Eusebius'
Chronicle

The Hebrew Chronicle

(Continued)


[31] [The chronology] from the death of Moses to the time of Solomon's construction of the temple is described differently [by the available sources]. The book of Judges, as well as the blessed Apostle Paul in Acts of the Apostles calculate it one way, while the book of Kings and Hebrew tradition calculate it another way. It will be best to describe both and then select [the account] which proves truest.

First, however, we must pause to criticize Africanus, who wrote a five-book Chronology. It seems to me that he is greatly in error regarding the matter before us. From the exodus of Moses to [the time of] Solomon and the building of the temple [Africanus], through his own unique calculations assigns 744 years, mostly without any citations, and not only contrary to what is recorded in Scripture, but even audaciously [g156] adding an extra hundred years on his own. [Africanus] inserts an additional 30 years after Joshua, for the elders. Then, after Samson, he adds 40 years of anarchy and another 30 years of peace. By adding these additional years without any proof, he [g157] creates an inflated total of more than 740 years for the period between Moses and the reign of Solomon.

To see the fanciful nature of his calculations, we have to observe the preceding generations and their lengths. From Abraham to David there were 14 generations, and the eleventh generation had already ended at the time of Moses, when Nahshon the son of Aminadab was recognized as the prince of the nation of Judah. Nahshon died in the desert after leaving Egypt, and he was present when the people were first counted. It is clear that there were five generations from Nahshon to David: David was the son of Jesse, who was the son of Obed, who was the son of Boaz, who was the son of Salmon, who was the son of Nahshon. So on what grounds can it be claimed that the five generations after Moses endured for more than 700 years? If the years for men of each generation are evenly divided, we find that each one lived for 140 years before fathering a son, something that no rational person would accept as probable. For Moses himself died at 120 years of age, and his successor, Joshua, died at 110 years of age. Before them Joseph lived a total of 110 years, and earlier still Jacob, who was also called Israel, the patriarch of all the Jews, lived [g158] for 147 years.

Consequently, how could anyone claim that in the period after Moses anyone could have lived as long as we mentioned above? This is the error that Africanus made. Clemens, however, calculated 574 years from Moses' successor Joshua until the building of the temple, in his first book [Stromata 1.21]. The blessed Apostle Paul in his speech to the Jews in the Acts of the Apostles [13.19-22] states: "Joshua destroyed seven nations in the land of the Canaanites, and he gave them their land as an inheritance. And after 450 years he gave them judges until the time of Samuel the prophet. Then they asked for a king, and [God] gave them Saul the son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin, who reigned for 40 years. Afterwards [God] removed Saul and gave them David in his place.[g159]"

That is what the Apostle says. He calculated 534 years after Joshua in addition to the 450 years for the judges until Samuel. Add to this 40 years for Saul, another 40 years for David, and the four years of Solomon's reign before the building of the temple, which makes a total of 534 years from Joshua the successor of Moses until Solomon. According to the Apostle by adding the 40 years Moses spent in the wilderness, and the 27 years of Joshua the son of Nun, the total for the entire period will be 600 years. The book of Judges is in agreement with his account, and calculates 450 years to the judges until Samuel, which are divided up as follows:


[32] From the Book of Judges


After Joshua, rule by foreigners, 8 years
Othniel, 40 years [g160]
foreigners, 18 years
Ehud and Shamgar, 80 years
foreigners, 20 years
Barak and Deborah, 40 years
foreigners, 7 years
Gideon, 40 years
Abimelech, 3 years
Tola, 23 years
Jair, 22 years
foreigners, 18 years
Jephthah, 6 years
Ibzan, 7 years
Elon, 10 years
Abdon, 8 years
foreigners, 40 years
Samson, 20 years
Eli, in whose time Samuel [was born], 40 years

The total for all the judges until Samuel is 450 years [g161].

This is in agreement with what the blessed Apostle indicated, for it excludes the figures for Moses, Joshua, Moses' successor, Samuel, or Saul. Currently the dates for Samuel, Saul, and Joshua are not certain. But as the Apostle indicates, the 40 years of Saul should be added to the 450 year period of the judges. Moreover, if the 40 years of David and the 4 years of Solomon are included, the total reaches 534 years--exactly what the Apostle indicated. Add the 40 years that Moses spent in the wilderness, the 27 years of Nun's son Joshua, according to the Hebrews, and we arrive at a grand total of 600 years.

Earlier we mentioned that there were five generations between Nahson and David. Taking the total [of 600 years] and dividing it equally among the generations, we find that the men lived for more than 115 years before becoming fathers, an unbelievable proposition. Since Moses lived for a total of 120 years, how could his descendants reach almost the same age before becoming fathers? There is nothing left [to deduce from the book of Judges] on this point, so let us turn to the book of Kings for [additional] evidence.

[33] The book of Kings confirms that from the exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt until Solomon and the construction of the temple, 440 years elapsed. According to the Hebrew version, it was 480 years [g162]. The third book of Kings [1 Kings, 6.1] states: "It happened in the 440th year after the exodus from Egypt, that Solomon began building the house of the Lord." The Hebrew version says: "It happened in the 480th year." This is because the Jewish doctors [of the faith] calculated that the total figure was 480 years, since they did not count the years that the foreigners ruled over the people separately. They just counted the time that the judges ruled them and included the foreign domination in that figure. This must have been the case, for it is the only way to arrive at a total of 480 years. It seems to me that when the blessed Apostle stated the number of years as mentioned earlier, he was not speaking as a chronographer, or someone trying to make a precise calculation. He was delivering a sermon on salvation. It would have been inappropriate [g163] to insert into it a treatise on chronological methodology, and so he followed the popular interpretation of the book of Judges.

The book of Kings clearly states that [the period] from the exodus until [the time of] Solomon embraced 440 or 480 years. However, if we examine the years for each of the judges individually and also tally the years of foreign rule separately--as mentioned in the book of Judges--we find 600 years total between Moses and Solomon: Moses was in the wilderness for 40 years. Joshua [g164], 27 years. Judges and foreigners, 450 years. This is what the Apostle states, according to the book of Judges. Samuel and Saul, 40 years. David, 40 years. Solomon 4 years, until the building of the temple. Accordingly, each of the men in the five generations just mentioned must have lived 120 years before fathering a son, a wholly preposterous proposition.

If we follow the book of Kings, we get a total of 480 years, after subtracting the 120 years of the Hebrews' servitude. The Hebrews themselves reckon it this way, combining their years of servitude to foreigners with the years of their freedom. We shall do the same in our Chronicle, incorporating the period of foreign servitude with the number of years assigned to each [of the judges] in the book of Kings. [This method] is especially [persuasive] concerning the five generations [g165] from Nahshon to David. By subtracting from the total of 480 years the 40 years Moses spent in the wilderness and the four years of Solomon, 436 years remain to the death of David. Dividing these years equally among the five generations, produces 87 years for each generation. Should people investigate this, they will find a credible account beginning with the birth of David. David was born when his father Jesse was an old man. David was the eighth son born after his seven older brothers. Consequently we can assume that something similar happened to his ancestors.

Thus, for our purposes, we will accept that 480 years elapsed from the exodus from Egypt until Solomon and the construction of the temple. And we will include the years of foreign rule within the reigns of each successive judge. Now it happens that this decision is supported by a statement in the book of Judges made by Jephthah, one of the judges of the people. When the Ammonites who lived on the far side of the Jordan River started a war with him, [Jephthah] sent a messenger [g166] to the enemy with this import [Judges 11.25-26]: "Now are you any better than Balak the son of Zippor, king of Moab? Did he ever strive against Israel, or did he ever go to war with them? While Israel dwelt in Heshbon and its villages, and in Aroer and its villages, and in all the cities that are on the banks of the Jordan, three hundred years, why did you not recover them within that time?" Thus [Jephthah] informed them that Moses and Balak, son of Zippor, lived 300 years before their period. The 300 year total can only be obtained by including the period of the rule by foreigners [g167] within the reigns of the judges.

Should someone tally the years of servitude to foreigners separately, he will obtain a figure which far exceeds the 300 years. Yet if only the years of the judges' rule are counted, then he will discover 300 years between Moses and Jephthah, exactly as Jephthah's message stated. Consequently we will adopt the following chronology in this work:


[34] From Moses to Solomon


Moses, 40 years
Joshua, 27 years [g168]
foreigners and Othniel the judge, 40 years
foreigners and Ehud the judge, 80 years
foreigners and Deborah and Barak, 40 years
foreigners and Gideon, 40 years
Abimelech, 3 years
Tola, 23 years
Jair, 22 years
foreigners and Jephthah the judge, 6 years
Ibzan, 7 years
Abdon, 8 years
foreigners and Samson, 20 years. In his time, the Trojan war was fought.
Eli, 40 years
Samuel and Saul, 40 years
David, 40 years
Solomon (until the building of the temple), 4 years [g169]

From Moses' exodus from Egypt until the building of the temple, a total of 480 years elapsed.

Concerning Joshua, Moses' successor, the book which bears his name mentions only that he died at the age of 110. The Hebrews consider that he was their leader for 27 years, thus he was 43 years old when Moses left Egypt.

[35] As regards Samuel, since the book [which bears his name] says nothing about his duration, I consider that what the blessed Apostle said concerning Saul should be taken to include both Saul and Samuel. For it appears that Samuel was the leader of the people for many years, while Saul ruled for but two years. The first book of Kings [1 Samuel 13.1] describes it this way: "Saul was the son of a year in his reign; and he ruled over Israel for two years more." Symmachus clarifies [g170] this in his translation: "Saul resembled a one-year-old child in his reigning," which means that at the beginning of his reign Saul was sincere and good, and stayed that way for two years. But then he became corrupted and was rejected by God and was strangled by a demon in punishment. Thus the remaining years have been assigned to Samuel and 40 years is the combined total for Samuel and Saul. It is clear that Saul ruled for this period not solely based on the testimony of the Apostle, but through a careful reading of Scripture.

It is written [in 2 Samuel 2.10] that following Saul's death, "Ish-bosheth, Saul's son, was 40 years old when he began to reign over Israel, and he reigned two years. But the house of Judah followed David." The Ish-bosheth mentioned here must have been born [g171] after Saul became king, because when describing events from the beginning of Saul's reign [1 Samuel 14.49], mention is made of three sons of Saul, but not this one. Thus we believe that [Ish-bosheth] was born late, and that the length of Saul's reign was approximately the same as the age of his son following his death.

Thus, the third book of Kings [1 Kings 6.1] states that 480 years elapsed from the exodus out of Egypt until Solomon and the building of the temple; 505 years elapsed from Abraham until Moses and the exodus; 942 years elapsed from the flood until the first year of Abraham; and 2,242 years elapsed from Adam until the flood. Altogether 4,170 years elapsed from Adam until Solomon and the building of the temple.

The historian Josephus in the first book of his Jewish Antiquities when describing the time of Solomon and the construction of the temple includes the testimony of some Phoenician men. The evidence of these men seems valuable to me. In that book [Against Apion 1.17], [Josephus] writes [g172]:


[36] The evidence of the Phoenicians about the temple at Jerusalem, from Josephus

I will now, therefore, pass from these records, and come to those that belong to the Phoenicians, and concern our nation, and shall produce attestations to what I have said out of them. There are then records among the Tyrians that take in the history of many years, and these are public writings, and are kept with great exactness, and include accounts of the facts done among them, and such as concern their transactions with other nations also, those I mean which were worth remembering. Therein it was recorded that the temple was built by king Solomon at Jerusalem, one hundred forty-three years and eight months before the Tyrians built Carthage [g173].

In their annals the building of our temple is related; for Hirom, the king of Tyre, was the friend of Solomon our king, and had such friendship transmitted down to him from his forefathers. He thereupon was ambitious to contribute to the splendor of this edifice of Solomon, and made him a present of one hundred and twenty talents of gold. He also cut down the most excellent timber out of that mountain which is called Libanus, and sent it to him for adorning its roof. Solomon also not only made him many other presents, by way of requital, but gave him a country in Galilee also, that was called Chabulon. But there was another passion, a philosophic inclination [g174] of theirs, which cemented the friendship that was betwixt them; for they sent mutual problems to one another, with a desire to have them unriddled by each other; wherein Solomon was superior to Hirom, as he was wiser than him in other respects: and many of the epistles that passed between them are still preserved among the Tyrians. Now, that this may not depend on my bare word, I will produce for a witness Dius, one that is believed to have written the Phoenician History after an accurate manner. This Dius, therefore, writes thus, in his Histories of the Phoenicians:

Upon the death of Abibalus, his son Hirom took the kingdom. This king raised banks at the eastern parts of the city, and enlarged it [g175]; he also joined the temple of Jupiter Olympius (Aramazd), which stood before in an island by itself, to the city, by raising a causeway between them, and adorned that temple with donations of gold. He moreover went up to Libanus, and had timber cut down for the building of temples. They say further, that Solomon, when he was king of Jerusalem, sent problems to Hirom to be solved, and desired he would send others back for him to solve, and that he who could not solve the problems proposed to him should pay money to him that solved them. And when Hirom had agreed to the proposals, but was not able to solve the problems, he was obliged to pay a great deal of money, as a penalty for the same [g176]. As also they relate, that one Abdemon, a man of Tyre, did solve the problems, and proposed others which Solomon could not solve, upon which he was obliged to repay a great deal of money to Hirom.

[37] These things are attested to by Dius, and confirm what we have said upon the same subjects before. And now I shall add Menander the Ephesian, as an additional witness. This Menander wrote the Acts that were done both by the Greeks and Barbarians, under every one of the Tyrian kings, and had taken much pains to learn their history out of their own records. Now when he was writing about those kings that had reigned at Tyre, he came to Hirom, and says thus:

Upon the death of Abibalus, his son Hirom took the kingdom; he lived fifty-three years [g177], and reigned thirty-four. He raised a bank on that called the Broad Place, and dedicated that golden pillar which is in Jupiter's (Aramazd's) temple; he also went and cut down timber from the mountain called Libanus, and got timber of cedar for the roofs of the temples. He also pulled down the old temples, and built new ones; besides this, he consecrated the temples of Hercules and of Astarte. He first built Hercules's temple in the month Peritus, and that of Astarte when he made his expedition against the Tityans, who would not pay him their tribute; and when he had subdued them to himself [g178], he returned home. Under this king there was a younger son of Abdemon, who mastered the problems which Solomon, king of Jerusalem, had recommended to be solved. Now the time from this king to the building of Carthage is thus calculated:

Upon the death of Hirom, Baleazarus his son took the kingdom; he lived forty-three years, and reigned seven years: after him succeeded his son Abdastartus; he lived twenty-nine years, and reigned nine years. Now four sons of his nurse plotted against him and slew him, the eldest of whom reigned [twelve years]: after them [g179] came Astartus, the son of Deleastartus; he lived fifty-four years, and reigned twelve years: after him came his brother Aserymus; he lived fifty-four years, and reigned nine years: he was slain by his brother Pheles, who took the kingdom and reigned but eight months, though he lived fifty years: he was slain by Ithobalus, the priest of Astarte, who reigned thirty-two years, and lived sixty-eight years: he was succeeded by his son Badezorus, who lived forty-five years, and reigned six years: he was succeeded by Matgenus his son; he lived thirty-two years [g180], and reigned nine years: Pygmalion succeeded him; he lived fifty-six years, and reigned forty-seven years. Now in the seventh year of his reign, his sister fled away from him, and built the city Carthage in Libya. So the whole time from the reign of Hirom, till the building of Carthage, amounts to the sum of one hundred fifty-five years and eight months. Since then the temple was built at Jerusalem in the twelfth year of the reign of Hirom, there were from the building of the temple, until the building of Carthage, one hundred forty-three years and eight months.

Wherefore, what occasion is there for alleging any more testimonies out of the Phoenician histories [on the behalf of our nation], since what I have said is so thoroughly confirmed already? and to be sure our ancestors came into this country long before the building of the temple [g181]; for it was not till we had gotten possession of the whole land by war that we built our temple. And this is the point that I have clearly proved out of our sacred writings in my Antiquities.

This is Josephus' account.

[38] For this Chronology, the following table shows [the rulers and their reigns] from the building of the temple in the fourth year of Solomon to its destruction by the Babylonians 432 years later. Here are the figures:

  1. Solomon, 37 years, including the additional three years
  2. Rehoboam, 16 years
  3. Abijam, 3 years
  4. Asa, 41 years
  5. Jehoshaphat, 25 years
  6. Jehoram, 8 years
  7. Ahaziah, 1 year
  8. Athaliah, his mother, 7 years
  9. Jehoash, 40 years [g182]
10. Amaziah, 28 years
11. Uzziah, 52 years. In his reign the Greeks established the first Olympic games [776 B.C.].
12. Jotham, 16 years
13. Ahaz, 16 years
14. Hezekiah, 29 years
15. Manasseh, 55 years
16. Amon, 2 years
17. Josiah, 31 years
18. Jehoahaz, 3 months
19. Jehoiakim, 11 years
20. Jehoiachin, his son, also called Jekhoniah, 3 months
21. Mattaniah, also called Zedekiah, 11 years

This makes a total of 432 years.

After this, during [the next] 70 years, the Babylonian captivity of the Jews occurred and the destruction of the [temple's] site. According to the Bible, this ended in the second year of King Darius of Persia, which was during the 65th Olympiad [B.C. 520-517].

Clement agrees with us on this [point] in the first [book of his] Stromata [1.21] where he notes [g183]:

The captivity lasted for seventy years, and ended in the second year of Darius Hystaspes, who had become king of the Persians, Assyrians, and Egyptians. As I said previously, it was during his reign that Haggai and Zechariah, of the twelve, and Malachi [Angelus], whose name translates as "angel", prophesied. The high priest at that time was Joshua the son of Josedech.
Such is the account of that credible man [Clement].

[39] Moreover, the prophet Zechariah as a contemporary also testifies that there was a period of 70 years from the destruction of the temple until the second year of Darius. For in the second year of Darius he wrote [Zechariah 1.12]: "God Almighty, how long wilt thou have no mercy [g184] on Jerusalem and the cities of Judah, against which thou hast had indignation these seventy years?"

At this point one might inquire: Why does it state in the beginning of the book of Ezra [1.1]: "In the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia so that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom and also put it in writing." Furthermore, subsequent [passages] indicate that freedom [was given] to the Jews [at that point] and that it was Cyrus who ordered that the temple be rebuilt. From this one would assume that it was during the time of Cyrus, rather than Darius, that the 70 years of captivity came to an end.

To this I reply that the prophecies refer to two [distinct] 70-year periods. The first began with the destruction of the temple and ended, as Zechariah stated, in the second year of Darius [g185]. The second extends from the enslavement of the Jews to the capture of Babylon and the destruction of the Chaldean kingdom. This began in the time of the prophecy and ended with Cyrus, as Jeremiah recorded. [Jeremiah] further predicted [Jeremiah 29.10]: "For thus says the Lord: When seventy years are completed for Babylon, I will visit you, and I will fulfil to you my promise and bring you back to this place." And he also prophesies [Jeremiah 25.11-12]: "This whole land shall become a ruin and a waste, and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years. Then, after seventy years are completed, I will punish the king of Babylon and that nation, the land of the Chaldeans, for their iniquity, says the Lord, making the land an everlasting waste. [g186]"

All this came to a head during the time of Cyrus. The period of the enslavement [of the Jews] should not be reckoned from the [time of the] destruction of the temple, but earlier--from the second year of [the reign of] Jehoiakim, king of the Jews, when Nebuchadnezzar the king of the Babylonians enslaved them. [It could be reckoned] even earlier, from the time when the prophet Jeremiah first began to prophesy. From that time until the siege [of Jerusalem] and the burning of the temple 40 years elapsed, and 70 years until the first year of Cyrus. From the start of Jeremiah's prophesying until Cyrus' reign, the first 70 years [period] elapsed. However, from the destruction of the temple until Cyrus, 30 years elapsed, while it was in the second year of Darius that [the other] 70 years was completed. [The temple] was restored in the eighth year of Darius [g187].

[40] And from that time onward, the Jews remained without a king from their own [line of] kings. Their chief-priests served as princes and leaders, and throughout the entire period of the Persian kingdom they remained loyal to the Persian kings. Subsequently they served the Macedonians who ruled after Alexander, until the time of Antiochus Epiphanes. [The latter], ruling Syria, harassed the Jews to adopt paganism. During his time Mattathias, a priest in Jerusalem [g188], son of Asamonaeus, his son Judas, who was called Maccabaeus, and their descendants re-established the principality of the Jews, and held it until the time of Augustus. It was during his reign that Herod, at the order of the Romans, became the first foreign king of the Jews. Our Savior Jesus Christ was born during his reign. This was the fulfillment of the prophecy of Moses [in Genesis, 49.10]: "The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet until he comes to whom it belongs; he is the hope of the gentiles." And it happened in just such a manner.

Five hundred and two years elapsed from the time of Solomon and the building of the first temple to the restoration of the temple in the second year of King Darius. Four hundred and eighty years elapsed from the time of Moses and the exodus from Egypt to Solomon and the building of the temple. Five hundred and five years elapsed from the first year of Abraham to the exodus. Nine hundred and forty-two years elapsed from the flood to the first year of Abraham. Two thousand two hundred and forty-two years elapsed from Adam to the flood. Thus the grand total, from Adam to the second year of Darius and the second building of [the temple in] Jerusalem, is 4680 years [g189]. From the second year of Darius which was the first year of the 65th Olympiad [520 B.C.] [until the time of Christ], is 137 Olympiads and 548 years.

[41] This [material] can be shown in more detail [cross-referenced with the kings of Persia] as follows:

Cambyses took the crown following Cyrus, who was the first Persian king.

Then came Darius, who ruled for 36 years. In the second year of his reign, the temple in Jerusalem was restored. Darius ruled for an additional 34 years.

Darius' son, Xerxes, ruled next for 20 years. During his reign the story of Esther took place.

Artaxerxes ruled for 41 years. During his time Ezra lived, who, it is said, knew all the sacred Hebrew texts by heart including the entire Holy Bible, and transmitted it to the Jews in the new Hebrew script, because the world was riven by warfare. Indeed, it was during this time that Nehemiah, the chief cupbearer, lived. By order of the king, he went to the country of the Jews and [re]built Jerusalem, surrounding the city with a wall. For until then [g190] the city had been in ruins, except for the temple which had been restored in Darius' time. After Artaxerxes the following kings ruled Persia:

Darius, 19 years.
Artaxerxes Mnemon, 40 years.
Ochus, 26 years.
Arsaces, 4 years.
Darius, 6 years.

After these [monarchs], Alexander of Macedon eliminated the Persian kingdom and ruled for 6 years. He ruled an additional 6 years after slaying [the last king] Darius. From the second year of Darius [the First] to the death of Alexander--which occurred in the first year of the 114th Olympiad [324 B.C.]--197 years elapsed.

After the death of Alexander, the following monarchs ruled in Egypt and in the city of Alexandria:

1. Ptolemaeus, son of Lagus, 40 years.

2. Ptolemaeus Philadelphus, 28 years. During his reign the Hebrew sacred books were translated into Greek and placed [g191] in the library at Alexandria.

3. Ptolemaeus Euergetes, 24 years.

4. Ptolemaeus Philopator, 21 years.

5. Ptolemaeus Epiphanes, 22 years.

6. Ptolemaeus Philometor, 34 years. During his reign, Antiochus Epiphanes ruled in Syria. And it was during [Antiochus'] reign that the events described in the book of Maccabees took place, including how [Antiochus] tried to force the Jewish people into paganism, how he polluted the temple by placing idols in it, and how he stole the temple's sacred vessels, in the 151st Olympiad [176-173 B.C.]. [To sum up,] 150 years elapsed from the death of Alexander of Macedon to the first year of Antiochus Epiphanes. And 347 years elapsed from the second year of Darius to Antiochus.

[42] It was during the reign of the aforementioned Antiochus that Mattathias, the son of Asamonaeus, showed zeal for his patrimonial religion and became a general of the people. After [Mattathias], his [g192] son Judas, called Maccabaeus, [led the people]; he was followed by his brother Jonathan, who was followed by his brother Simon. It is with him that the book of the Maccabees ends. It covers a period of 40 years, to the end of the 161st Olympiad [136-133 B.C.]. Eighty-eight years elapsed from that date to the Roman emperor Augustus.

According to Africanus and Josephus, after Simon [ruled] as general of the Jews, Jonathan, also called Hyrcanus, [succeeded him] for 26 years. After him, Aristobulus [ruled] for one year. [Aristobulus] was the first to put the royal crown on his head, simultaneously being king and high priest of the Jewish people. This was 484 years after the Babylonian captivity. After him, Alexander, also called Jannaeus, was king for 25 years. After him, his wife Alexandra, also called Mesalina, [ruled] for 9 years. After her, Aristobulus [g193] and Hyrcanus [ruled]. In their reign, Pompeius the Roman general put the Jews under Roman taxation. He established Hyrcanus as their king, but bound Aristobulus and took him to Rome.

In his reign, in the 184th Olympiad [44 B.C.], Julius Caesar became king of the Romans, ruling as an absolute monarch [emperor] for 4 years and 7 months. He was followed by Augustus, also called Sebastos, who ruled for 56 years and 6 months. It was in his reign that Herod, who was not fit [for the position] became the first foreign king of the Jews, getting [the position] through the Romans. [Herod's] people were from Ascalon. During his reign the Annointed of God [Christ] was born [g194] in Bethlehem, Judaea. Following Augustus, Tiberius ruled the Romans. In the 15th year of his reign, which was the fourth year of the 201st Olympiad [28 A.D.], our Savior and Lord Jesus Christ appeared among humankind.

Thus [the period] from Antiochus Epiphanes until the 15th year of Tiberius contains 201 years. [The period] from Alexander of Macedon to the same [15th] year of Tiberius contains 352 years. From the second year of Darius to [the 15th year] of Tiberius is 548 years. From the 15th year of Tiberius to the very end of the siege of Jerusalem--which occurred in the second year of Vespasian--is a total of 42 years. From Adam until the second year of Darius, is 4680 years. From the second year of Darius until the 15th year of Tiberius, is 548 years. Thus from Adam until the 15th year of Tiberius, a total of 5228 years elapsed. From the 15th year of Tiberius [g195] until the 20th anniversary of Constantinus Victor Augustus, is 300 years. The grand total is: 5518 years according to the Hebrews in the [Greek] Septuagint version; 1237 years less according to the Hebrew version of the Jews; and 935 years less according to the Hebrew Samaritan version.

This is how [our] chronology [is constructed] according to the Hebrews' [sources].

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