Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum: 26.1049


Greek text:   SEG_26.1049
Provenance:   Lato pros Kamara , Crete
Date:   111/0 B.C. 
Tags:     oaths , treaties-cities
Format:   see key to translations

This treaty was agreed at about the same time as the treaty between the neighbouring cities of Lyttos and Olous ( SEG_61.722 ), and there are many similarities between the two treaties, and also with the slightly later treaty between Lato and Olous ( Greek text: IC_1.16.5 ).

There are frequent gaps in the text, and some of the restorations are far from certain.  There is a German translation and commentary by A. Chaniotis, "Die Verträge zwischen kretischen Poleis in der hellenistischen Zeit", no. 59 ( Google Books ); he restores line 10 to imply isopoliteia, as in the treaty between Lyttos and Olous.

With good fortune.   The Hierapytnians and the Latoans [made this agreement] when the kosmoi in Hierapytna were . . . and in Lato were [the Echinoreis with] Aution son of Podaithos: they shall be allies of each other [truly and with our deceit, and] they shall have the [same friends] and enemies; and if anyone invades [the territory of the Hierapytnians or] seizes part of the territory of the Hierapytnians, [the Latoans shall come to their aid without demur], by land and by sea as [much as they can; and if anyone invades the] territory of the Latoans or seizes part of the territory [of the Latoans, similarly the] Hierapytnians [shall come to their aid], genuinely and without demur, in full [strength 10 (?) as much as they can. It shall be permitted] for a Hierapytnian [in Lato and a Latoan in Hierapytna to share in all divine and] human matters, [acting in accordance with their own] laws; [and] a Hierapytnian [shall have the right of intermarriage and ownership of property] amongst the (?) Latoans [for all things, both divine and] human, [in accordance with his? own laws]; and a Latoan . . . 

. . . [a Latoan] in the precinct [of Eleithyia] . . . a Hierapytnian in the [Dōdekatheon] . . .

20 . . . a Hierapytnian [shall have the right of export from Lato, and a Latoan shall have the right of export from Hierapytna, free from] taxation [by land], and by sea [paying the taxes in accordance with the] current laws [in each city, after] they have confirmed by an oath [that the export is for their personal use; if the cities make a joint expedition], and by the will of the [gods we capture something good from the enemy, each city shall receive a share of the booty in proportion to the number of] men who went on the expedition . . .

. . . [If both of the cities are fighting a war] outside their territory, neither city [shall be permitted to make a truce or a peace agreement], unless it is the will of both the cities. [The kosmoi in their term of office shall administer an oath to their agelai, whenever] the agelai leave in each city, at Hierapytna [in the presence of envoys] from Lato, 30 [and at Lato in the presence of envoys from Hierapytna; and they shall read out] the oath at [Hierapytna during the Hyperbōia, and at Lato during the Thiodasia; and the Hierapytnian kosmoi] shall invite [the Latoan kosmoi to the reading, and the Latoan kosmoi] shall invite the Hierapytnian kosmoi, [at least ten days before they intend either to read the oath or] to administer the oath [to the agelai]. If [the Hierapytnian kosmoi do not administer the oath to the agelai, or do not] invite the Latoans to the reading, [or do not read out the treaty as] prescribed, each of the kosmoi shall pay a penalty of one hundred [staters of Alexandrian silver to the Latoans; and if the Latoan kosmoi] do not administer the oath to the agelai, [or do not read out] the treaty in the [presence] of the Hierapytnians, [similarly each of the kosmoi shall pay a penalty of] one hundred staters [to the] Hierapytnians. [If any Hierapytnian who is serving as kosmos comes to Lato], he shall go 40 [to the prytaneion in Lato wearing a] ceremonial {aphphanō} cloak; [and similarly] a Latoan [kosmos shall go to the prytaneion in Hierapytna] wearing a ceremonial cloak, [just as when the Latoan and Hierapytnian kosmoi] attend [a festival or a procession]. Whatever the cities decide [after consultation to remove or add to the treaty, what] we [remove shall be] neither sacred [nor bound by oath, and what we add shall be sacred and] bound by oath. [Each city] shall inscribe the oath and treaty on steles, [and shall place them], at Hierapytna in the Dōdekatheon, and at Lato [in the temple of Eleithyia, and together the Hierapytnians and] the Latoans shall place a stele [at Lyttos in the temple of Athena Polias]; and a Hierapytnian shall come to [Lato] . . . [and a Latoan] shall come to Hierapytna . . . 

50 . . . Boundaries of the [territory of the] Hierapytnians [and the Latoans. From the sea] up along the river Kymaios as [the water] flows, and to the . . . to the Hippagra, and up to the Benkasos . . . and to the sacred rock-hollow . . . and to the ravine and to the top . . .

60 . . . as the water of . . . flows, the boundaries shall remain for the Latoans as was inscribed long ago [at Lato when] . . . the Latoans with the Lyttians, and at Lyttos when the . . . with Sokl  . . . [The boundaries between] the ceded territories and the Olountians shall be as follows: from the sea along the ridge to Plymon and to the old temple of Aphrodite, [and] from there along the northern border of the sacred precinct at Dera towards Airepō and Promentissa and to the circuit at Kalolaka and to the Deras at Archelarchos by the holm oaks [and to] the Akamas.

The Hierapytnians ceded territory to the Latoans as the Latoans requested, as long as the Latoan remain in friendship and alliance with the (?) Lyttians and the Hierapytnians; the boundaries of the territory are as written below: from the Benkasos to the rocks and round again to the place where the strip of land runs alongside, 70 and from there round again to the peak at Mitoi and straight on to the top of the old dry land which adjoins the holding of Exakon, [and] from there to the tops of the vales around the Ereipiones up to the peak above the Hermes and round again beneath the (?) cavern and to the [road] that leads through Laxos and to the sacred rock-hollow and to the peak below the Gnaphos and from there across to the large hill beneath the lookout point, and from [there to the] little (?) tower above where the graves are, and to the salt mine above, and to the lower [edge of the] rock and the Boinōps and the Hippagra and to the road that leads to Akimos and to Ialketai [and] to the Kouretes, and to the Kolos as the water flows, and to Dorasa below and to the road and to the lack of Elaphos and to the Deras and to the wild pear-tree 80 [and to] the summit of Zeus and to Dorēia and to Kyrtairaxos and to the downward slope and round again [to the] Spēnoeis.

At the temple of Hermes Kornissaios, the Hierapytnians shall sacrifice [according to] their own customs.

Oath.   I swear by Zeus Kretagenes and Hera [and Zeus] Diktaios and Zeus Oratrios and Poseidon and Amphitrite and Athena [Oleria and] Eleuthyia and Pythian Apollo and Lato and Artemis and Ares and Aphrodite and Hermes and the Kouretes and the nymphs and all the other gods and goddesses; verily I will remain in friendship and alliance with the Latoans and I will abide by the sworn treaty and I will truly and without deceit come to their aid by land and by sea; and if anyone attacks the Latoans or advances against their city or territory, I will not abandon them either in war or in peacetime, but I shall abide by the sworn treaty and in the agreed friendship. If I keep my oath, [may I have] many blessings; 90 but if I break my oath, may the opposite happen.

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