Philochorus: Atthis (fragments)

Several ancient Greek authors wrote an "Atthis" - a local history of Attica and Athens - but by far the most famous was the Atthis of Philochorus. The large number of references to it in other ancient authors show how influential it was.

Philochorus covered the whole of Athenian history, from the earliest legendary times down to the capture of Athens in 261 B.C., which happened shortly before Philochorus died. Unfortunately the full text of the Atthis, which extended to 17 books, has now been lost, but the surviving fragments (mostly from the first seven books) give a good idea of its format, with the narrative divided into years, identified by the name of the annual Athenian archon. The equivalent year B.C. for each archon is shown here in orange.

This translation has been made from the Greek text in Jacoby's Fragmente der Griechischen Historiker (FGrH_328), but it excludes the first two books, which dealt with the myths and legends of Attica. All the fragments have recently been translated by Philip Harding in "The story of Athens: the fragments of the local chronicles of Attika" (2008).

See key to translations for an explanation of the format of this translation. Some of the quotations by other authors are already available on the web, in which case there are links to where a translation can be found.

[T1] A short biography of Philochorus in the Suda (10th century A.D.) says that "he wrote seventeen books of Atthis; it contains the deeds of the Athenians plus kings and archons down to the last Antiochus, the one surnamed Theos. It is in response to {the Atthis of} Demon".

Book 3

[20] (a) SCHOL.DIONYS.AREOP. The Areopagites used to sit in judgement on almost all crimes and infringements of the law, as is related in full by Androtion in the first book of his Atthis and Philochorus in the second and third books of his Atthis.
(b) SCHOL.DIONYS.AREOP. The Areopagite judges were {originally} formed from the nine archons who held office at Athens, as Androtion says in the second book of his Atthis. Later the council of the Areopagus included a wider group of men, in fact fifty-one of the eminent citizens - except the eupatridae, as we have said - who were distinguished for their wealth and sober life-style, as Philochorus relates in the third book of his Atthis.
(c) ENCOM.DIONYS.AREOP. {Dionysius} was one of the judges on the Areopagus . . . whose illustrious lineage and glorious reputation is related at length by Androtion and Philochorus, the writers of Atthides.

[21] SUDA, "stone" Demosthenes, in Against Conon { 54'26 }: "So they took those who were there on our behalf one by one to the stone, and made them swear an oath." It seems that the Athenians took their oaths by a stone, as is indicated by Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians { 7'1 }, and Philochorus in book 3.

[22] (a) HARPOCRATION Tricephalus {"three-headed"}: Isaeus in Against Eucleides says, "A little above the Tricephalus, along the Hestia way." The full form would be: "the Tricephalus Hermes". Philochorus in book 3 says that (?) Eucleides erected this at Ancyle.
(b) SUDA, "Tricephalus" A {statue of} Hermes, which indicated the roads and had an inscription, telling where one road led, and where the other led. Perhaps it had one face for each road. According to Philochorus, the Tricephalus Hermes was erected by Procleides, the lover of Hipparchus.

[23] Athen_15.637'f Lysander of Sicyon, a famous harp-player.

[24] HARPOCRATION Alopecē: A deme of the Antiochis {tribe} . . . the derivation of the name is explained by Philochorus in book 3.

[25] HARPOCRATION Cerameis: A deme of the Acamantis tribe, according to Diodorus. Philochorus in book 3 says that it received this name from the pottery {ceramic} trade, and from the sacrifices {that were made there} to a hero called Ceramus.

[26] HARPOCRATION Colonetae: Hypereides in Against Apellaeus, about the treasury. They called the hired servants colonetae, because they stood by Colonus, which is near the agora, where the temple of Hephaestus and the shrine of Eurysaces are sited. This was called "Colonus of the agora". There was another Colonus next to the temple of Poseidon, as is mentioned by Hypereides in Against Autocles; this would be the one that was called "Colonus of the horses". Pherecrates in his Petale says: "Where are you coming from? - I am heading towards Colonus, that is not of the agora, but of the horses" . . . Diodorus Periegetes and Philochorus in book 3 of his Atthis explain about the {two} places called Colonus.

[27] HARPOCRATION Melite: A deme of the Cecropis {tribe}. Philochorus in book 3 says that the deme was named from Melite, who according to Hesiodus was the daughter of Myrmex, but according to Musaeus she was the daughter of Dius the son of Apollo.

[28] SUDA, "from Oiē" . . . Oiē is a deme of the Pandionis {tribe}, according to Diodorus . . . but Philochorus in book 3 says that Oiē was the daughter of Cephalus, and wife of Charops.

[29] HARPOCRATION Oeüm: There are two demes in Attica, both with the neuter name Oeüm. Philochorus in his third book says that they were given this name because their territory had never been inhabited, but had been left deserted - for the ancients used the word oeüm to mean "deserted", according to Diodorus. Oeüm Cerameicum belongs to the tribe of Leontis, and Oeüm Deceleicum belongs to the tribe of Hippothontis. The citizens of both demes are called "men from Oeüm".

[30] LEX. CANTAB. A kind of ostracism: Philochorus describes ostracism in his third book, in these words: "Ostracism takes place as follows. Before the eighth prytany, the people vote on whether it is necessary to hold an ostracism. If it is necessary, the agora is fenced in with boards, leaving ten entrances, through which the people enter in their tribes, and deposit their shards {ostraca} with the writing facing downwards. The nine archons and the council oversee the process. When the shards have been counted to determine who has the most votes (which must be not less than 6,000), then this person must, after settling his personal commitments, leave the city within ten days, for a period of ten years (this was later reduced to five years). He is allowed to receive income from his possessions, but he must not come nearer {to Athens} than Geraestum, the headland on {the coast of} Euboea." . . . Hyperbolus was the only one of the common citizens to be ostracised, because of his worthless character, not because he was suspected of aiming at tyranny. After this, the custom lapsed into disuse. It started when Cleisthenes passed a law, after he had deposed the tyrants, to enable him to expel the friends of the tyrants.

[31] HESYCHIUS Hermes of the agora: {A statue} was given this name, and was set up when Cebris was archon, as Philochorus says in his third book.

[32] (a) STEPHANUS BYZ. Aethaea: One of the 100 cities of Laconia - Philochorus in book 3 of his Atthis. The ethnic {adjective} is Aethaeus - Thucydides in book 1 { 1.101 }.
(b) STEPHANUS BYZ. (?) Thea: A city in Laconia - Philochorus in book 3. {The citizens} are called (?) Theeis, according to Thucydides.

[33] HARPOCRATION Theoric fund: Demosthenes in the Philippics { 3'11 }. The theoric fund was public money collected from the city's revenues. In earlier times, it was kept to pay for the cost of wars, and it was called the military fund. Later it was put aside for public equipment and for distribution among the citizens, which was first proposed by Agyrrhius the demagogue. Philochorus says in book 3 of his Atthis: "The theoric fund was at first reckoned as the drachma for a thea {theatre seat}, which is the origin of the name . . ." and so on.

Book 4

[34] (a) SCHOL.AR.,AV.556 The Sacred War was fought between the Athenians and the Boeotians, when the Boeotians wanted to take the oracle {of Delphi} away from the Phocians. The Athenians were victorious, and gave {the oracle} back to the Phocians, as Philochorus records in book 4. There were two Sacred Wars, this one and the other when the Lacedaemonians attacked the Phocians,
(b) SCHOL.AR.,AV.556 Some of the commentaries say . . . that he is referring to the Sacred War, in which the Athenians fought against the Phocians about the temple at Delphi. But they are merely guessing; the Athenians did not fight against the Phocians about the temple, but they fought in defence of the Phocians because of their hatred of the Lacedaemonians. There were two Sacred Wars. In the first, the Lacedaemonians fought for Delphi against the Phocians, and after capturing the temple the Lacedaemonians received from the Delphians the right to consult the oracle first. Later, three years (?) after the first war, the Athenians fought against the Lacedaemonians on behalf of the Phocians; and {the Athenians} gave the temple back to the Phocians, as Philochorus says in book 4. It was called a Sacred War, because it was fought for control of the temple at Delphi. The story of the war is told by Thucydides { 1.112'5 } and by Eratosthenes in book 9 and by Theopompus in book 25.

[35] (a) Suda_O'511 (b) Suda_G'147 Ritual associations and clansmen: orgeones and gennetae within the Athenian phratries.

[36] HARPOCRATION This Propylaea: . . . Philochorus in book 4 and others have recorded that the Athenians began to build the Propylaea when Euthymenes was archon {437/6}, with Mnesicles as the architect. Heliodorus, in book 1 of his treatise On the Acropolis at Athens, says this amongst other things: "It was completely finished within five years, and the total cost was 2,012 talents. They created five gates, through which people enter into the Acropolis."

[37] Suda_L'802 The establishment of the Lyceium, in the time of Pericles.

[38] HARPOCRATION Military service in the eponymous {list}: Aeschines in On the Embassy { 2'168 }. The meaning of "military service in the eponymous {list}" is made clear by Aristotle in his Constitution of the Athenians { 53'4 }, where he says: "There are ten eponymous {heroes} of the tribes and forty-two {eponymous heroes} of the age-groups. The names of ephebes were previously inscribed on whitened tablets when they were enrolled, along with the names of the archon, in whose year they were enrolled, and the eponymous {hero} who presided over the previous year; but now {their names} are inscribed in the council-house." And shortly afterwards he continues { 53'7 }: "They also use the eponymous {lists} for military service, and when they send out certain age-groups, they announce from which years, identified by the archon and eponymous {hero}, the men will be required to serve." Philochorus in book 4 of his Atthis also talks about these {eponymous lists}.

[39] HESYCHIUS Knights: {Aristophanes says} in The Knights { 225 }: "But the knights are a thousand good men." They were a body of one thousand warriors, maintaining horses. Philochorus in his fourth book explains when the thousand were established; because the Athenians had different groups of knights at different times.

Book 5

[40] (a) Suda_P'2815 (b) Suda_E'3039 A statue of Hermes "by the gate", dedicated when the Peiraeus was fortified.

[41] Suda_S'1386 The symmories - collecting contributions from wealthy Athenians.

[42] LEX.DEM. Philochorus in book 5 of his Atthis makes it clear that {Miltocythes} rebelled against Cotys.

[43] HARPOCRATION Strymē: Demosthenes, in On the command of the trireme { 50'20-23 } . . . it is a trading-post of the Thasians. Philochorus in book 5 mentions a dispute between the Thasians and the Maroneians about Strymē, and cites Archilochus as evidence.

[44] HARPOCRATION Datus: a very prosperous city in Thrace, which gave rise to a proverb, "a Datus of blessings". The word applies to {the city} itself and to the surrounding district, sometimes in the neuter form Datum, and sometimes in the feminine form Datus, as Ephorus always calls it in book 4. Theopompus mentions it once in the masculine form Datus, in book 3 of the Philippica. The city of Datus was renamed Philippi, after Philippus the king of the Macedonians captured it, according to Ephorus and Philochorus in book 5.

Book 6

[45] HARPOCRATION Twelve Hundred: Isaeus in Against Isomachus . . . the twelve hundred were the wealthiest Athenians, who performed public duties. They are mentioned by other orators, and by Philochorus in book 6.

[46] HARPOCRATION The valuation of Athens was 6,000 talents: Demosthenes in On the symmories says as follows { 14'30 }: "The valuation of our country's resources will be said to be 8,000 talents." So either the scribe has made an error in the text, or perhaps the orator is exaggerating to make it appear that the city had greater resources at its disposal for the war against the king. {Demosthenes} himself shows that the valuation of Attica was 6,000 talents in the subsequent parts of the speech, where he gives a detailed reckoning of {the resources}, and this is confirmed by Philochorus in book 6 of his Atthis.

[47] HARPOCRATION Sacred trireme: Demosthenes in the Fourth Philippic { 4'34 }: "And he left the country, taking away the sacred trireme." He means the Paralus, as can be deduced from Philochorus and from Androtion, both in book 6.

[48] LEX.CANTAB. Paralus and Salaminia: they always kept these triremes for necessary tasks, and appointed stewards for them. They used them if they had to summon a general to trial, as they did to Alcibiades. Paralus took its name from a local hero. Thucydides mentions Paralus and Salaminia in his third book { 3.33'2 }, and Aristophanes mentions them in The Birds { 1204 }. Aristotle { 61'7 } refers to Ammonias and Paralus, as does Deinarchus in {his speech} Against Timocrates. Philochorus refers to four of them in his sixth book: the first two were Ammonias and Paralus, and then Demetrias and Antigonis were added.

[49] DIONYSIUS, AMM.9 - translated by W.R.Roberts Thus does {Aristotle} himself clearly prove that he wrote the Rhetoric after the Olynthian War. Now that war took place in the archonship of Callimachus {349/8}, as Philochorus shows in the sixth Book of his Atthis, where his words (exactly given) are: "Callimachus of the deme Pergase. In his time the Olynthians, attacked by Philippus, sent ambassadors to Athens. The Athenians made an alliance with them and sent to their aid two thousand peltasts, and thirty triremes under the command of Chares, as well as eight others which they put into commission for the occasion". [50] Next, after describing the few intervening events, he proceeds : "About the same time the Chalcidians of the Thracian sea-board were harassed by the war and sent an embassy to Athens. The Athenians dispatched to their assistance Charidemus, who held command in the Hellespont. Charidemus brought with him eighteen triremes and four thousand peltasts and a hundred and fifty horsemen. Supported by the Olynthians, he advanced into Pallene and Bottiaea, and ravaged the country." [51] Later on he writes thus on the subject of the third alliance : "The Olynthians sent a fresh embassy to the Athenians, begging them not to see them irretrievably ruined, but to send out, in addition to the troops already there, a force consisting not of mercenaries but of Athenian citizens. Thereupon the Athenian people sent them other seventeen triremes, together with two thousand hoplites and three hundred horsemen conveyed in transports, the whole force being composed of citizens. The entire expedition was under the command of Chares."

[52] HARPOCRATION Voting by ballot: Full accounts of voting by ballot, and how it occurred when Archias was archon {346/5}, are given by Androtion in his Atthis and by Philochorus in book 6 of his Atthis.

[53] DIONYSIUS, AMM.11 - translated by W.R.Roberts Now the date at which Philippus called upon the Thebans to grant him a passage into Attica reminding them of his help in the Phocian War, is clear from known facts. The circumstances were as follows. In the archonship of Themistocles {347/6}, after the capture of Olynthus, Philippus made a treaty of friendship and alliance with the Athenians. This covenant lasted seven years, till the year of Nicomachus {341/40}. It was brought to an end under the archon Theophrastus {340/39}, who succeeded Nicomachus. The Athenians accused Philippus of beginning the war, while Philippus blamed the Athenians. The reasons for which the two parties, each of which claimed to be in the right, engaged in the war, and the date at which they violated the peace, are precisely indicated by Philochorus in the sixth Book of his Atthis, from which I will quote simply the essential particulars: [54] "Theophrastus of the deme Halae. Under his archonship Philippus, first of all, attacked Perinthus by sea. Failing here, he next laid siege to Byzantium and brought engines of war against it." [55] (a) Afterwards he recounts the allegations which Philippus made against the Athenians in his letter, and adds these words which I quote as they stand : "The people, after listening to the letter and to the exhortations of Demosthenes, who advocated war and framed the necessary resolutions, passed a resolution to demolish the column erected to record the treaty of peace and alliance with Philippus, and further to man a fleet and in every other way to prosecute the war energetically."
(b) DIDYMUS, IN DEM. Col.1 That the column was demolished in the year of Theophrastus {340/39}, who was archon after Nicomachus, is clearly shown by Philochorus in book 6, where he writes as follows . . .

[56] (a) DIONYSIUS, AMM.11 - translated by W.R.Roberts After assigning these events to the archonship of Theophrastus {340/39}, he describes the occurrences of the succeeding year when Lysimachides was archon {339/8}, after the violation of the peace. Here again I will quote only the most essential particulars. "Lysimachides of the deme Acharnae. Under this archon the Athenians, in consequence of the war against Philippus, deferred the construction of the docks and the arsenal. They resolved, on the motion of Demosthenes, that all the funds should be devoted to the campaign. But Philippus seized Elateia and Cytinium, and sent to Thebes representatives of the Thessalians, Aenianians, Aetolians, Dolopians, Phthiotians. An embassy, headed by Demosthenes, was at the same time despatched by the Athenians, with whom the Thebans resolved to enter into alliance."
(b) DIDYMUS, IN DEM. Col.11 That Philippus ordered the Thebans to give back Nicaea to the Locrians, is confirmed by Philochorus in his sixth book, as follows: "When Philippus had captured Elateia and Cytinium, he sent to Thebes representatives of the Thessalians, Aenianians, Aetolians, Dolopians and Phthiotians, who requested the Thebans to hand over Nicaea to the Locrians, in (?) accordance with the decree of the Amphictyons. Philippus had a garrison in Nicaea, but while he was away in the land of the Scythians, the Thebans drove out his troops and took possession of the place themselves. {The Thebans} replied to them that they would send an embassy, to discuss all these matters with Philippus."

[57] SCHOL.AR.,RAN.218 The Pots {Chytroi} is an Athenian festival . . . During the festival, the so-called Games of the Pots were held, according to Philochorus in the sixth book of his Atthis.

[58] Suda_K'826 The scarp of the rock (katatomē).

[59] PHILODEMUS, ACAD. . . . that is what Dicaearchus wrote, but Philochorus in the sixth book of his Atthis fell into . . . and they erected a statue of Isocrates . . . and inscribed on the base, "The work of Butes . . ." Many names were inscribed on it . . .

[60] HARPOCRATION Theoris: Demosthenes, in Against Aristogeiton { 25'79 } (if it is genuine). Theoris was a seer, and was put to death after she was convicted of impiety, according to Philochorus in his sixth book.

[61] SCHOL.AR.,LYS.835 There is a temple of Demeter Chloē on the acropolis, in which the Athenian sacrifice during the month of Thargelion, according to Philochorus in book 6.

Book 7

[62] Suda_Ph'838 Phyle, a fort in Attica.

[63] HARPOCRATION apostoleis: those appointed to fit out the triremes. Demosthenes in For Ctesiphon { 18'107 } and Philochorus in book 7. apostoloi are naval expeditions, as the same {Demosthenes} shows in the first Philippic { 4'35 }.

[64] (a) HARPOCRATION nomophylakes {"guardians of the law"}: this is the name of some officers at Athens, who are different from the thesmothetes. Deinarchus in Against Himeraeus and Against Pytheas. Philochorus in book 7 says that, amongst other things, they force the magistrates to abide by the laws.
(b) LEX.CANTAB. nomophylakes: they are different from the thesmothetes, according to Philochorus in his sixth book. {The thesmothetes} wore crowns when they went up to the Areopagus, but the nomophylakes wore white head-bands, and at shows they sat opposite {the nine} archons, and they led the procession to Pallas. They used to force the magistrates to obey the laws; in the assembly and in the council, they sat amongst the presidents, and prevented {anyone} from acting in a way that was harmful to the city. They were seven in number and, according to Philochorus, they were set up when Ephialtes stripped the Areopagus council of all its power, except judging in cases about the death sentence.

[65] Athen_6.245'c The gynaeconomi, superintendents of banquets.

Book 9

[66] DIONYSIUS, DIN.3 - translated by S.Usher Philochorus, writing in his Atthis about the exile of the men who overthrew the democracy and their return, gives the following additional information: "At the beginning of the year when Anaxicrates was archon {307/6}, the city of the Megarians was captured; and King Demetrius, on returning from Megara, began his military preparations against Munychia and, having razed its walls to the ground, restored it to the democratic government. But later many of the citizens were impeached, and Demetrius of Phalerum was one of these. And of the men impeached, those who did not await the verdict of a trial they condemned to death by a decree, but those who submitted they set free." This is from the eighth book. [67] In the ninth book he says: "When the year had ended and the next was beginning, this portent occurred on the Acropolis: a bitch came into the temple of Athene Polias, entered the Pandroseion, climbed up onto the altar of Zeus Herceius beneath the olive tree, and lay down. It is an ancestral custom of the Athenians that no dog is allowed to go up to the Acropolis. And also around the same time, during daylight when the sun was out and the air was clear, a star was plainly visible for a time in the sky. And we, on being questioned as to the meaning of the portent and the apparition, said that both foretold a return of exiles, and that this would happen not as a result of revolution but under the existing government; and it came about that this interpretation was fulfilled."

[68] ATHENAEUS,5.189 And at Athens there are some sacred places called aulones {"hollows"}, which are mentioned by Philochorus in his ninth book.

Book 10

[69] HARPOCRATION Those admitted to be full initiates: those who have been initiated at Eleusis in a second mystery are said to be full initiates, as is clear from the (?) speech of Demosthenes and from the tenth book of Philochorus.

[70] Suda_A'2303 Demetrius Poliorcetes is immediately given full initiation into the mysteries.

Book 16

[71] HARPOCRATION Horse-partners (ἅμιπποι): Isaeus in the Temenicon - those soldiers who fight together with horses. Some writers say that two swift horses are yoked together, and their rider leads one of them, while sitting on the other; and these men are called horse-partners. This is the same as appears in Homer { Il_15'684 }: ". . . leaping from one to the other." The horse-partners are foot-soldiers, as is clear in Thucydides { 5.57'2 } and the seventh book of Xenophon's Hellenica { 7.5'23-24 }. And perhaps those who are stationed with the cavalry are the advance guard; Philochorus in his sixteenth book says ". . . and the advance guard."


(?) Book 3

[114] Suda_S'289 The seisachtheia (shaking off of debts) of Solon.

[115] SCHOL.PIND.,PYTH.7 It is said that when the temple at Delphi was burnt down - by the Peisistratidae, as some claim - the Alcmaeonidae, who had been sent into exile by the Peisistratidae, offered to rebuild the temple. After receiving the money, they collected an armed force and successfully attacked the Peisistratidae. Then they rebuilt the temple with great thanksgiving, according to Philochorus, as they had previously vowed to the god.

[116] AELIAN, NA.12'35 - translated by A.F.Scolfield I have heard in addition to what I have already said that the dogs of Xanthippus, son of Ariphron, were devoted to their master, for when the people of Athens sailed away on their ships at the time when the Persians lit the flames of their great war against Greece, and the oracles declared that it was better for the Athenians to abandon their country and to embark upon their triremes, not even the dogs of Xanthippus were left behind, but emigrated along with him, and after swimming across to Salamis died. The story is narrated by Aristotle and Philochorus.

[117] SCHOL.AR.,LYS.1138 "Do you not know that {Cimon} went . . . to save Lacedaemon". This agrees with what the writers of the Attic histories relate about the Lacedaemonians. Philochorus states that the Athenians achieved hegemony {over the Greek states} because of the troubles that struck Lacedaemon.

(?) Book 4

[118] SCHOL.AR.,NUB.213 "Euboea was provided by us and by Pericles". Philochorus says that when Pericles was general {the Athenians} conquered the whole {of Euboea}. They agreed terms with the rest, but drove the Hestiaeans out of their homes and seized their land.

[119] SCHOL.AR.,VESP.718 "When they are afraid, they give you Euboea and promise to provide you each with fifty medimni of corn; but they have never actually given it to you, except five medimni recently, and this you obtained with difficulty, after standing trial for non-citizenship - a choenix of barley each". Such was the rigour of the examination into who were citizens and who were not, before the corn was distributed, that it seemed as if they had been brought to trial on a charge of non-citizenship. Philochorus says that they once discovered that 4,760 {citizens} were illegally registered, as is made clear in the existing passage. The reference to Euboea is also consistent with the production notice {of the play}; for in the previous year, when Isarchus was archon {424/3}, they sent an army to Euboea, according to Philochorus. But perhaps {Aristophanes} is talking about the gift from Egypt, which Philochorus says was sent to the {Athenian} people by Psammetichus, when Lysimachides was archon {445/4}. He sent 30,000 measures, five medimni for each of the Athenians (except that the numbers do not agree); and the number of those who received a share was 14,240.

[120] SCHOL.AR.,VESP.947 "But this man seems to have nothing to say - No, he seems to have suffered the same as Thucydides did when he was on trial, and suddenly he was struck dumb, unable to move his jaws" . . . otherwise, {he refers} to historical events. Maybe this is the {Thucydides}, who was a political opponent of Pericles. Philochorus tells the story . . . {the historian Thucydides} was not particularly famous, and he was not mentioned by the writers of comedy, because after being sent for a short while with Cleon to command an army in Thrace, he was condemned to exile. Some writers, including Ammonius, say that this Thucydides was the son of Stephanus; but one should view this with suspicion, as has been said before. The reference to ostracism makes it clear that this is the son of Melesias, who was ostracised. The historian Theopompus says that {Thucydides}, the political opponent of Pericles, was the son of Pantaenetus; but Androtion disagrees, and says that the was the son of Melesias.

[121] SCHOL.AR.,PAX.605 "Pheidias began it, by doing wrong; then Pericles . . . set the city on fire, throwing in the little spark of the Megarian decree". Philochorus, {in his account of the year} when Theodorus was archon {438/7}, says as follows: "And the golden statue of Athene was set up in the great temple. The statue contained 44 talents of gold; Pericles was the overseer and Pheidias was the artist. The sculptor Pheidias was accused of misrepresenting the cost of the ivory for the plates. He was found guilty, and fled to Elis, where he is said to have made the statue of Zeus, which is at Olympia. After completing this statue, he was put to death by the Eleans." {In his account of the year} when Pythodorus was archon {432/1}, six years later, {Philochorus} says that the Megarians "complained about the Athenians to the Lacedaemonians, saying that they had been unjustly excluded from markets and harbours by the Athenians." The Athenians passed this decree on the proposal of Pericles, accusing {the Megarians} of cultivating the land that was sacred to the gods. But some say that, after the sculptor Pheidias was found guilty of defrauding the city and went into exile, Pericles was afraid because he had been overseer of the construction of the statue, and had connived in the fraud. Therefore he passed this decree against the Megarians, whom he accused of cultivating the sacred meadow of the goddess, so that war would ensue and the Athenians would be too busy with fighting to bring him to trial. This allegation about Pericles seems absurd, because the trial of Pheidias took place seven years before the start of the war. Philochorus says that during the construction of the statue of Athene, when Theodorus was archon {438/7}, Pheidias stole the gold from the serpents on the chryselephantine Athene. He was brought to trial and sentenced to exile. He went off to Elis, and made the statue of Olympian Zeus for the Eleans, who later found him guilty of misappropriation and put him to death.

[122] SCHOL.AR.,AV.997 "Meton, well known by Greece and Colonus". An outstanding astronomer and geometrician, who invented the so-called "year of Meton". Callistratus says that he set up an astrological image at Colonus. Euphronius says that he came from the deme of Colonus; but this is untrue, because Philochorus says that he came from Leuconoē. Perhaps there was an image at Colonus, but the claim of Callistratus is (?) impossible to prove. Philochorus does not mention anything that was set up {by Meton} at Colonus, but he says that when Apseudes was archon {433/2}, the year before Pythodorus, he created the sundial, which now stands in the assembly-place, by the wall in the Pnyx. Perhaps, as some suggest, the whole region including the Pnyx was called Colonus, and another part of it was the so-called "hired land"; and so it was not unusual to call that part of it Colonus, which is behind the Long Stoa. But this cannot be true, because the whole region was called Melite, as is stated in the Boundaries of the City. Perhaps he constructed a well at Colonus; Phrynichus says in his Monotropos, "Who is it who afterwards gives a thought (?) to that? - Meton of Leuconoē - I know, the one who brought up the fresh water." Monotropos was produced when Chabrias was archon {415/4}, as has already been said.

[123] SCHOL.AR.,PAX.990 "We have been worn out for thirteen years already". Marked with an X, because what {Aristophanes} says does not agree with the dates. And he says in the Acharnians { 266 }, "In the sixth year, I spoke to you (?) in the places." But Philochorus calculates that from Pythodorus {432/1}, in whose year {as archon} the war began, until Isarchus {424/3} there are [(?) nine years, and until Alcaeus {422/1} there are] 11 years. Again Thucydides, who narrates the war according to the onset of winters and summers, does not agree with this total, but records no more than nine years.

[124] SCHOL.EUR.,ANDR.445 "O most hateful of mortals to all men, inhabitants of Sparta". Euripides says this through the character of Andromache, insulting the Spartans because of the current war, in which they had broken the truce against the Athenians, as Philochorus and others relate. But it is impossible to establish the date of the play with absolute certainty, because it was not performed at Athens.

[125] SCHOL.SOPH.,OC.698 Philochorus and others state that the Lacedaemonians did no harm to the sacred olive groves.

[126] Athen_5.217'd The reign of Perdiccas, king of Macedonia.

[127] SCHOL.AR.,VESP.240 "But let us make haste, men, because Laches will now be accused; everyone says that he has a hoard of money. Yesterday Cleon urged us to go to him promptly and punish him for his crimes". He says this, because Cleon was bringing Laches to trial. Demetrius says that Laches was general three years before, when Eucles was archon {427/6}, and he was sent with some ships to Sicily, to bring aid to Leontini. Philochorus and others say that he was succeeded {in Sicily} by Sophocles and Pythodorus, who were later punished by being sent into exile. It is likely that Laches was summoned back to face the trial, which {Aristophanes} mentions here.

[128] (a) SCHOL.AR.,PAX.665 "She says that when she came of her own accord after the events at Pylus, carrying a chest full of peace terms for the city, she was thrice voted down in the assembly". Philochorus says as follows: "The Lacedaemonians sent envoys to the Athenians to propose peace terms, after making a truce with the forces at Pylus and handing over their ships, which were 60 in total. It is said that the assembly was divided when Cleon spoke against the peace terms. The president put it to the vote, and those who wanted to continue with the war were in the majority." Another explanation is that this happened after the events in Pylus. When Cleon {was general} the Lacedaemonians sent envoys {to Athens} and there were disagreements in the assembly, as Philochorus relates. After {their defeat} at Pylus and the capture of prisoners by Cleon, the Spartans sent envoys to the Athenians, to say that they would return the Athenian triremes, which they had captured during the war, and to negotiate about peace and a truce. Cleon spoke against {peace terms} at that time, and when the president asked for a third time whether the council wanted peace or war, the council chose to continue the war.
(b) SCHOL.LUCIAN,TIM.30 {Cleon} opposed peace with the Spartans, as Philochorus says in his account of {the year} when Euthynus was archon {426/5}. Aristotle says in his Constitution {of the Athenians - 28'3 } that {Cleon} girded himself up when he spoke to the people.

[129] SCHOL.AR.,VESP.210 "By Zeus, it would have been better for me to guard Scione, instead of this father". Philochorus says that in the previous year, when Isarchus {was archon} {424/3}, Brasidas persuaded the inhabitants of Scione to revolt from the Athenians. The Athenians, after sending out 50 triremes, captured Mende and surrounded Scione with a wall.

[130] SCHOL.AR.,VESP.718 The events in Euboea could also be consistent with {the production of} the drama, because in the previous year, when Isarchus was archon {424/3}, they sent a military expedition to Euboea, as Philochorus says. { See fragment 119 }

[131] SCHOL.AR.,PAX.466 "The Boeotians will suffer" - because they have no part in the peace. Philochorus says that when Alcaeus {was archon} {422/1}, the Athenians agreed a fifty-year truce with the Spartans and their allies, except for the Boeotians, the Corinthians and the Eleans.

[132] SCHOL.AR.,PAX.475 "Nor have these Argives achieved anything for a long time". Philochorus says that when the Corinthians stirred up war again, they were supported by the Argives.

[133] SCHOL.AR.,LYS.1094 "Hermes-mutilators" - these Hermes-mutilators defaced the Herms, when they were about to sail to Sicily . . . Some people attributed the blame for this to Alcibiades and his associates, according to Thucydides { 6.27-28 }; others blamed the Corinthians, according to Philochorus. He says that the Herm of Andocides was the only one that was not mutilated.

[134] SCHOL.AR.,AV.766 "If the son of Peisias wants to open the gates to the disenfranchised". We have no certain information about the identity of the son of Peisias, or about his treachery. That he was one of the most worthless {Athenians} is made clear by Cratinus in his Cheirones, Pylaea and Horae. The son of Peisias may have collaborated with the Hermes-mutilators, who were condemned to death when Charias {was archon} {415/4}, as Philochorus says. Their names were inscribed {as infamous} and their possessions were confiscated. A reward of a talent was proclaimed for anyone who killed one of them.

[135] SCHOL.AR.,PAX.1031 Stilbides was a distinguished and famous soothsayer, one of those who interpreted the ancient oracles . . . alternatively . . . the soothsayer Stilbides, who was followed (?) in Sicily, when the Athenians were at war and sent an army to Sicily. He is mentioned by Eupolis in his Cities.
see also: Plut:Nic_23'7-9

[136] HARPOCRATION In all, there were 30 commissioners who were killed at that time, as Androtion and Philochorus say in their histories of Attica. But Thucydides {8.67'1 } mentions only the committee of ten.

[137] MARCELLINUS Didymus says that [Thucydides suffered] a violent death at Athens, after returning from exile. He says that Zopyrus relates that after their defeat in Sicily, the Athenians allowed all their exiles to return, except the Peisistratidae. After he came back, he died violently . . . but it is clear that the exiles were allowed to return, as Philochorus says, and also Demetrius in his Archons

[138] SCHOL.AR.,LYS.173 "Not while your triremes are moving and there is limitless silver beside your goddess". The Athenians will not remain in peace while they control the seas and there is limitless silver beside the goddess on the Acropolis. And there really were a thousand talents stored there. They began to remove the silver when Callias was archon {412/1}, in the same year that this play {Lysistrata} was produced, as Philochorus says in his Atthis.

[139] (a) SCHOL.EUR.,OR.371 . . . Before Diocles was archon {409/8}, in the year when {Euripides} produced the Orestes, the Spartans had sent envoys to arrange a peace, but the Athenians distrusted and rebuffed them. This happened when Theopompus was archon {411/10}, two years before Diocles, as Philochorus relates.
(b) SCHOL.EUR.,OR.772 Perhaps he is referring obliquely to the demagogues of his time, if not to Cleophon, who prevented the agreement of a truce between the Athenians and Spartans, two years before the Orestes was produced, as Philochorus relates.

[140] SCHOL.AR.,PLUT.972 "But you did not drink in your allotted gramma". He says "drink" unexpectedly instead of "judge". It has already been said that they were appointed by lottery according to grammata {"letters"}. Then in the year before this, they began to conduct the council in that way. When Glaucippus {was archon} {410/09}, Philochorus says: "Then the countil sat according to gramma, for the first time. From that time even up to now, they swear to remain in the gramma to which they have been allotted."

[141] (a) SCHOL.AR.,RAN.720 "To the ancient coinage and the new gold". Hellanicus says that gold coins were struck in the year before, when Antigenes {was archon} {407/6}. And similarly, Philochorus {refers to the coinage minted} from the golden Victories.
(b) SCHOL.AR.,RAN.725 . . . Perhaps he is talking about the bronze coinage, because bronze coins were struck when Callias {was archon} {406/5}.

[142] SCHOL.AR.,RAN.1196 "He would be happy, even if he was general with Erasinides". He was one of the unfortunate generals at {the battle of} Arginusae. He was sentenced to death, along with the others who remained: Thrasyllus, Pericles, Lysias, Aristocrates and Diomedon, as Philochorus relates. Demetrius says that an additional charge was brought against Erasinides; he was also accused of stealing the money for the Hellespont.

[143] SCHOL.AR.,PLUT.1146 "Do not bear a grudge, if you captured Phyle". After the return of Thrasybulus and his associates, who seized Phyle and defeated the Thirty at Peiraeus, it was decreed that there should be a permanent amnesty between the citizens. However this and the rule of the Thirty had not yet happened, but as Philochorus says, it was five years later that Thrasybulus' victory occurred, and Critias died at the Peiraeus. Therefore, either someone inserted this passage from the second version of Plutus, regardless of the inconsistency, or the poet himself added it later on.

(?) Book 5

[144-145] DIDYMUS, IN DEM. Col.7 Surely we must consider that it is not likely that Demosthenes reminded them of this peace, but he reminded them of some other benefit, perhaps the benefit bestowed by Conon the son of Timotheus, who used the armaments provided by Pharnabazus to inflict an overwhelming defeat on the Spartans in the sea battle near Cnidus. Phi[lochorus] will bear witness to this. In {the year of} the archon Suniades of Acharnae {397/6} . . . he writes: "Conon . . . from Cyprus with . . . [Pharnabazus] the satrap of Phrygia . . . he sailed . . . 40 triremes . . . he brought [from] Syria . . . he collected the king's ships near Loryma in the Chersonese, and from their he unexpectedly attacked the Spartans' admiral with all his ships . . . in the ensuing sea battle he was victorious; he captured fifty triremes, and Peisander was killed." [146] After this sea battle, Conon restored the long walls for the Athenians, against the will of the Spartans, as the same writer relates. I think that it is very likely that the orator is referring to this benefit bestowed on the city by the king; because to say "and previously he helped to revive the fortunes of the city" is consistent with the fact that Conon seems to have defeated the Spartans in a sea battle by using the armaments provided by Pharnabazus. {followed by fragment 151}

[147] HARPOCRATION Hagnias: . . . Androtion, in book 5 of his Atthis, and Philochorus say that he and his fellow envoys were captured and killed by the Spartans.

[148] SCHOL.AR., ECCL.193 "When we considered this treaty, they said the city would be doomed, if it did not happen. But when it happened, they were annoyed, and the orator who had persuaded them immediately went and ran away". About this treaty, Philochorus relates that two years previously there was an alliance between the Athenians and the Boeotians.

[149] (a) DIDYMUS, IN DEM. Col.7 Some say that by "previous restoration" he means the peace of Antalcidas the Laconian, but this does not seem correct to me; because not only did the Athenians not accept this peace, but quite the reverse - they rejected it as an unholy outrage, as Philochorus describes in the following words, in his account of {the year of} the archon Philocles of Anaphlystus {392/1}: "And the king dispatched the peace of Antalcidas, which the Athenians did not accept, because there was written in it that the Greeks who lived in Asia would all included in the king's territory. Instead, the Athenians banished the envoys who had agreed to the peace in Lacedaemon; Callistratus proposed the motion, and the envoys did not wait for the verdict; their names were Epicrates of Cephisia, Andocides of Cydathenaeum, Cratinus of Sphettus and Eubulides of Eleusis."
(b) ARG.ANDOC.,OR.3 When the Greek war had lasted a long time, the Athenians sent plenipotentiary envoys to the Spartans. Andocides was one of the envoys. The Spartans made some counter-proposals and sent their own envoys {to the Athenians}. It was resolved that the people would deliberate about the peace within forty days. Andocides advised the people to accept the peace on these terms . . . Philochorus says that the envoys came from Sparta, but returned without achieving anything, because Andocides failed to persuade the people. But Dionysius says that this story is untrue.

[150] HARPOCRATION Mercenary force at Corinth: {Mentioned by} Demosthenes in the Philippics { 4'24 } and by Aristophanes in Plutus {173 }. Conon first assembled it, and later Iphicrates took it over and then Chabrias. It was by using this force that {the Athenians} destroyed a mora of the Spartans, when Iphicrates and Callias were their generals, as Androtion and Philochorus say.

[151] DIDYMUS, IN DEM. Col.7 Demosthenes could in this instance be recalling another peace with the king, which the Athenians willingly accepted. Again Philochorus mentions this speech, saying that the Athenians accepted it even though it was similar to the peace of Antalcidas the Laconian, because they were tired of the cost of hiring mercenaries, and worn down by the length of the war. At the same time, they set up an altar of Eirene {"Peace"}.

(?) Book 6

[152] DIONYSIUS, DIN.13 - translated by S.Usher Against Megacleides, on an exchange of property: "If it were necessary, gentlemen, with regard to three or four . . . " The speaker is Aphareus, and the speech belongs outside Deinarchus' period: for it was delivered while the general Timotheus was still alive about the time of his command with Menestheus, over which he was convicted after having his accounts audited; and Timotheus underwent his audit in the archonship of Diotimus {354/3}, who succeeded Callistratus, when also . . .

[153] DIONYSIUS, DIN.13 {The speaker in Against Boeotus} recalls as a recent event the expedition to Thermopylae; and the Athenian expedition to Thermopylae was made during the archonship of Thudemus {353/2}, when Deinarchus was eight years old.

[154] DIONYSIUS, DIN.13 Against Pedieus, a special plea: "According to this law . . . " This speech was delivered during the archonship of Aristodemus {352/1}, as becomes clear from the speech itself. Those who were sent to colonise Samos were sent in this archon's year, as Philochorus says in his Histories. At this time Deinarchus was not yet ten years old.

[155] DIDYMUS, IN DEM. Col.13 {Demosthenes} refers to the action of the Athenians against the Megarians, regarding the holy orgas {"meadow"}. This happened when Apollodorus was archon {350/49}, as Philochorus relates. He writes as follows: "The Athenians, who were in dispute with the Megarians over the holy orgas, entered the territory of Megara with Ephialtes as their general. They marked the boundaries of the holy orgas; and the boundary supervisors were, with the agreement of the Megarians, Lacrateides the hierophant and Hierocleides the torch-bearer. They consecrated the edges around the orgas, on account of the oracle of the god, which said, 'It is more fitting and better to leave {the land} fallow and not to work it.' They marked it off with a circle of stones, in accordance with the decree of Philocrates."

[156] DIONYSIUS, AMM.10 - translated by W.R.Roberts After the archonship of Callimachus {349/8}, in whose year of office the Athenians sent their reinforcements to Olynthus at the instance of Demosthenes, Theophilus was archon; and during his year {348/7} Olynthus fell into the hands of Philippus.

[157] DIDYMUS, IN DEM. Col.8 When Lyciscus was archon {344/3}, Philippus sent proposals for peace to Athens, and at the same time the Athenians received envoys from the king, but they replied to the envoys in a more disdainful manner than was necessary. They said that they would make peace with Artaxerxes, if he did not attack the Greek cities. These events are described by Androtion, who also [spoke] at that time, and by Anaximenes. It will be best to quote the words of Philochorus here. In his account of {the year} when Lyciscus was archon, he says: "When he was archon, the king sent envoys to Athens and requested that the city should remain in friendship with him, as it had been with his father. They replied to the envoys at Athens that the friendship with the king would continue, so long as the king did not attack the Greek cities."

[158] DIONYSIUS, DIN.13 - translated by S.Usher For Athenades . . . The second speech: "I think that you, gentlemen . . . " The speech was delivered while the Athenian general Diopeithes was still engaged around the Hellespont, as is obvious from the speech itself. The time is during the archonship of Pythodotus {343/2}, as Philochorus shows, [and is corroborated] by the other [local Attic historians. Deinarchus has been seen] to have been not yet twenty in the time of this archon.

[159] DIDYMUS, IN DEM. Col.1 Philochorus corroborates what {Demosthenes says}. He speaks about the assistance they gave to [Oreus] in his account of {the year} when Sosigenes was archon {342/1}, as follows: "The Athenians entered into an alliance with the Chalcidians, and together with the Chalcidians they liberated the inhabitants of Oreus in the month [of Scirophorion], having Cephisophon as their general. The tyrant Philistides was killed."

[160] DIDYMUS, IN DEM. Col.1 [Again] the same writer mentions [the assistance they sent] to Eretria in his account of {the year} when Nicomachus was archon {341/40}, as follows: "When he was archon, the Athenians crossed over to Eretria with Phocion as their general. They brought back the people, and besieged Cleitarchus, who had previously been a political opponent of Plutarchus, but took over as tyrant when Plutarchus was driven out. Then the Athenians forced Cleitarchus to surrender, and restored the city to the people."

[161] DIDYMUS, IN DEM. Col.1 It may be possible to [perceive] the circumstances of the speech [from Philochorus' account of the year] when Nicomachus was archon {341/40} . . . [Philistides] of Oreus [was forced to surrender] when Sosigenes {was archon} {342/1}, and Cleitarchus of Eretria when Nicomachus was archon. And this will prove that [these events and the speech occurred long] before the end of Nicomachus' year as archon. So surely it has been sufficiently demonstrated that the speech was written not later than Sosigenes' year as archon, rather than after Nicomachus' year. In [Philochorus'] account of when [Theophrastus, the successor of] Nicomachus {was archon}, . . . concerning the [peace] with Philippus . . . and the inscription about the terms of the peace when Theophrastus was archon {340/39} . . . To tell the truth, Demosthenes clearly proves this, when he says: . . .

[162] DIDYMUS, IN DEM. Col.10 The war between the Macedonians and the Athenians arose because of other offences of Philippus towards the Athenians, while he was pretending to be at peace with them, but in particular in his campaign against Byzantium and Perinthus he strove to win over these cities for two reasons, to cut off the corn supply of the Athenians and also so that they would not have coastal cities which provided bases for their navy and a refuge during a war against him. At that time he perpetrated a most lawless act, by seizing the merchant boats at Hieron, which were 230 in number according to Philochorus, or 180 according to Theopompus, and he gathered 700 talents from them. This happened in the previous year, when Theophrastus the successor of Nicomachus was archon {340/39}, according to other writers and Philochorus, who says: "And Chares went off to the meeting of the king's generals, leaving some ships at Hieron, to collect the cargo boats which were coming down from the Euxine Sea. Philippus, when he realised that Chares had gone away, at first attempted to send some ships to seize the boats; but when he failed to carry them off by force, he transported some soldiers to the far side of Hieron, and in that way he gained possession of the cargo boats. In total, there were no less than two hundred and thirty boats. And determining that they were prizes of war, he broke them up and used the wood for war-engines. He also obtained corn and hides, and a large quantity of money."

(?) Book 7

[163] Plut:Mor_846'A-B Harpalus brings a large sum of money to Athens.

[164] Plut:Mor_847'A Demosthenes dies by drinking poison.

(?) Book 8

[165] Athen_15.697'a The Athenians sing paeans in honour of Antigonus and Demetrius.

[166] SCHOL.PIND., NEM.3'4 Philochorus says that the Athenians passed a decree that the whole of the month of Demetrion should be a holy time, that is that the whole month should be a festival.

[167] DIONYSIUS, DIN.9 - translated by S.Usher {A list of Athenian archons} . . . Anaxicrates. In his year {307/6} the oligarchy which had been set up by Cassander was removed and those who were impeached went into exile, including Deinarchus. There followed Coroebus, Euxenippus, Pherecles, Leostratus, Nicocles, Clearchus, Hegemachus, Euctemon, Mnesidemus, Antiphates, Nicias, Nicostratus, Olympiodorus, Philippus. It was during the term of this archon {292/1} that king Demetrius granted Deinarchus, along with the other exiles, permission to return.

Other possible fragments from the Atthis

[181] Suda_P'2022 pompeia - the equipment used for processions.

[200] SCHOL.AR., AV.1106 The owl was the design on the tetradrachm, as Philochorus says; and the tetradachm coin was called an owl. At that time, the owl was on reverse of the coin, and {a portrait of} Athene was on the obverse. The previous didrachm coins had an ox on the reverse.

[202] SCHOL.AR., ACH.220 Lacrateides was an ancient archon at Athens {(?) 499/8}, as Philochorus confirms. He was archon in the time of Dareius, when there was a great amount of snow, and everything was so frozen that no-one could go out. Therefore they used the phrase "of Lacrateides" for anything that was frigid.

[203] SCHOL.AR., PAX.145 ""In Peiraeus there is the harbour of Cantharus". {The harbour of Cantharus} is part of the Peiraeus, according to Callicratides (or Menecles) in About Athens, who writes as follows: "Peiraeus has three harbours, which can all be closed. One is called the harbour of Cantharus, in which there are (?) sixty dockyards, and a {temple of} Aphrodite, and five porticoes around the harbour." Alternatively, perhaps the place where these ships were stationed, and the origin of the name is as follows: in Attica there really is a village called the harbour of Cantharus (not simply Cantharus), and it was named after a local hero, as Philochorus relates.

[205] STEPHANUS BYZ. Xypetē: a deme of the Cecropis tribe. A citizen of the deme is called Xypeteōn . . . and anything belonging to the place is called ek Xypeteōnōn . . . but Philochorus calls the deme Xypeteōnŏn with an omega and an omicron at the end.

[206] STEPHANUS BYZ. Semachidae: a deme of Attica, named after Semachus, who with his daughters received Dionysus as a guest; the priestesses of Dionysus are descended from them. It belongs to the Antiochis tribe, and Philochorus says that the deme is {in the district} of Epacria.

[223] VIT.ARISTOT.MARC. {Aristotle} lived on for another 23 years after the death of Plato, partly in . . . educating Alexander, partly in travelling with him over great distances, partly in writing, and partly in acting as head of his school. Aristotle did not build the Lyceium in opposition to Plato, as Aristoxenus first falsely alleged . . . if he stayed with Plato until his death. In fact Plato was born when Diotimus was archon at Athens {428/7} and after living for 82 years departed from life when Theophilus {was archon} {348/7}. Aristotle was born when Diotrephes {was archon} {384/3} and after living for 63 years died when Philocles {was archon} {322/1}. Aristotle went to {the school of} Plato when Nausigenes {was archon} {368/7} , and lived on for a further 23 years after Plato, from {the archon} Theophilus, in whose year Plato died, until {the archon} Philocles, in whose year Aristotle died. So Aristotle could not, as these slanderers suggest, have gone to {the school of} Plato when he was 40 years old, when Eudoxus {(?) was in his prime}, because if Aristotle lived for 63 years, and we subtract the 20 years that he attended the school of Plato, that would leave only three years after the death of Plato, and it is impossible for him to have published all his books in three years, indeed it would not be easy to read them all in such a short time. All this is recorded by Philochorus. He also says that it is not likely that Aristotle, who was a foreigner, could have acted in this way against Plato, who was a citizen and had great influence on account of Chabrias and Timotheus, the Athenian generals who were his relatives.

[224] PHILODEMUS, IND.ACAD. Speusippus took over [the school] from {Plato}. Philochorus says that Speusippus [dedicated the statues of the Graces], which still exist, when he [already was leader of] the Museium. The inscription on them says: "Speusippus dedicated these Graces to the Muses, goddesses [to goddesses], making the gift in response to an oracle." {Philochorus} writes that {at that time Speusippus} already had weak limbs, and he died after leading the school for eight years. The young men held an election to decide who should be their next leader, and they chose Xenocrates of Chalcedon. Menedemus of Pyrrha and Heracleides of Heracleia were beaten by a few votes, while Aristotle was absent in Macedonia.

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