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45 B.C. Olympiad 183.4


Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar (IV) - sole consul
Athenian archon: (?) Diocles

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {January} Document: Cic:Fam_6.1 & 6.3-5, letters from Cicero to Torquatus and Caecina.
2 Document: Cic:Fam_15.16-17 & 15.19, letters of Cicero to and from Cassius.
3 Document: Cic:Fam_6.18 & 6.21, letters from Cicero to Q.Lepta and C.Toranius.
4 Document: Cic:Fam_9.10 & 9.13, letters from Cicero to Dolabella.
5 Document: Cic:Fam_4.14-15 & 13.16, letters from Cicero to Plancius and Caesar.
6 BAE {19 February} Caesar captures Ategua.
* Read Caesar's account
#[Caes]:BHisp_6'1-19'6; ValMax_9.2'4;L  Frontin:Str_3.14'1; DioCass_43.33'2-34'5.
7 Omens foretell the defeat of Cn.Pompeius' army.
* Read Dio's account
+DioCass_43.35'2-4; +Obseq_66.
8 Caesar regards the growth of a palm tree near Munda as a sign of the future greatness of Octavianus.
Suet:Aug_94'11.
9 ETR {February} The death of Tullia, the daughter of Cicero.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_4.5'1, :ND_1'9; Plut:Cic_41'5; { CAH_9'460; OCD_t.}
10 BAE {5 March} Skirmishes between the armies of Caesar and Pompeius, near Soricaria.
* Read Caesar's account
#[Caes]:BHisp_20'1-27'6; +DioCass_43.35'1-2.
11 {17 March} Caesar destroys the army of Pompeius in a hard-fought battle at Munda.
* Read Caesar's account
#[Caes]:BHisp_28'1-31'11; Cic:Phil_2'75; Vell_2.55'3-4; Sen:Ben_5.24'1-3; Frontin:Str_2.8'13; +Plut:Caes_56'1-5; Suet:Caes_36'1, 62'1; Flor_2.13'78-84; +Appian:BCiv_2'104, '152; Polyaen_8.23'16; +DioCass_43.35'4-38'4; Eutrop_6.24'1; Oros_6.16'7-8;L  { OCD_p.}
12 Caesar besieges and captures Munda.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BHisp_32'1-33'1, 36'4-5, 41'1-2; ValMax_7.6'5;L  Plin:HN_3'12;L  Flor_2.13'85; +DioCass_43.38'4, 39'4.
13 ROM {March} Document: Cic:Att_12.12-34 & Cic:Fam_4.5, letters from Cicero to Atticus and from Sulpicius to Cicero.
14 BAE Caesar captures Corduba and other cities.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BHisp_33'1-36'5; +Appian:BCiv_2'105; +DioCass_43.39'1-3; { OCD_c.}
15 {12 April} Cn.Pompeius retreats to Carteia, but is captured and killed.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_12.37a'1, 44'3; #[Caes]:BHisp_36'1-40'1; Strab_3'141;(2.2)  Vell_2.55'4; +Plut:Caes_56'6; Flor_2.13'86; +Appian:BCiv_2'105; +DioCass_43.40'1-2; Oros_6.16'8-9.L 
16 ROM {20 April} The news of the battle of Munda reaches Rome.
+DioCass_43.42'3.
17 ROM {April} Document: Cic:Fam_6.2, a letter from Cicero to Torquatus.
18 Document: Cic:Fam_4.6 & 9.11, letters from Cicero to Sulpicius and Dolabella.
19 LUS C.Didius is defeated and killed by the Lusitani.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BHisp_40'1-7; +DioCass_43.40'2.
20 BAE Sex.Pompeius escapes into the interior of Spain.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_12.37a'1; [Liv]:Per_115; Strab_3'141,(2.2)  '161;(4.10)  Sen:Dial_11.15'1; +Plut:Caes_56'6; Flor_2.13'87; +Appian:BCiv_2'105,(↓)  4'83, 5'143; DioCass_45.10'1-3; [Vict]:VirIll_84'1;L  { OCD_p.}
21 GRE {26 May} M.Marcellus is murdered at Athens.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Fam_4.12'1-3, :Att_13.10'1-3, 22'2; [Liv]:Per_115; ValMax_9.11'4;L  { OCD_m.}
22 ROM An impostor pretends to be the grandson of Marius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_12.49'2, 14.6'1; ValMax_9.15'1;L  { See also: NicDam_128'28-33.}
23 BAE Caesar writes a pamphlet "Anti-Cato" in response to Cicero's encomium of Cato.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Att_12.40'1, 41'4, 44'1, 45'2; Plut:Caes_54'3-6; Suet:Caes_56'5; { CAH_9'461.}
24 ROM {May} Document: Cic:Att_12.5a-6 & 12.35-53, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
25 Document: Cic:Att_13.1-2b & 13.26-32, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
26 Document: Cic:Fam_13.4 & 4.12, letters from Cicero to Orca and from Sulpicius to Cicero.
27 Document: Cic:Fam_5.14-15, letters of Cicero to and from Lucceius.
28 BAE Octavianus joins Caesar in Spain.
* Read Velleius' account
~NicDam_127'22-27; Vell_2.59'2-3; { according to Nicolaus, Octavianus arrived seven months after the start of the war.}
29 SPA Caesar establishes colonies at Emporiae and other places in Spain.
* Read Livy's account
CIL_1.594<t= ARS_114>; Liv_34.9'3; Strab_3'141;(2.1)  { CAH_9'445; OCD_c.}
30 ROM Brutus marries Porcia.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_13.9'2, 10'2, 22'4; Plut:Brut_13'3; { OCD_p.}
31 Document: Varro:Ling_,L  Varro's grammatical treatise "De Lingua Latina".
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_12.52'3, 13.12'3; { OCD_v=43; the final parts of the treatise may have been published at a later date.}
32 Document: Cic:Fin_,L  Cicero's philosophical treatise "De finibus bonorum et malorum".
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_13.12'3, 19'4, 21a'1, 23'2, 32'3; { OCD_c.}
33 Document: Cic:Acad_,L  Cicero's philosophical treatise "Academica".
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_13.12'3, 13'1, 14'1, 16'1, 19'3-5, 25'3, 32'3, :Fam_9.8'1; Plin:HN_31'6;L  { OCD_c.}
34 {June} Document: Cic:Att_13.3-19 & 13.33, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
35 Document: Cic:Fam_6.11 & 13.4, letters from Cicero to Trebianus and Orca.
36 BAE Caesar completes the settlement of affairs in Spain.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BHisp_42'1-7; +DioCass_43.39'4-5; { CAH_9'437.}
37 ROM Caesar gives increased powers to the city prefects within the city of Rome.
* Read Dio's account
Suet:Caes_76'2; +DioCass_43.48'1-4.
38 Document: Cic:Tusc_,L  Cicero's philosophical treatise "Tusculan Disputations". { OCD_c.}
39 {July} Document: Cic:Att_13.20-25 & 13.35-36, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
40 Document: Cic:Att_13.43-44, further letters from Cicero to Atticus.
41 Document: Cic:Fam_5.9 & 9.8, letters from Vatinius to Cicero and from Cicero to Varro.
42 NUM << Sallustius extorts money from the province of Africa Nova, while acting as its governor.
[Cic]:InSall_19-20;(7)  { MRR_2'208.}
43 ILL Caesar sends Vatinius to exact tribute and hostages from the Illyrians.
~Appian:Ill_13; { OCD_v.}
43a SPA Caesar sends C.Carinas to pursue Sex.Pompeius, who is gathering rebel forces in Spain.
Appian:BCiv_4'83, (?) 5'143; { MRR_2'207.}
44 SYR Caesar's forces, under the command of Antistius, attack Caecilius Bassus.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_14.9'3; Joseph:BJ_1'217, :AJ_14'268-269; DioCass_47.27'1-5; { MRR_2'207; according to Cicero, the Parthians intervened on behalf of Bassus in December of this year.}
45 ROM Games are held in honour of Caesar's victories.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_13.44'1, :Fam_6.19'2.
46 Cicero divorces Publilia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Att_12.32'1; Plut:Cic_41'5; DioCass_46.18'4; { ~OCD_c.}
47 Document: Cic:ND_, Cicero's philosophical treatise "De Natura Deorum". { OCD_c.}
48 {August} Document: Cic:Att_13.34 & 13.37-51, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
49 Document: Cic:Fam_6.19-21 & 7.24-25, letters from Cicero to Lepta, Toranius and Gallus.
50 NAR M.Antonius travels out to Narbo, where C.Trebonius suggests forming a plot against Caesar.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_2'34, '74-78; Plin:HN_3'32;L  ~Plut:Ant_10'7-11'2, 13'2; Suet:Tib_4'1; { CAH_9'437; Caesar established a colony of veterans from the Tenth Legion at Narbo.}
51 {September} Caesar composes his final will, which names Octavianus as his chosen heir.
* Read Suetonius' account
NicDam_128'28-30, 129'36, 130'48, '68; Plut:Cic_44'5, :Mor_391'B; Tac:Ann_2'41; #Suet:Caes_83'1-2, :Aug_68'1; { CAH_9'466; OCD_augustus.}
52 ROM {October} Caesar arrives back in Rome.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_13.21a'3, 45'1, 51'2; #Vell_2.56'3; { CAH_9'437.}
53 {13 October} The triumph of Q.Fabius, from Spain.
#FastTr_p108.
54 Further honours are awarded to Caesar, including the titles "imperator" and "pater patriae".
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Off_3'83; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'80; +Plut:Caes_57'2-4; Suet:Caes_76'1; Flor_2.13'91; +Appian:BCiv_2'106; +DioCass_43.43'1-46'1, 44.4'4; { CAH_9'462<45 or 44>.}
55 Q.Fabius and C.Trebonius are appointed to be consuls for the rest of the year.
* Read Dio's account
Vell_2.69'1; Suet:Caes_76'2, 80'3; +DioCass_43.46'2-3.
56 {October} Document: Cic:Fam_7.29 & 13.7, letters from M'.Curius to Cicero and from Cicero to C.Cluvius.
57 The triumph of Caesar, for his victory in Spain.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Liv]:Per_116; Vell_2.56'2; Plin:HN_14'97;L  +Plut:Caes_56'7-9; Suet:Caes_37'1, 38'2, 78'2; +DioCass_43.41'1-42'2.
58 Caesar increases the number of magistrates and the size of the senate.
* Read Dio's account
Seneca:Contr_7.3'9;L  Tac:Ann_11'25; +DioCass_43.47'1-6; Macrob:Sat_2.3'11-12,L  7.3'8;L  Justin:Dig_1.2.2'32; { OCD_c<46/5>; it is often difficult to date Caesar's legislation precisely within the period 46 to 44 B.C.}
59 Caesar directly appoints half of the magistrates for 44 B.C.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_2'79; NicDam_130'67; Plut:Brut_7'1-5, +:Caes_57'5, 58'1, 62'4-5; Suet:Caes_41'2, 76'3; Appian:BCiv_2'107;(↓)  DioCass_42.33'3, 43.51'3-4.
60 Document: Cic:Deiot_, Cicero's speech in defence of king Deiotarus.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_9.12''2, :Div_1'27, :Phil_11'34; { OCD_d.}
61 Document: ARS_113 (CIL_1.593), the "Lex Julia Municipalis", municipal regulations for the city of Heracleia. { It is not clear whether this inscription contains one single law, or a collection of extracts from different laws. But Caesar's municipal regulations must date to about this time.}
62 ILL Octavianus is sent to Apollonia, where he continues his studies.
* Read Cicero's account
NicDam_130'38; Strab_13'625,(4.3)  14'674;(5.14)  Suet:Aug_89'1, 94'12; Appian:BCiv_3'9; Lucian:Macr_23; { According to Nicolaus, Octavianus was in Apollonia 4 months before the death of Caesar; but Appian says 6 months.}
63 ROM {13 December} The triumph of Q.Pedius, from Spain.
#FastTr_p108.
64 ITA {19 December} Caesar visits Cicero, near Puteoli.
#Cic:Att_13.52'1-2.
65 ROM Document: Cic:Sen_, Cicero's treatise "De Senectute". { OCD_c<45/4>.}
66 {December} Document: Cic:Att_13.42 & Cic:Fam_9.12, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Dolabella.
67 Document: Cic:Fam_5.10-11, letters of Cicero to and from Vatinius.
68 {31 December} C.Caninius Rebilus is appointed consul for one day, after the death of Fabius.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fam_7.30'1-2; +FastCap_p78; Plin:HN_7'181;L  Plut:Caes_58'2-3; Tac:Hist_3'37; Suet:Caes_76'2, :Ner_15'2; +DioCass_43.46'2-5; SHA:Tyr_8'2; Macrob:Sat_2.2'13,L  3'6,L  7.3'10.L 
69 == Document: Cic:Fam_13.5 & 13.8, letters from Cicero to Orca and Rutilius.
70 == Document: Cic:Fam_9.22 & 16.18-20, letters from Cicero to Paetus and Tiro.
71 ASI << A letter from the city of Laodiceia to the proconsul C.Rabirius.
Joseph:AJ_14'241-243; { MRR_2'186.}
72 << A letter from the proconsul (?) Vatia to the city of Miletus.
Joseph:AJ_14'244-246.
73 << The people of Parium are instructed by (?) Servilius to respect the rights of Jews.
Joseph:AJ_14'213-216.
74 << Servilius Vatia grants privileges to the temple of Artemis at Hierocaesareia.
Tac:Ann_3'62.
75 << Document: Sherk_81B  (OGIS_449), a decree of the city of Pergamum in honour of Servilius Vatia. { Servilius was proconsul in Asia throughout 46 and 45 B.C. - see MRR_2'208.}
76 SIC << Document: Cic:Fam_13.30-39, letters from Cicero to Acilius, proconsul in Sicily.
77 ROM << Caesar starts work on many building projects, including a theatre, later called the theatre of Marcellus.
Plin:HN_36'102;L  Plut:Rom_20'8; Suet:Caes_44'1-3; ~DioCass_43.49'2-3, 53.30'5.
78 << An impostor, pretending to be the son of Asinius Dio, is punished by Caesar.
ValMax_9.15'5.L 
79 ?? Document: Caes:BCiv_, Caesar's commentaries on the civil war against Pompeius. { The commentaries cover events down to 48 B.C.; it is uncertain how soon they were written after that.}
80 ?? The Aquilian stipulation, a legal formula, is devised by C.Aquilius Gallus.
Justin:Dig_2.15'2, '4, '5, '15; { ~OCD_a.}
81 ++ P.Ventidius wins the favour of Caesar during the civil wars and as tribune of the plebs.
Gell_15.4'3; { MRR_2'207.}
82 ++ The grammarian Curtius Nicias is a close friend of Cicero.
Suet:Gram_14; { Nicias is mentioned in Cic:Att_12.26 and several other letters.}
83 IT+ ?? Document: CIL_1.1570 & 1.1732, the epitaphs of two wives, Horaea and Helvia Prima.
84 PAL ?? Document: PsSolom_, the "Psalms of Solomon". { The psalms mention the capture of Jerusalem by Pompeius, and Psalm 2 appears to refer to his death.}

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