; Ennius:Ann_181-185; ~Diod_22.6'1-2; DionHal_19.11'1-12'6; ~[Liv]:Per_13; Frontin:Str_2.4'9, '13, 4.1'24, 7'7; ~Plut:Pyrrh_16'6-18'2, :Flam_5'6, :Mor_194'F; Flor_1.13'7-8, '14-18; Appian:Sam_10'1;(22)  Paus_1.12'2-3; DioCass_fr.40'14-19; Just_18.1'4-7; [Vict]:VirIll_35'3-5; Eutrop_2.11'2-3; ~Oros_4.1'8-18; +Zonar_8'3;(p323-7)  { CAH_7.2'468; OCD_p.}
14 Locri and other places desert from the Romans.
* Read Dio's account
Liv_35.14'9; DioCass_fr.40'21-22; ~Just_18.1'8-9; +Zonar_8'3;(p327)  { CAH_7.2'469.}
15 Ti.Coruncanius arrives with Roman reinforcements.
* Read Plutarch's account
~Plut:Pyrrh_18'1-3; Flor_1.13'19; Appian:Sam_10'8;(24)  DioCass_fr.40'28; [Vict]:VirIll_35'7; +Zonar_8'4.(p331) 
16 ROM {10 July -R} The triumph of Aemilius, over Tarentum and the Samnites and Sallentini.
17 MAC Ptolemy Ceraunus defeats Antigonus the son of Demetrius.
* Read Memnon's account
Memn_8'4-6; ~Just_24.1'1, '8; { CAH_7.1'114; Errington_p80.}
18 SIC << Hicetas of Syracuse defeats Phintias of Acragas.
19 EGY The Jewish Bible is translated into Greek (the "Septuagint").
* Read Aristeas' account
Aristeas_301-322; Joseph:AJ_12'103-118; Tert:Apol_18'8; ClemAl:Strom_1'22; Euseb:HistEc_5.8'13-14<q" Irenaeus>, 7.32'16<q" Anatolius>; Porph:Fr_42; [Euseb]:Chron_79, 127;(↓)  ChronPasc_425'A-B; +Hieron:Chron_1736; August:DeCiv_8'11, 15'13, 18'42,(↓)  '43; Malal_196; ExcBarb_35B; { ~OCD_s; Green_697?250.}
20 AEG ?? The historian Duris establishes himself as tyrant of Samos.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Athen_8.337'd; Suda_L'776; { In the period before Samos came under the control of Ptolemy.}
21 ?? Dedications made by Ptolemy, Polycleitus, Philocles, Iomilcus, and Xenophantus at the temple of Apollo on Delos.
22 PEL The founding of the Achaean League.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_2.39'11-41'12, 43'1, 4.1'5-7; Strab_8'384,(7.1)  '385;(7.3)  Paus_7.7'1-2; { CAH_7.1'244; Errington_p86.}
23 GRE Heracleia-ad-Oetam joins the Aetolian League.
+Paus_10.20'9; { ~CAH_7.1'234.}
24 << Epicurus' friend Metrodorus assists Mithres, a former minister of Lysimachus who had been arrested at Peiraeus.
Plut:Mor_1097'B, 1126'E-F; { This probably happened soon after Lysimachus' defeat and death.}
24a << Document: Burstein_14,B  a letter from Epicurus to Herodotus about the ransoming of Mithres.
25 CYP << Document: THI_252.C, a Phoenician dedication for the 'rightful scion' at Lapethus.
25a ASI ?? Document: OGIS_215, three decrees of Priene in honour of Larichus.
25b ?? Document: Syll_284, a decree to restore the statue of a tyrannicide at Erythrae.
25c ?? Document: OGIS_218, a decree of Ilium for the prevention of tyranny.
26 << Document: BD_16 (OGIS_219), a decree of Ilium in honour of Antiochus I.
27 Antiochus I is appointed "stephanephoros" of Miletus.
Syll_322'B; { Errington_p134.}
28 ITA Pyrrhus advances on Rome, as far as Anagnia in Latium.
* Read Dio's account
Liv_31.7'10; ~[Liv]:Per_13; Plin:HN_14'12;L  Flor_1.13'24; Appian:Sam_10'10;(24)  Ampel_28'3, 45'2; (?) DioCass_fr.40'25-26; [Vict]:VirIll_35'6; ~Eutrop_2.12'1; +Zonar_8'4;(p331)  { CAH_7.2'470.}
29 Pyrrhus retires to Campania.
* Read Zonaras' account
Appian:Sam_10'10;(24)  DioCass_fr.40'27; ~Eutrop_2.12'1-2; +Zonar_8'4;(p333-5)  { CAH_7.2'470.}
30 SIC The Carthaginians defeat Hicetas.
~Diod_22.2'2; { CAH_7.2'666.}
31 ROM Cineas arrives at Rome as the ambassador of Pyrrhus, and unsuccessfully attempts to win support with bribes.
* Read Diodorus' account
Cic:Tusc_1'59; Diod_22.6'3; Liv_34.4'6; ~[Liv]:Per_13; ValMax_4.3'14;'19;L  Plin:HN_7'88; ~Plut:Pyrrh_18'4-5; Suda_D'1478<q" Aelian:Fr_6>; Just_18.2'7-8; Eutrop_2.12'4; +Zonar_8'4;(p347)  { CAH_7.2'470-471.}
32 >> The senate rejects Pyrrhus' peace terms, after a speech by Ap.Claudius Caecus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Ennius:Ann_194-196; Cic:Brut_55, 61, :Sen_16, :Phil_1'11; ~[Liv]:Per_13; Ovid:Fast_6'203-204; ValMax_8.13'5; Quint_2.16'7; ~Plut:Pyrrh_18'6-19'5, :Mor_794'D-F; Flor_1.13'20; Appian:Sam_10'1-7;(22)  Ampel_19'2; DioCass_fr.40'39-42; Just_18.2'10; [Vict]:VirIll_34'9; Eutrop_2.13'1; +Zonar_8'4;(p349)  { CAH_7.2'399, '471; Green_693.}
33 ITA >> Cineas returns to Pyrrhus, and calls the Roman senate "a parliament of kings".
* Read Plutarch's account
Ennius:Ann_197; Liv_9.17'14; ~Plut:Pyrrh_19'5-7; Flor_1.13'20; Appian:Sam_10'8-9;(24)  Just_18.2'10; ~Eutrop_2.13'3; AmmMarc_16.10'5.
34 >> Fabricius is sent on a mission to Pyrrhus.
* Read Dionysius' account
Cic:Sen_43; DionHal_19.13'1-18'8; ~[Liv]:Per_13; +CIL_6.37048; ValMax_4.3'6, 5.1e'3; Seneca:Contr_2.1'29,L  5.2;L  Frontin:Str_4.3'2; ~Plut:Pyrrh_20'1-10, :Mor_195'A; Flor_1.13'21; Appian:Sam_10'11-14;(25)  DioCass_fr.40'29-38; Just_18.2'6; Eutrop_2.12'2-3, 14'1; August:DeCiv_5'18;(↓↓)  +Zonar_8'4;(p337-43)  { OCD_f.}
35 >> Pyrrhus releases the Roman prisoners.
* Read Dionysius' account
Ennius:Ann_186-193; Liv_22.59'18, 25.6'3; DionHal_20.6'1-3; ~[Liv]:Per_13; ValMax_2.7'15; Frontin:Str_4.1'18; ~Plut:Pyrrh_20'10-11; Flor_1.13'15; Appian:Sam_10'15-16;(26)  Just_18.1'10; [Vict]:VirIll_35'6; ~Eutrop_2.12'2,13'2; { CAH_7.2'471.}
36 ROM Cn.Domitius is appointed dictator, to hold the elections for new consuls.
37 GRE The floruit of the philosophers Zenon and Epicurus.
38 ?? The tragic actor Polus appears in eight plays within four days, shortly before his death.
Plut:Mor_785'B-C<q" Philoch_222>; { Polus was a pupil of Archias, the "exile-hunter" who was active about 322 B.C.}
38a ?? Document: THI_35, a treaty between Pellene and Delphi.
38b ?? Herophilus, an influential teacher of medicine, is alleged to have performed vivisection to explore anatomy.
Hygin:Fab_274; Celsus:Med_pr'23, Tert:Anim_10, 25.
39 CIL ?? The birth of the philosopher Chrysippus.
* Read Diogenes' account
Lucian:Macr_20; DiogLaert_7'184; Suda_B'568; { OCD_c; Green_633.}

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