The Romans


[107] On the Ancient History of the Romans, from the Seventh Book of Diodorus.

Some historians have incorrectly suggested that Romulus [and Remus], who founded the city of Rome, were the sons of the daughter of Aeneas. But this is not the case, for a lengthy period intervened between Aeneas and Romulus [filled with] many kings. Rome was founded in the second year of the 7th Olympiad [751 B.C.], which was [g386] 433 years after the Trojan War. Aeneas became king of the Latins three years after the capture of Troy. He ruled for three years and then vanished from sight, to be honoured [thereafter] as an immortal. He was succeeded as king by his son Ascanius, who founded the city today called [Alba] Longa. It was named after the river which was then called Alba, but is now called Tiber.

Now the historian Fabius, who wrote about things Roman, tells a different tale about the name of this city. He says that it was foretold to Aeneas, that a four-footed animal would lead him to the place where he would must build a city. When he was preparing to sacrifice a pregnant white sow, the sow escaped from his grasp and was chased up a hill, where she gave birth to thirty piglets. Aeneas was astounded by this, and being desirous of fulfilling the prophecy, he commenced building on that site [g387]. But he was warned in a dream, that he should not found the city until thirty years had passed, the same number as the piglets which were born to the sow. And so he abandoned his plan.

After the death of Aeneas, his son Ascanius became king and after thirty years he founded a settlement on the hill, which he called Alba, after the colour of the sow; for the Latin word for 'white' is alba. [Ascanius] also added another name, Longa, which translates 'long', because the city was narrow in width and of great length.

[Diodorus] adds that Ascanius made Alba the capital of his kingdom and conquered no small number of the inhabitants round about. [Ascanius] became a noteworthy man and died after a ruling for thirty-eight years.

After his death, there arose a division among the masses, since two men who were contending with each other for the kingship. Julius claimed that since he was Ascanius' son, his father's kingdom belonged to him. But Silvius, the brother of Ascanius and, furthermore, a son of Aeneas by his first wife ,[g388] who was a Trojan woman, maintained that the kingdom belonged to him. Now it happened that after the death of Aeneas, Ascanius had plotted against the life of Silvius. It was while the child [Silvius] was being reared by some herdsmen on a mountain, to avoid this plot, that he came to be called Silvius, after the name of that mountain, which the Latins call Silva. After a struggle between the two sides, Silvius finally took the throne with the support of the people. Julius, though he did not take power, was established as supreme priest (pontifex maximus) thereby becoming like a second king. They say that the Julian family, which survives in Rome even to this day, descends from him.

[108] During his reign, Silvius achieved nothing worthy record, and died after ruling for 49 years. He was succeeded as king by his son Aeneas Silvius, who ruled for more than 30 years. He was a strong ruler, in government and in war. He subdued the neighbouring regions, and founded the eighteen cities known as the oldest of the Latins. They are: Tibur, Praeneste, Gabii, Tusculum, Cora, Cometia, Lanuvium, Labicum, Scaptia, Satricum, Aricia, Tellenae, Crustumerium, Caenina, Fregellae, Cameria, Medullia, and Boilum. Some call this Bola.

When Latinus died, his son Albas Silvius was selected as king. He ruled for 38 years. The next king was Epitus Silvius, for 26 years. When his death Capis succeeded as king, ruling [g389] for 28 years. His son Calpetus was the next king, ruling for 13 years. Then Tiberius Silvius ruling for 8 years. [Tiberius] went off to fight against the Etruscans with an army, but while he was crossing the river Alba he fell into a whirlpool and died. As a result, the name of the river was changed to Tiber. After his death Agrippa became king of the Latins, for 41 years. The next king was Arramulius Silvius, who reigned for 19 years.

The next king was Arramulius Silvius, who reigned for 19 years. It is related that Arramulius was arrogant throughout his life, and became so proud that he claimed to rival the power of Aramazd (Zeus/Jupiter). When there was steady and severe thunder during the heat [of autumn], he ordered all the men in his army at a given command to strike their swords against their shields, supposing that by this noise he could surpass even thunder. Consequently the gods exacted vengeance and killed him with a bolt of lightning and submerged his house in the Alban lake. The Romans who live near the lake today still point out some columns which can be seen deep beneath the surface of the water, which are the remains of the royal palace under the lake.

Aventius, who was chosen to be the next king, ruled for 37 years. During a battle against the people who lived around the city, he was trapped in a narrow space and killed near a hill, which was named the Aventine hill after him. After he died, his son Procas Silvius was appointed to be the next king, and he ruled [g390] for 23 years. After his death, his younger son Amulius forcibly seized power, because his elder brother Numitor was in a foreign country. Amulius reigned for a little over 43 years, and was killed by Remus and Romulus, who founded the city of Rome.

[109] Here is a Listing of the Roman Kings.

Aeneias became king of the Latins, in the fourth year after the capture of Troy, 3 years.
Ascanius, 38 years.
Silvius, the son of Aeneias, 28 years.
Aeneias Silvius, 31 years.
Latinus Silvius, 50 years.
Albas Silvius, 39 years.
Epitus Silvius, 26 years.
Capis Silvius, 28 years.
Calpetus Silvas, 13 years.
Tiberius Silvius, 8 years.
Agrippa Silvius, 35 years.
[Arramulius Silvius, 19 years].
[Aventius, 37 years].
[p291] Procas Silvius, 23 years.
Amulius Silvius, 42 years [g391].

Romulus founded Rome and became king in the seventh Olympiad [752-749 B.C.]. From Aeneas up until Romulus, 427 years elapsed. From the capture of Troy [up until Romulus], 431 years elapsed.

Kings Beginning with Romulus, Founder of Rome.

Romulus, 38 years.
Numa Pompilius, 41 years.
Tullus Hostilius, 33 years.
Ancius Marcus, 33 years.
Tarquinius, 37 years.
Servilius, 44 years.
Tarquinius Superbus, 24 years.

There were seven kings of the Romans, starting with Romulus, and [the kingship] ceased after a period of 244 years. From the capture of Troy until Romulus, 431 years elapsed. Altogether 675 years elapsed.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus gives a brief account of the dates of these kings, from Romulus to Tarquinius, around the time of the first Olympiad, as follows [Dion Hal 1.75] [g392].

[110] Dionysius of Halicarnassus Regarding the Kings in Rome after Romulus.

From Romulus, first ruler of the city, to the time of the expulsion of the kings two hundred and forty-four years elapsed. This is known both from the order of the kings' succession and the number of years each of them ruled. Following Romulus' death the city was kingless for one year. Then Numa Pompilius, who was chosen by the army, reigned for forty-three years.

After Numa, Tullus Hostilius ruled for thirty-three years [g393]. Ancus Marcius, his successor, ruled for twenty-four years. He was followed by Lucius Tarquinius, called Priscus, for thirty-eight years. Servius Tullius succeeded him, reigning for forty-four years. The murderer of Servius, the tyrant Lucius Tarquinius, extended his reign to the twenty-fifth year. Because of his contempt of justice, he was called Superbus. Romulus, the first ruler of the city, must have begun to rule in the first year of the seventh Olympiad [752 B.C.], when Charops at Athens was in the first year of his ten-year term as archon. [We calculate this] because the reigns of the kings [g394] amount to two hundred and forty-four years or sixty-one Olympiads. Thus the count of the [monarchs'] years requires this [determination of the placing of Romulus' rule]; and the number of years that each king reigned is known from writings. Such is the account given by those who lived before me and adopted by me concerning the time of the settlement of the city which now rules supreme.

This is Dionysius' account.

Now after the death of Tarquinius and the collapse of unified [royal] rule, the Romans no longer had kings. Instead, they appointed consuls [starting with] Brutus; then [they appointed] tribunes of the plebs; then dictators, who were orators; and then consuls again. I think it would be superfluous to list the magistrates of each year here, because there would be a huge mass of names. Moreover, if I described their achievements in detail, my account would become greatly enlarged and stray from its intended purpose. Consequently I think it is appropriate [g395] to leave these magistrates, and everything connected with them, to another chronicle: that is, the consuls who followed Tarquinius, the tribunes of the plebs and the dictators who governed the city of Rome during the years preceding the advent of Caesar. After these remarks, we will return to the reign of the first emperor. From the death of Tarquinius until the time of Julius Caesar, 115 Olympiads--the equivalent of 460 years--elapsed.

[111] Tarquinius died at the end of the 67th Olympiad [509 B.C.]. Caesar became emperor at the start of the 183rd Olympiad [48 B.C.]. Between these [two termini] an interval of 460 years exists. From the 7th Olympiad [752 B.C.], when the city of Rome was founded, [until the death of Tarquinius] 244 years elapsed. Thus, a total of 704 years--which is the equivalent of 176 Olympiads--elapsed from the foundation of Rome until the time of Julius Caesar.

This [schema] is confirmed by the chronicler Castor who writes as follows in a passage summarizing the [relevant] dates [g396]:

Castor on the Kingdom of the Romans.

We have listed the kings of the Romans one by one, beginning with Aeneas son of Anchises, when he became king of the Latins, and concluding with Amulius Silvius, who was killed by Romulus, the son of his niece Rhea. Now we will add Romulus and the others who ruled Rome after him up until Tarquinius Superbus, for a period of 244 years. After these kings, we will give a separate list of the consuls, starting from Lucius Junius Brutus, and ending with Marcus Valerius Messalla and Marcus Piso, who were consuls when Theophemus was archon at Athens [61 B.C.]. Altogether [they ruled] for 460 years.
That is what Castor says. Now it is appropriate for us to append a list of the emperors of the Romans, starting from Julius Caesar. We shall mention the consuls for each year, equating [these dates] with the Olympiads.

[The Armenian manuscript of Eusebius' Chronicle breaks off here]

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