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Translations of Hellenistic Inscriptions: 223


HIERA SYNGRAPHE: LEASE OF TEMPLE ESTATES ON DELOS


Greek text:   (A) IDelos_503 ,   (B) IG_11.2.287, lines 142-180
Provenance:     Delos
Date:   (A) 300 B.C. ,   (B) 250 B.C.
Tags:     land_ownership
Format:   see key to translations

The Hiera Syngraphē ("Sacred Contract") contained the regulations that governed the ten-year leases of temple estates on the island of Delos. Only the second half of the regulations is preserved in the surviving inscription, A. The leases all started at the same time, and the details of each block of leases were recorded in other inscriptions. The most complete is the one translated here, as B.

The translation of A is taken from J.H. Kent, "The Temple Estates of Delos, Rheneia, and Mykonos", pp.267-272 ( PDF ). There is a French translation of B by M. Brunet, "Synthèse, traduction et commentaires des passages relatifs aux biens fonciers et immobiliers de l'Apollon de Délos", pp.23-30 ( PDF ). For the exact date of the regulations, see by G. Reger, "Regionalism and Change in the Economy of Independent Delos", App. I ( UC Press E-Books Collection ).

The meaning of the Greek words used to to describe the components of the various estates in B is not always clear; in most cases, this translation follows the suggestions of Kent, pp.293-300.


[A]   . . . 10 . . . If any lessee leaves behind male children, [they are responsible for] the repayment of whatever sum is owing to the god just as if it had come from the lessee.

If one of the guarantors dies [within the year he is serving as a guarantor], the lessee is to pay the rental immediately [or to get it paid ? ] by the guarantor's son, allowing the son ten days of grace. [If the lessee does not pay the] rental, the hieropoioi are to issue a new lease for the estate: if the new lease is for a smaller rental, they are to collect the sum by which it is less from [the former lessee and ?] the [son] of the guarantor. [If neither lessee nor guarantor's son can pay], the hieropoioi are to inscribe their names on the stele.

20 If lessees keep livestock, they are to pay in the month of Artemision a [sum of money] for each animal [which is to be counted as part] of their rental, for all the animals that they keep. The payment is to be made in coinage guaranteed to be genuine.

. . . the hieropoioi in the month of Galaxion are to take a census of the cattle according to custom. If the number left on the estates in the month of Metageitnion . . . if a lessee raises a temple animal, the hieropoioi are to take their oath that this animal will not be included in the record of the one who raises it as far as the rent is concerned. And he who wishes may lodge information and receive half the value of the beasts that were sold.

When any farmer wishes to sell any of the branded cattle which he is obligated by law to replace, he may do so if he furnishes a guarantor for the price for which they will be sold.

Those who raise livestock are to pay the remainder of their rent in Lenaion in the presence of the assembly, and in the last year of the leasing period in Metageitnion. Lessees who do not raise livestock are to pay their whole rental in genuine currency in Metageitnion.

The hieropoioi must render accounts of everything every month to the Sacred Chest.

30 If the lessees do not pay, at the times appointed, all the rent that is owing to the god from the sacred estates according to the terms of the contract, or do not turn over their crops to the custody of the hieropoioi, they are to pay a hemiolion at [the times ?] specified, and the hieropoioi, after selling their crops [. .. . . . . ] are to collect from the guarantors a hemiolion of the amount of the rental that is owing the god.

If any of the rental is left unpaid after the lessee's crops have been sold, the hieropoioi are to sell for the unpaid amount his cattle and his sheep and his slaves. And if even after these have been sold there is still some of the rental unpaid, the hieropoioi are to make up the deficit from the personal property of the lessees and their guarantors. And if the hieropoioi are not able to, they are to swear by Zeus Agoraios that they are unable, and are to inscribe on the stele as debtors to the god both lessees and guarantors, along with their fathers' names, and are to issue a new lease for the estate. And if there is any deficiency in the rent of the new lease, the hieropoioi are to record on the stone both the names of the men and the amount of the deficiency with a fifty per cent addition.

The hieropoioi are to pay to the god half the rental which they do not collect, if they do (?) not exact payment from the guarantors of lessees.

40 It is not permissible for a lessee's guarantors who have been inscribed for debt to divide up the sum of money inscribed on the stele, but the whole sum shall be ascribed to the guarantors according to the share each guarantor contracted to guarantee, unless he who appointed them guarantors {i.e., the lessee} pays the amount for them.

Whatever amount of rental the hieropoioi collect from the guarantors, or whatever amount the guarantor himself pays in behalf of the [lessee] who appointed him guarantor, the council, which has full authority to act in the matter, is to inscribe the lessee as owing to his guarantor one and a half times the amount of money that is paid, in the same manner as it inscribes debtors; and the lessees are to be classified legally as debtors who are overdue with their payments. If the council does not so record it, it is to pay the guarantor double the money he paid.

All the possessions of the lessees, their domestic animals, their slaves, their household furniture, and all that is theirs, are to be subject to the god. All the possessions of the guarantors also are to be subject to the god, just as those of lessees. If the hieropoioi who collect the rentals do not collect the entire amount, all the possessions of the hieropoioi are subject to the god . . . 50 . . .

[B]   . . . And we leased the sacred domains of the god for ten years in accordance with the sacred contract, and the following are those who took them for rent.

Hippodromos :   Antigonos son of Telemnestos, at 661 drachmas. Guarantors: Telemnestos son of Philios, Aristoboulos son of Arkeon. He received a farmhouse with a door, a chamber without a door, a cattle stall without a door, a sheepfold without a door, a bake-house without a door, a courtyard door.

Kerameion :   Lyses son of Simis, at 250 drachmas; but since he had not provided guarantors, we rented it out again and Eudikos son of Philistides took it for rent at 250 drachmas. Guarantors: Anaxithemis and Krataibios son of Erētymenes. He received a courtyard door, a farmhouse with a door, containing a chamber with a door and a palm-wood staircase, a small upstairs room with a door, a mill with a door, a men's room with a door - a door onto the garden - a bake-house without a door in the garden, a men's room with a door, four fig trees, a pomegranate tree.

Limne :   Glaukos son of Glaukos, at 21 drachmas. Guarantor: Xenon son of Nikanor.

Leimon :   Dionysodoros, at 221 drachmas. Guarantors: Theiaios and Synonymos, both sons of Theiaios. He received a farmhouse with a door, a cattle stall with a door, a hayloft with a door, a sheepfold without a door, a bake-house with a door, a courtyard door.

Korakiai and Soloē :   Philarchos son of Theorylos, at 420 drachmas. Guarantors, Pythagoras son of Habron, Chersis son of Elpines. 150 He received a courtyard door, a farmhouse with a door, two chambers without a door, a cattle stall without a door, a sheepfold without a door, a small upstairs room without a door, a chamber with a door.

Phoinikes :   Antigonos son of Didyntos, at 651 drachmas. Guarantors: Sosidemos son of Nikon, Anaxos son of Teleson. He received two courtyard doors, a farmhouse with a door, a chamber without a door, a cattle stall without a door, a double sheepfold without a door, a hayloft without a door, an upstairs room with a door containing a room without a door, a bake-house without a door, 596 grape vines, 40 fig trees, 5 wild fig trees.

Rhamnoi :   Kynthiades took this for rent at 553 drachmas, but, as he did not provide guarantors, we have rented it out again and Parmiskos son of Diodotos took it for rent at 553 drachmas. Guarantors: Antirrhetos son of Antigonos, Thymias son of Echekratides. He received a courtyard door, a sheepfold without a door, a small tower with a door, a men's room with a door, a farmhouse with a door, a cattle stall without a door, chambers without a door, 1978 grape vines, 91 fig trees, a pomegranate tree.

Place of Nikos :   Pythokles son of Pherekleides, at 260 drachmas. Guarantors: Telemnestos son of Antigonos, Rhadis son of Skydros. He received a courtyard door, a farmhouse with a door, a chamber with a door, a mill without a door, a hayloft without a door, a cattle stall without a door, a men's room without a door, a small upstairs room, a sheepfold without a door, a bake-house without a door, 700 grape vines, 15 fig trees.

Limnai :   Autokles son of Teleson, at 343 drachmas. Guarantors: Antigonos son of Demeas, Telemnestos son of Antigonos, and he received two courtyard doors, a farmhouse with a door, a chamber with a door, another chamber without a door, a hayloft without a door, a mill without a door, a cattle stall with a door, a small upstairs room with a door, a men's room without a door, 1514 grape vines, 32 fig trees, 3 wild fig trees.

Dionysion :   Herakleides of Rhenaia, at 804 drachmas. 160 Guarantors: Polybos son of Diodotos, Sosilos son of Nesiotes. He received a courtyard door, a farmhouse with a door, a chamber with a door, a hayloft without a door, a mill with a door, a bake-house without a door, a small upstairs room with a door, a men's room without a door, a sheepfold without a door, a men's room without a door, 1056 grape vines, 36 fig trees.

Skitoneia :   Archedamas son of Ktesikles, at 473 drachmas. Guarantors: Achaios son of Aristeides, Aristoboulos son of Menekrates. He received a farmhouse with a door, two chambers without a door, the northern wall being collapsed, a cattle stall without a door, an upstairs room with a door, three others buildings without a door, a courtyard door, 629 grape vines, a fig tree.

Charoneia :   Euktemon and Dexikrates sons of Achaios, to 1,100 drachmas. Guarantors: Panteles son of Oikon, Charmos son of Ktesiboulos. They received a farmhouse with a door, two chambers, one of them having a door, a cattle stall without a door, a sheepfold without a door, a building without a roof, a tower with a door, a courtyard door, another building with a courtyard door, a farmhouse with a door, a chamber with a door, another chamber, a men's room with a door, a bake-house with its main beam supported by pillars, a cattle stall without a door, a hayloft without a door, a sheepfold without a door, 47 fig trees, 2,187 grape vines.

Panormos :   Stesarchos, 606 drachmas. Guarantors: Phillis son of Diaitos, Polyxenos son of Arēsimbrotos. He received a courtyard door, a farmhouse with a door, a chamber with a door, a hayloft without a door, a cattle stall without a door, a bake-house without a door, a cellar with a door, a small upstairs room, a sheepfold without a door, a men's room with a door, 1,298 grape vines, 29 fig trees, a wild fig tree.

Chareteia :   Philonikos son of Pherekleides, 1,113 drachmas. Guarantors: Pradaximenes son of Kallidikos, Xenon son of Pistes. He received a courtyard door, 170 a farmhouse with a door, two chambers with a door, one having its main beam supported by pillars, a cattle still supported by pillars without a door, a granary without a door, a hayloft without a door, two small upstairs rooms with a door, a men's room containing a chamber without a door, a men's room without a door, a bake-house without a door, a mill without a door, a sheepfold supported by pillars without a door, 560 grape vines, 72 fig trees.

Pyrgoi :   Eutheas son of Menyllos, at 1000 drachmas. Guarantors: Antikrates son of Aristodikos, Charilas son of Antigonos. He received a courtyard door, a farmhouse with a door, two chambers with a door, a hayloft without a door, a cattle stall without a door, two men's rooms with a door, a small upstairs room with a door, a bake-house without a door, a sheepfold without a door, 2,250 grape vines, 73 fig trees, two wild fig trees.

And the following are those of the tenants who added an additional tenth in accordance with the contract.

Porthmos :   Pythokles son of Pherekleides, added 93 drachmas, a half obol and a chalkoi to 931 drachmas and took it for rent including the additional tenth at 1,024 drachmas, half an obol and a chalkoi. Guarantors: Kritoboulos son of Ampykides, Philarchos son of Philios.

In Akra Delos :   Empedos son of Xenon added 40 drachmas to 400 and took it for rent including the additional tenth at 440 drachmas. Guarantors: Teleson son of Xenon, Epicharmos son of Boulekrates.

Sosimacheia :   Apollonios added 25 drachmas to 250 and took it for rent including the additional tenth at 275 drachmas. Guarantors: Menyllos son of Menyllos, Isodikos son of Sosilos.

Phytalia :   Eubios son of Theodotos added 4 drachmas, 2 obols and chalkoi to 44 drachmas and took it for rent at 48 drachmas, 2 obols and 2 chalkoi. Guarantors: Anektos son of Eudikos, Charikleides son of Aristokritos.

Epistheneia :   Periandros son of Hegesagoras added 66 drachmas to 660 drachmas and took it for rent including the tenth at 726 drachmas. Guarantors: Kraton son of Mnesiades, Boulon son of Tynnon.

Lykoneion :   Akridion son of Dionysodoros added 11 drachmas, half an obol and a chalkoi to 111 drachmas and took it for rent including the tenth at 122 drachmas, half an obol and a chalkoi. Guarantors: Herakleides son of Eparchides, 180 Aristoboulos son of Aristeides.

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