Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum: 826


Greek text:   (A-I) CID_4.119.A-I ,   (J) FD_3.4.43
Date:     117/6 B.C.
Tags:     arbitration ,   oaths
Format:   see key to translations

The subject of this investigation is sometimes called 'the scandal of 125' because it was originally believed that the date was 125 B.C.   See the discussion by S.L.Ager, "Interstate Arbitrations in the Greek World, 337-90 B.C.", no. 163 ( Google Books ). The documents were inscribed in the temple of Apollo at Delphi, at the time of a later decision in 110 A.D., which is why they appear out of sequence in Sylloge³.

There is a good summary of the contents of the documents by D. Rousset, "Usage des langues et élaboration des décisions dans le Monument bilingue de Delphes" ( ). The same writer commented on the documents in more detail, with a complete French translation of part E, in "Le territoire de Delphes et la terre d'Apollon" (Athens, 2002).

Some of the documents are very poorly preserved, but, following Rousset, their contents may be briefly summarised as follows:
- A.   Letter of a Roman magistrate to the Amphictyons, forwarding a decree of the senate
- B.   List of Amphictyons who took part in the investigation
- C.   Oath of the Amphictyons
- D.   Assessment of the deficit in the sacred treasury of Apollo
- E.   Delimitation of the sacred land of Apollo
- F.   Assessment of the deficit in the sacred money (not the treasury) of Apollo
- G.   Assessment of the deficit in the flocks and livestock of Apollo
- H.   Penalties imposed on thirteen Delphians found guilty of corrupt behaviour
- I.   Payment of the money owed by the wrong-doers (fragmentary)
- J.   Honorary decree for thirteen Delphians who had denounced the wrong-doers (inscribed elsewhere)

In Sylloge³, which does not include J, another letter from a Roman magistrate is printed as part K, but the date of this document is quite uncertain, and it may well be half a century earlier (R.Sherk, RDGE 39).

[A]   . . . [what seems appropriate for the interests of the state] and your own good faith . . . I have sent this to you . . . [so that] in accordance with the decree of the senate you may decide . . . that care is taken of it.

[B]   Amphictyons :

[C]   Oath of the Amphictyons.   [I will judge every] matter in the investigation [about the money and the borders of Apollo in accordance with] what I most consider to be [the truth], and I will not judge falsely [in any manner], neither because of favour nor of friendship nor of enmity; and I will exact [the penalties that are determined] in the investigation to the extent of my ability, as quickly as I can; and I will restore them to the god [with justice. I will not accept gifts, neither myself nor] another on my behalf. I will not give away any of [the public] money to anyone, nor will I misappropriate it: all this I will do in this manner. [If I abide by my oath, may I have many blessings]; and if I break my oath, may Themis and Pythian Apollo and Leto and Artemis and Hestia and the eternal fire and all the gods [and goddesses obliterate] my safety [with the most awful destruction]; may they not permit me the benefit of children or crops or fruits or property, either for myself [or for my family]; and may they cast [me] out from my existing possessions while I am still alive, if I do break my oath.

[D]   The league of the Amphictyons, following [the decree] of the Roman senate, met to make a decision on the day before the Kalends of February, according to the Roman calendar, and from the fifteenth to the eighteenth day, according to the Delphian calendar; and they held a hearing about the treasury for four days. They gave their decision on the third day before the Nones of February, according to the Roman calendar, and on the eighteenth day of the month of Poitropios, according to the Delphian calendar.

Totals:   nineteen [votes] with fifty symmachic talents;   three votes with fifty standard talents;   two votes with five talents

The league of the Amphictyons decided that fifty symmachic talents are missing from the treasury.

[E]   The Amphictyons decided about the borders of Apollo,   by which borders his land should be delimited.

Aristokleas and Damon, the envoys of the Amphissans, said that the decision which was made when Pausanias of Thessaly and his colleagues established the borders ought to be enduring and valid. The representatives of Antikyra , Ambrysos and Delphi said that it should be enduring and valid in accordance with the decision made when the hieromnemones established and determined the borders in the year of Ornichidas as archon at Delphi. Nikatas of Delphi, the son of Alkinos, spoke on their behalf.


[They decided concerning the borders of the] sacred land, that the decision should be valid, which the hieromnemones made in the year of Ornichidas as archon at Delphi. The boundary stones [marking the borders] of the land next to and opposite the sacred land . . . they occupy [the land which was granted to the god] as a result of the decree of the senate . . . [the land] next to each of them. [The following] were chosen as magistrates and [envoys]:

C20 From the sea [beside] Antikyra, [the first boundary] is with Opoeis. [From] Opoeis to the Kolopheian peaks . . . straight ahead. From the [Kolopheian] peaks straight ahead to the rock called Dolichōn. From Dolichōn] to the shrine of the hero called Euorios, where there is a stone [inscribed] 'boundary'. [From the hero Euorios to] the peaks of Melion. From the peaks of Melion to the ravine whose name [is] . . . alongside the base of Kirphon as the water flows for thirty stades in the midst of the . . . [ravine, and from there in] the same ravine to the river Pro...os . . . of the mound in the [sacred land] of Delphi to the first rock, which is called Hypothaous . . . [where there is] a heroön. From [the rock called] Hypothaous to the rock that is called Istephōn. From [the rock] Istephōn [to the boundary stone] in between the buildings. [Inside] these boundaries within the sacred land, Babylos son of Laiades shall vacate the property that he possesses. From the buildings [to the rock] which is under Skidareon. Kleodamos son of Philaitolos shall vacate the property that is within these boundaries. From Skidareon C30 to the rock above the road, on which a tripod is carved; . . . shall vacate the property that [he possesses] within these [boundaries], and shall demolish the house. From the rock above [the road, straight ahead to] the cemetery of the Laconians under 'the hoplite'. From the cemetery to the rock . . . [on which] a tripod is carved; [Megartas son of Melission shall vacate] the property that he possesses within these boundaries. [From the rock] . . . to the temple of Leto that is below Poureon; . . . shall vacate [the property that he possesses within these boundaries]. From the temple of Leto straight ahead to the rock that is called Hip... ; Kallikrates and Antigonos, the sons of Diodoros, shall vacate the property [that they possess within these boundaries], and shall demolish the [house. From the rock Hip...] to the boundary stone . . . straight ahead to Mount Koïos that leans towards Parnassos; within these [boundaries is] the cultivated land that is called Nateia, which Manius Acilius gave to the god; any crops that are produced from this land are donated to Apollo. D01 From Nateia alongside the cultivated land to the corner of the cultivated land that is next to the road that leads from Delphi to Amphissa. From this corner to the rock that is above Epinika, which the Amphissans indicated; Agion shall vacate the property that he possesses [within] these boundaries, which he says that he has bought. From this rock straight ahead to the rock on which a bronze tripod is placed; Glaukos and Herakon shall vacate the property that they possess within these boundaries. From the tripod straight ahead alongside the row of old olive trees to the summit of Mount Tarmiēon. From Tarmiēon straight ahead to the first rock that is located within Trinapea. From Trinapea along the ravine that goes to the spring of Enbatea. From the spring straight ahead to Astrabas. From Astrabas [the (?) road] bears round to [the site] of the salt-works by the sea.

[F]   According to the Romans' calendar, seven days before the Ides of February, and according to the Delphians' calendar, on the twenty-seventh day; the Amphictyons decided how much money of Apollo is lacking, apart from the treasury and the revenue from livestock.

The Amphictyons decided that the money lacking for the god, apart from the treasury and the revenue from livestock, is:   three symmachic talents, thirty five minas.

[G]   It is necessary to restore Apollo's revenue from the flocks and livestock. They did not decide how much is lacking from this money, because no-one rendered an account of how much of the livestock he received, or how much he handed over, or how much revenue occurred. Those who were brought before them and were asked how much of the livestock they received or how much they handed over all said that they did not know, nor was it written in the public documents; therefore it was not established, and they did not make a decision. They did not discover how much livestock [the god had, and] how much should be restored to him, because those [who were asked] said they did [not] know how much each of them had received and how much they had handed over, nor was it [written] in the public documents. [They decided] that the overseers whom the people of Delphi [provided should be brought to trial] . . . Xenon son of Aristoboulos and Archon . . . gave back . . .

[H]   When Eukleides was archon, in assembly . . . [in accordance with] the decree [of the senate. The Amphictyons decided]:

[The league of the] Amphictyons decided how much money each of them [should pay to the god, in accordance with] the decree of the senate:

  Mnasitheos son of Diodoros -   fifteen talents, thirty-[two] minas
  [Antigenes son of Diodoros] -   fifteen talents, [seven] minas
  Kallikrates son of Diodoros -   fifteen talents, [six minas]
  [Xenokritos son of Tarantinos] -   one talent
  Amphistratos son of Mnason -   one talent
  Kalleidas son of Eukleidas -   one talent
  [Glaukos son of Xenon] -   thirty minas
  Hagion son of Echephylos -   thirty minas
  Amyntas son of Eudoros -   one talent, [fifty]-seven minas
  80 Azaratos son of Antichares -   eleven minas
  Eukleidas son of Kalleidas -   eleven minas
  Kleodamos son of Polykrates -   eleven minas
  Mnasidamos son of Xenokritos -   one talent, twenty [minas]

[I]   . . . praetor pro-consule; they were handed over to the Amphictyons . . . to be taken out of the temple . . . when . . . was archon . . .

The Amphictyons decided . . . [The Amphictyons] exacted . . . [symmachic] talents . . . fifteen staters and . . . gold coins . . . received [from] the prytaneis . . . Philippic [staters] . . .the total of these . . .

[J]   It was resolved by the league of the Amphictyons; since, when some men had committed crimes against the temple of Pythian Apollo, the following men approached the council of the Amphictyons and denounced the men who had committed the crimes:

and when they were plotted against by the wrong-doers and forced out of their fatherland, they did not cease from doing what was right and fitting, or from preserving the dignity of the temple, but they [had recourse] to the senate of the Romans, and taking no account of danger or hardship or expense, they waited resolutely in Rome for a considerable time, and they approached the senate, although [the wrong-doers] sent envoys to oppose them . . .

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