St. Jerome ( Hieronymus ): Chronological Tables

    - for Olympiads 170 to 203 [= 100 B.C. - 36 A.D.]

St. Jerome translated the tables from Eusebius' Chronicle into Latin, and added some material of his own, for instance about the lives of Roman writers. He also extended the tables up until the year 378 A.D.

Most of the Greek text of Eusebius' Chronicle has been lost, but as well as St. Jerome's Latin translation, we also possess a fairly complete Armenian translation of the Chronicle. Differences between the text of St. Jerome and the Armenian translation (Ar.) are shown in green.

This translation is based on the old edition by A.Schoene, and it does not attempt to reproduce the original format of the manuscripts. The references in red are the number of years from Abraham.

← Previous Olympiads (111 to 169)

170th OLYMPIAD [=100-97 B.C.]

170.1   [1917] [1918 in Ar.] The Romans defeated the Thracians.
170.2 [1918] [1919 in Ar.] Another slave war started in Sicily.
170.3 * [1919] Ptolemaeus Alexander [became] the 9th [king] of Egypt, for 10 years.
After Ptolemaeus Physcon had been forced out of his kingdom by his mother Cleopatra, and had retired to Cyprus.

171st OLYMPIAD [=96-93 B.C.]

171.1   [1921] Aquilius put an end to the slave war in Sicily.
171.2 [1922] [not in Ar.] Ptolemaeus the king of Cyrene died, and in his will left the Romans as his heirs.
171.3 * [1923] Philippus [became king] of Syria, for 2 years.
[1919 in Ar.] Seleucus was burnt alive by Antiochus the son of Cyzicenus.
[not in Ar.] The poet Titus Lucretius was born. Later he was turned mad by a love potion, but in the intervals in between the madness he composed some books, which Cicero afterwards edited. He killed himself when he was 44 years old.
171.4 [1924] [1922 in Ar.] After taking refuge with the Parthians, Antiochus surrendered to Pompeius. Later, Philippus was captured by Gabinius.
Syria, which had been ruled by kings up to this time, came under Roman control.

172nd OLYMPIAD [=92-89 B.C.]

172.1 * [1925] The end of the kingdom of Syria and Asia.
172.4 [1928] [not in Ar.] The Picentes, Marsi and Paeligni fought a war against the Romans.

173rd OLYMPIAD [=88-85 B.C.]

173.1 * [1929] Ptolemaeus, who had been forced out by his mother, [became] the 10th [king] of Egypt, for 8 years.
[Ptolemaeus] returned from exile and became king again, because Alexander the previous king was driven out by his subjects after he murdered his mother.
[not in Ar.] Plotius the Gaul was the first man to teach Latin rhetoric at Rome. Cicero says this about him: "I remember that when we were boys a certain Plotius first started teaching in Rome."
173.2 [1930] [not in Ar.] Gaius Valerius Catullus, the writer of lyric poems, was born at Verona.
[not in Ar.] The historian Sallustius Crispus was born at Amiternum, in the territory of the Sabines.
173.3 [1931] [not in Ar.] Sulla sacked Athens.
173.4 [1932] [not in Ar.] A census was held at Rome, and 463,000 citizens were counted.

174th OLYMPIAD [=84-81 B.C.]

174.1   [1933] [not in Ar.] The temple at Delphi was burnt down for the third time, by the Thracians. The Capitolium at Rome was also burnt down.
174.2 [1934] [not in Ar.] Jannaeus captured a large number of cities.
[not in Ar.] Cicero spoke in defence of Quintius, when he was 26 years old.
174.3 [1935] [not in Ar.] P.Terentius Varro was born in the village of Atax in the province of Narbonensis. Later, when he was 35 years old, he became a very keen student of the Greek language.
174.4 [1936] [not in Ar.] Vultacilius Plotus, a teacher of Latin rhetoric who was the freedman and tutor of Cn.Pompeius, opened a school at Rome.

175th OLYMPIAD [=80-77 B.C.]

175.1 * [1937] Ptolemaeus Dionysius [became] the 11th [king] of Egypt, for 30 years.
[not in Ar.] Sulla gained control of Rome, and died two years later.
175.2 [1938] [not in Ar.] After defending Roscius against Chrysogonus, Cicero went away to Athens, where he stayed for three years before returning to Rome.
175.3 [1939] [1940 in Ar.] Pompeius celebrated a most glorious triumph.
175.4 [1940] [1939 in Ar.] Lepidus was declared a public enemy ["of the Romans" - Ar.].
[not in Ar.] Titus Quinticius Atta, the writer of "togatae" plays, died at Rome, and was buried by the second milestone on the Via Praenestina.

176th OLYMPIAD [=76-73 B.C.]

176.1 * [1941] Alexandra became queen of the Jews, for 9 years.
Alexandra, also called Salina, was the widow of Alexander and became queen of Jerusalem. From her reign onwards, disorders and assorted troubles overtook the Jews.
176.4 [1944] [not in Ar.] The war against the gladiators in Campania.
[1943 in Ar.] L.Lucullus was the first to be given the title "imperator", after conquering Armenia and Mesopotamia and capturing Nisibis along with the brother of the king. ["Lucullus spent his life in luxury" - Ar.]

177th OLYMPIAD [=72-69 B.C.]

177.1   [1945] [not in Ar.] Pompeius subjugated the whole of Spain.
177.2 [1946] [not in Ar.] M.Lucullus celebrated a triumph over the Bessi, after capturing Cabyle, Tomi, and other neighbouring cities.
177.3 [1947] [not in Ar.] The triumph of Crassus.
177.4 [1948] [not in Ar.] Vergilius Maro was born in a town called Andes, not far from Mantua, when Pompeius and Crassus were consuls.

178th OLYMPIAD [=68-65 B.C.]

178.1   [1949] [1944 in Ar.] Antioch in Syria was captured by the Romans.
[1946 in Ar.] The start of the Cretan war, from which Metellus was given the name Creticus.
[not in Ar.] The grove of Daphne near Antioch was dedicated to Apollo by Pompeius.
178.2 * [1950] The Jews were made tributary to the Romans, and Hyrcanus became their high priest, for 34 years.
Aristobulus and Hyrcanus, the sons of Alexandra, fought against each other for the right to be king, and thereby gave an opportunity for the Romans to invade Judaea. And so Pompeius came to Jerusalem, captured the city, opened up the temple, and went in as far as the holy of holies. He established Hyrcanus as the high priest, and took Aristobulus away as a prisoner. Then he appointed Antipater, the son of Herodes of Ascalon, to be governor of Palestine.
178.4 [1952] [not in Ar.] Libya was bequeathed to the Romans by the will of king Appion.
[not in Ar.] Horatius Flaccus, the writer of satires and lyric poems, was born to a freedman father at Venusia.

179th OLYMPIAD [=64-61 B.C.]

179.1   [1953] [not in Ar.] Apollodorus of Pergamum, the Greek orator and tutor of Calidius and Augustus, was in his prime.
179.2 [1954] [not in Ar.] Pompeius captured Jerusalem and reduced the Jews to tributary status.
179.3 [1955] [not in Ar.] The events which Sallustius and Livius relate about Catilina, Cethegus, Lentulus and Cicero as consul, happened at this time.
179.4 [1956] [not in Ar.] Cicero was forced into exile for a year, but was received with honour by Plancius.
[not in Ar.] Pompeius was called "imperator".

180th OLYMPIAD [=60-57 B.C.]

180.1   [1957] [1958 in Ar.] Caesar conquered Lusitania and some islands in the Ocean.
180.2 [1958] [not in Ar.] The orator Messala Corvinus and the historian Titus Livius of Patavium were born.
180.3 [1959] [not in Ar.] Vergilius was educated at Cremona.
[not in Ar.] Catullus died at Rome, at the age of 30 years.
180.4 [1960] [not in Ar.] The orator M.Calidius was in his prime. He later belonged to Caesar's party in the civil war, and died at Placentia while governing Gallia Togata.

181th OLYMPIAD [=56-53 B.C.]

181.1   [1961] Caesar crossed the Rhine and defeated the Germans.
181.2 [1962] [not in Ar.] The consul Crassus was captured with his son at Carrhae.
[not in Ar.] Ventidius was the first Roman general to defeat the Parthians.
181.3 [1963] [not in Ar.] Curio, a fluent and popular orator, was in his prime at Rome. He later lost an army in Africa, and was prompted by shame to die rather seek escape.
181.4 [1964] [not in Ar.] Vergilius started to wear the toga, and moved to Mediolanum; shortly afterwards, he went off to Rome.

182nd OLYMPIAD [=52-49 B.C.]

182.1   [1965] [1962 in Ar.] The statue of Zeus at Olympia was struck by lightning.
182.2 [1966] Caesar conquered the Germans and Gauls.
182.3 * [1967] Cleopatra [became] the 12th [ruler] of Egypt, for 22 years.
[1969 in Ar.] The beginning of the civil war between Caesar and Pompeius.
182.4 [1968] [not in Ar.] Diodorus Siculus, the Greek historian, was in his prime.
[1969 in Ar.] Gaius Julius Caesar was the first Roman to become sole ruler, and the Roman emperors were called Caesars after him. ["At this time Roman power reached its peak" - Ar.]

183rd OLYMPIAD [=48-45 B.C.]

183.1 * [1969] Gaius Julius Caesar [became] the first [emperor] of the Romans, for 4 years and 6 months [or "5 years" - Ar.]
[1974 in Ar.] The inhabitants of Antioch reckon their years from this point.
[not in Ar.] Pompeius fled [to Egypt] after being defeated in battle, and was killed by the eunuchs of the king of Alexandria.
[not in Ar.] M.Caelius, a praetor, and T.Annius Milo, an exile, tried to foment revolution simultaneously in Etruria and Bruttium, but were suppressed.
183.2 [1970] [not in Ar.] The body of Ptolemaeus, in a golden breastplate, was discovered in the river Nile.
[not in Ar.] Caesar established Cleopatra as queen of Egypt, in return for sexual favours.
183.3 [1971] [not in Ar.] The Basilica Julia was dedicated at Rome.
[not in Ar.] The Jews received a decree of the senate and of the Athenians, after seeking an alliance through envoys.
[not in Ar.] Cleopatra entered Rome with a royal retinue.
[not in Ar.] Women were forbidden to wear amber and pearls, if they did not have a husband or children, and were under 45 years old.
183.4 [1972] [not in Ar.] Nigidius Figulus, the Pythagorean sage, died in exile.

184th OLYMPIAD [=44-41 B.C.]

184.1   [1973] [1969 in Ar.] Antonius passed a decree that the month of Quintilis should be called July, because Julius had been born in that month.
Cassius conquered Judaea and despoiled the temple.
Gaius Julius Caesar was killed in the senate-house on the Ides of March, after which P.Dolabella took up the fasces [became consul].
[not in Ar.] The body of Caesar was cremated on the rostra, as a mark of honour.
[not in Ar.] The lawyer Servius Sulpicius and P.Servilius Isauricus were given public funerals.
[not in Ar.] At Rome three separate suns rose into the sky, and gradually converged into a single circle.
[not in Ar.] Amongst other portents which occurred throughout the world, in the suburbs of Rome an ox said to a ploughman, "There is no point in pushing me, because it is men, not food, who are going to be in short supply".
184.2 * [1974] Octavianus Caesar Augustus became the 2nd emperor of the Romans, for 56 years and 6 months; the Roman emperors were called Augusti after him.
[not in Ar.] Antonius fought a war against Caesar Augustus.
[not in Ar.] Laberius, the writer of mimes, died at Puteoli 10 months after the death of C.Caesar.
[not in Ar.] Publius, the Syrian writer of mimes, was the leading dramatist at Rome.
184.3 [1975] [not in Ar.] Cicero was killed on his Formian estate by Herennius and Popilius, when he was in his 64th year.
[not in Ar.] The head and right hand of Cicero were placed in front of the rostra, next to a crowned statue of Popilius, the soldier who had killed him.
[not in Ar.] According to some, Cicero was killed at Caieta.
[not in Ar.] Ovidius Naso was born in the territory of the Paeligni.
[not in Ar.] C.Falcidius, a tribune of the plebs, passed a law that no-one should make such a large bequest in their will as to leave less than a quarter of the estate to their legal heirs.
184.4 [1976] [not in Ar.] Curtius Salassus was burnt alive along with four cohorts on the island of Aradus, because he had collected tribute too harshly.
[not in Ar.] Vibius Maximus, when quaestor designate, was recognised as a slave by his master, who took him away.
[not in Ar.] In a brothel across the river Tiber, oil burst out of the ground and flowed for a whole day without stopping, signifying the grace of Christ to the gentiles.
[not in Ar.] Augustus defeated Antonius, but the senate intervened to restore friendship between them.
[not in Ar.] The poet Cornificius died after being deserted by his soldiers, whom he called "rabbits in helmets" because they frequently ran away from battle. His sister Cornificia wrote some remarkable epigrams, which still survive.
[not in Ar.] Cassius despoiled the temples of the Rhodians.
[not in Ar.] The second dispute between Augustus and Antonius.

185th OLYMPIAD [=40-37 B.C.]

185.1   [1977] [not in Ar.] The historian Cornelius Nepos was in his prime.
185.2 [1978] [1873 in Ar.] Antigonus was killed after fighting for a long time against the Jews; from his death until the present time, there have been no [legitimate] kings in Jerusalem. Herodes, who was appointed as king after him by the Romans, was a foreigner with no real claim on Judaea.
185.4 [1980] The two Furnii, father and son, were in their prime as orators; the son became a consul, and died before his father.

186th OLYMPIAD [=36-33 B.C.]

186.1   [1981] Sallustius died, four years before the battle of Actium.
186.2 [1982] M.Varius, the poet whom Vergilius mentions in his Bucolica [Eclogues], died in Cappadocia.
186.3 [1983] Herodes, the son of Antipater of Ascalon and Cypris of Arabia, was appointed by the Romans to be king of Judaea. At this time, just before the birth of Christ, the kingdom and high priesthood of Judaea, which had been passed from father to son, came to an end, in fulfilment of the prophecy which was spoken through Moses [Genesis, 49'10]: "The sceptre will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until he comes to whom it belongs". At this time also the Anointed-rule was completed, as prophesied in the book of Daniel, because the anointed ones, that is the priests, were the rulers of Judaea before Herodes. They ruled from the restoration of the temple in under Dareius, in the 65th Olympiad, up until Hyrcanus in the 185th Olympiad, for a total of 483 years. This is what Daniel referred to when he said [Daniel, 9'25]: "Know and understand this: from the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until the Anointed One, the ruler, comes, there will be seven 'sevens' and sixty-two 'sevens' ". 69 'sevens' make a total of 483 years, during which the anointed ones, that is the anointed priests, were the rulers. When the last of them, Hyrcanus, was captured by the Parthians, Herodes was appointed by Augustus and the senate to rule over Judaea, which he had no right to. And after Herodes his descendants were kings [of Judaea] up until the final capture of Jerusalem. The high priests were no longer chosen by succession from the priestly families, nor did they serve for the whole of their lives, as laid down in the law of Moses. But first some insignificant men, and then others, purchased the high priesthood from the Romans, for a year or sometimes for a little longer. The prophet Daniel foretold this too, when he said [Daniel, 9'26]: "After the seven and sixty-two 'sevens', the Anointed One will be cut off and will have nothing. The people of the ruler who will come will destroy the city and the sanctuary. The end will come like a flood". And then he says [Daniel, 9'27]: "And on a wing of the temple he will set up an abomination that causes desolation, until the end that is decreed is poured out on him".
[1984 in Ar.] Herodes summoned a certain Ananelus from Babylon and set him up as high priest of the Jews. Shortly afterwards, he replaced him with Aristobulus, the brother of Herodes' wife and grandson [or "son" - Ar.] of Hyrcanus. A year later Herodes killed Aristobulus and reinstated Ananelus as high priest.
[not in Ar.] The Romans calculated the course of the moon.
186.4 * [1984] The rule of the high priests came to an end, and Herodes, a foreigner, became king of the Jews for 37 years.
A treaty between Augustus and Antonius.
[1985 in Ar.] The Romans founded some colonies.
[1986 in Ar.] Augustus celebrated a triumph on foot.
[1987 in Ar.] Antonius assigned Arabia to Cleopatra.
[not in Ar.] The start of the third dispute between Augustus and Antonius, which arose when Antonius divorced {Octavia} the sister of Caesar and married Cleopatra.
[not in Ar.] Nicetas, Hybraeas, Theodorus, and Plutio were considered the most eminent teachers of Greek rhetoric.

187th OLYMPIAD [=32-29 B.C.]

187.1   [1985] [1988 in Ar.] Cleopatra and Antonius committed suicide, and Egypt became a Roman province. The first governor of the province was C.Cornelius Gallus, whom Vergilius mentions in the Bucolica [Eclogues].
[1988 in Ar.] The dynasty called the Lagidae ruled in Egypt for a total of 295 years, up until Cleopatra.
187.2 [1986] [not in Ar.] Artorius, the doctor of Augustus, died in a shipwreck after the battle of Actium.
[1989 in Ar.] Some count this as the first year of Augustus' reign.
187.3 [1987] [1989 in Ar.] Caesar was given the name Augustus, and because of this the month of Sextilis was called August.
187.4 [1988] [1990 in Ar.] Augustus returned to Rome and celebrated a magnificent triumph. The children of Cleopatra, Sol [Helius] and Luna [Selene], were led before his chariot.
[1989 in Ar.] The city of Nicopolis was founded near Actium, and the Actian Games were established.
[1991 in Ar.] Augustus created many laws for the Romans.

188th OLYMPIAD [=28-25 B.C.]

188.1   [1989] [1991 in Ar.] A census was held at Rome, and 4,164,000 Roman citizens were listed.
[1991 in Ar.] Colonies were founded.
[not in Ar.] Anaxilaus of Larissa, a Pythagorean wise man, was banished from Rome and Italy by Augustus.
188.2 [1990] [not in Ar.] The philosopher M.Terentius Varro died, at the age of about 90 years.
[1992 in Ar.] Thebes in Egypt was razed to the ground.
[not in Ar.] The poet Cornelius Gallus of Forum Julii, who as we said above was the first governor of Egypt, committed suicide in the 43rd year of his life.
[1992 in Ar.] Tralles was destroyed by an earthquake.
188.3 [1991] [not in Ar.] The Indians sent envoys to Augustus to ask for a treaty of friendship.
[not in Ar.] Messala Corvinus was appointed to be the first prefect of the city, but he resigned on the sixth day of his tenure, declaring that such power was oppressive.
188.4 [1992] [1993 in Ar.] Augustus reduced Calabria and Gaul [ or "the Galatians" - Ar.] to tributary status.
[not in Ar.] Munatius Plancus, a follower of Cicero, was considered an outstanding orator. While he was governor of Gallia Comata, he founded the city of Lugdunum.

189th OLYMPIAD [=24-21 B.C.]

189.1   [1993] M.Lollius made Galatia a Roman province.
[1994 in Ar.] Augustus was offered the title of king, but refused it.
189.2 [1994] [not in Ar.] Quintilius of Cremona, the friend of Vergilius and Horatius, died.
189.3 [1995] Augustus took away the liberty of the citizens of Cyzicus.
[not in Ar.] Pylades of Cilicia, a performer of mimes, was the first to have a chorus and piper to perform for him, when his predecessor had sung and danced for themselves.
189.4 [1996] [1995 in Ar.] Tiberius was sent by Augustus to seize Armenia [ or "the Jews" - Ar.].
[not in Ar.] Atratinus, who prosecuted Caelius when he was seventeen years old, was considered an outstanding orator. In the end, he became weary of illness and killed himself in the bath, leaving Augustus as his heir.

190th OLYMPIAD [=20-17 B.C.]

190.1   [1997] [not in Ar.] A revolt of the Cantabri was suppressed.
190.2 [1998] [1996 in Ar.] Herodes constructed many great buildings in Jerusalem.
190.3 [1999] [not in Ar.] Vergilius died at Brundisium, in the consulship of Sentius Saturninus and Lucretius Cinna. His bones were taken to Neapolis and buried two miles from the city, with the following inscription above them, which he had dictated as he died:
"Mantua gave me birth; the Calabrians took me away; Parthenope
now holds me. I sang of pastures, countryside and leaders."
190.4 [2000] [1996 in Ar.] Herodes completely rebuilt Samaria, which was lying in ashes, and in honour of Augustus he called it Augusta, that is Sebaste. He also built the so-called Panium at Paneas.
[1997 in Ar.] Augustus granted freedom to the Samians [ or "the Samaritans" - Ar.].
[1998 in Ar.] Many parts of the cities in Cyprus were destroyed by an earthquake.
[1998 in Ar.] The Germans began an armed uprising, but were defeated by M.Lollius.
[not in Ar.] Varius and Tucca, the associates of Vergilius and Horatius, were considered outstanding poets. They afterwards edited the books of the Aeneid, on the principle that they should add nothing to it.
[only in Ar.] Tiberius was given the title of Caesar.

191st OLYMPIAD [=16-13 B.C.]

191.1   [2001] Augustus adopted Gaius Agrippa as his son.
[not in Ar.] The poet Aemilius Macer of Verona died in Asia.
191.2 [2002] Tiberius brought the Vindelici and the tribes around Thrace under Roman rule.
191.3 [2003] [2001 in Ar.] Colonies were founded at Berytus and Patrae.
[2002 in Ar.] Agrippa conquered the Bosphorus.
191.4 [2004] [not in Ar.] Cestius of Smyrna, a teacher of rhetoric, taught in Latin at Rome.

192nd OLYMPIAD [=12-9 B.C.]

192.1   [2005] [2003 in Ar.] Augustus was appointed by the senate to be pontifex maximus.
Herodes refounded the city which was previously called Strato's Tower, and renamed it Caesareia in honour of Caesar.
192.2 [2006] [2004 in Ar.] Herodes restored Anthedon and called it Antipatris in honour of his father Antipater; he also founded a city which he called Herodium after his own name. He skilfully constructed many other buildings in the individual cities of Syria which he ruled.
192.4 [2008] [2009 in Ar.] Tiberius Caesar celebrated a triumph after defeating the Pannonians.
[not in Ar.] Horatius died at Rome, in the 57th year of his life.
[not in Ar.] Passienus the elder, who was a famous declaimer, died.
[not in Ar.] C.Julius Hyginus, called Polyhistor, was considered an outstanding grammarian.
[2007 in Ar.] Tiberius conquered the Germans and was proclaimed imperator.

193rd OLYMPIAD [=8-5 B.C.]

193.1   [2009] [2008 in Ar.] Herodes killed Hyrcanus, the previous high priest of the Jews who had returned from captivity in Parthia, and his son, who had succeeded him as high priest. He also callously killed Hyrcanus' sister, his own wife, together with her two sons, who had now reached manhood, and the mother of his dead wife, his own mother-in-law.
193.3 [2011] [not in Ar.] Tiberius triumphed over the Rhaeti, Vindelici, Armenians and Pannonians.
[not in Ar.] Albucius Silo of Novaria, a famous teacher of rhetoric, was in his prime.
[2012 in Ar.] Many parts of the island of Cos were devastated by an earthquake.
193.4 [2012] [2013 in Ar.] Augustus banished his own daughter Julia, who had been caught in adultery.

194th OLYMPIAD [=4-1 B.C.]

194.1   [2013] [not in Ar.] M.Tullius Tiro, the freedman of Cicero who first invented shorthand notes, lived on the estate at Puteoli in his old age, up until his hundredth year.
[2014 in Ar.] Augustus presented a gladiatorial show and a naval battle.
[not in Ar.] The grammarian Melissus of Spoletium was in his prime.
[not in Ar.] M.Porcius Latro, a Latin declaimer, committed suicide because he was suffering from double quartan fever.
194.2 [2014] [2008 in Ar.] In addition to the cruelties mentioned above, Herodes killed the husband of his sister Salome, and after he gave her in marriage to another man, he killed him as well. He also murdered the scribes and the interpreters of the holy law.
[not in Ar.] Tertullianus, in his book "Against the Jews", states that Christ was born in the 41st year of Augustus, and suffered in the 15th year of Tiberius.
194.3 [2015] Jesus [ "Christ" - Ar.], the son of God, was born at Bethlehem in Judaea.
194.4 [2016] [2015 in Ar.] Quirinius was sent to Judaea by decree of the senate, to hold a census of the people and their possessions.
[2015 in Ar.] From Abraham up until the birth of Christ, there is a total of 2,015 years.

195th OLYMPIAD [=1-4 A.D.]

195.1   [2017] [2015 in Ar.] C.Caesar made a treaty of friendship with the Parthians.
Sextus, the Pythagorean philosopher, was born [ or "was in his prime" - Ar.].
195.2 [2018] [2017 in Ar.] Augustus adopted Tiberius and Agrippa as his sons.
Judas the Galilaean incited the Jews to rebel.
195.3 [2019] [2018 in Ar.] When Herodes was warned by the wise men about the birth of Christ, he ordered all the young boys in Bethlehem to be killed.
195.4 [2020] Herodes, struck down by dropsy and with worms spreading throughout his body, deservedly suffered a miserable death.
[not in Ar.] Asinius Pollio, the orator and ex-consul who had triumphed over the Dalmatians, died in his 80th year at his villa near Tusculum.

196th OLYMPIAD [=5-8 A.D.]

196.1 * [2021] Archelaus [became] leader of the Jews, for 9 years.
Archelaus was appointed by Augustus to be the successor of Herodes; and his four brothers, Herodes, Antipater, Lysias and Philippus, became tetrarchs.
196.2 [2022] [2025 in Ar.] There was such a great shortage of food at Rome, that five modii [ or "one modius" - Ar.] were sold for twenty seven and a half denarii.
196.3 [2023] [not in Ar.] Philisto the writer of mimes, from Magnesia in Asia, was in his prime at Rome.
[2022 in Ar.] Tiberius Caesar conquered the Dalmatians and Sarmatians, and brought them under Roman rule.
196.4 [2024] [2023 in Ar.] Athenodorus of Tarsus, a stoic philosopher, and M.Verrius Flaccus, a grammarian, were in their prime.

197th OLYMPIAD [=9-12 A.D.]

197.1   [2025] [2029 in Ar.] The Athenians attempted to revolt against the Romans, but they were suppressed and the leaders of the uprising were killed.
197.3 [2027] [not in Ar.] The orator Messala Corvinus lost his memory and his senses two years before he died, to such an extent that he could scarcely put together a few words. In the end, an ulcer grew round the base of his spine, and he killed himself by abstaining from food, in the 72nd year of his life.

198th OLYMPIAD [=13-16 A.D.]

198.1   [2029] Augustus and his son Tiberius conducted a census at Rome, and listed 9,370,000 [or "4,190,117" - Ar.] citizens.
Sotion of Alexandria, the philosopher and teacher of Seneca, was in his prime.
[2027 in Ar.] In the ninth year of his reign, Archelaus was banished to Vienna, a city in Gaul.
There was an eclipse of the sun, and Augustus died at Atella in Campania, in the 76th year of his life. He was buried at Rome in the Campus Martius.
198.2 * [2030] Tiberius became the third emperor of the Romans, for 23 years.
* Herodes the tetrarch became leader of the Jews, for 24 years.
[not in Ar.] Gaius Asinius Gallus, the orator and son of Asinius Pollio, who is also mentioned by Vergilius, was tortured and killed by Tiberius.

199th OLYMPIAD [=17-20 A.D.]

199.1   [2033] [not in Ar.] The historian Livius died at Patavium.
[not in Ar.] The poet Ovidius died in exile, and was buried near the town of Tomi.
Germanicus Caesar triumphed over the Parthians.
199.2 [2034] [2033 in Ar.] Thirteen cities were destroyed by an earthquake: Ephesus, Magnesia, Sardis, Mostene, Aegae, Hierocaesareia, Philadelphia, Tmolus, Temus, Cyme, Myrina, Apollonia Dia and Hyrcania.
199.3 [2035] [not in Ar.] Fenestella, the historian and poet, died at the age of seventy years and was buried at Cumae.
199.4 [2036] [not in Ar.] Tiberius enticed many kings into visiting him, and never released them. Among these was Archelaus of Cappadocia; his kingdom was turned into a [Roman] province and the distinguished city of Mazaca was renamed Caesareia, by order of Tiberius.

200th OLYMPIAD [=21-24 A.D.]

200.1   [2037] The theatre of Pompeius was burnt down.
200.2 [2038] Tiberius made Drusus his partner in ruling the empire.
200.3 [2039] Drusus Caesar died from poisoning.
200.4 [2040] [not in Ar.] Quintus Haterius, a fluent and popular orator, survived until nearly his ninetieth year, with great honour.
[not in Ar.] Saevius Plautus was charged with defiling his own son, and committed suicide during the trial.

201st OLYMPIAD [=25-28 A.D.]

201.1   [2041] [2039 in Ar.] Philippus the tetrarch constructed many building at Paneas and renamed it Caesareia Philippi. He also built the city of Julias.
201.2 [2042] Pilatus was sent by Tiberius to be the procurator of Judaea.
201.3 [2043] [not in Ar.] The orator Votienus Montanus of Narbo died on the Balearic Islands, to which he had been banished by Tiberius.
Herodes founded the cities of Tiberias and Livias.
201.4 [2044] John the son of Zechariah prophesied in the desert by the river Jordan, saying that Christ the son of God had come among them.
At that time, the Lord Jesus Christ himself began to announce to the people the road to salvation, demonstrating by signs and by his goodness the truth of what he said [ or "demonstrating to the crowd by deeds and words the quality of divine power" - Ar.].
From the second year of the restoration of the temple [ or "from the second building of the temple at Jerusalem" - Ar.] which happened in the second year of Dareius the king of the Persians [ "in the 65th Olympiad" - Ar.], up until the present year, which is the 15th year of Tiberius, there is a total of 548 years [ or "542 years" - Ar.]. From Solomon and the first building of the temple there are 1,060 years [ or "1,064 years" - Ar.], from Moses and the exodus of Israel from Egypt, 1,539 years [ or "1,540 years" - Ar.], from Abraham and the reign of Ninus and Semiramis, 2,044 years. From the flood up until Abraham, there were 942 years; from Adam up until the flood, there were 2,242 years [ or "from the flood, 2,986 years, from Adam, 5,228 years" - Ar.] .

202nd OLYMPIAD [=29-32 A.D.]

202.1   [2045] [not in Ar.] The beginning of the 81st Jubilee, according to the Hebrews.
Jesus Christ, the son of God, announced the road to salvation for everyone, and performed the miracles which are written in the gospels.
202.2 [2046] [2045 in Ar.] Jesus Christ, the son of God, revealed to his disciples the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, and commanded them to proclaim to all nations the message of conversion to God [ "and to the laws of his kingdom" - Ar.].
202.3 [2047] [2048 in Ar.] Jesus Christ, in accordance with the prophecies which were spoken about him, went to his passion in the 18th [ or "19th" - Ar.] year of Tiberius, and we have found the following things written about this year in the histories of the gentiles [ or "Greeks" - Ar.] : there was an eclipse of the sun, Bithynia was devastated by an earthquake, and many buildings in the city of Nicaea were destroyed. All this coincides with the events of the passion of our Saviour. Phlegon, in the 13th book of his admirable account of the Olympiads, writes about this as follows: "In the fourth year of the 202nd Olympiad, there was an eclipse of the sun, greater than any which had occurred previously. At the sixth hour, the day became as dark as night, and the stars were visible in the sky. An earthquake in Bithynia destroyed many buildings in Nicaea." Proof that the passion of our Saviour happened in this year is provided by the gospel of John, who write that our Lord taught for three years after the 15th year of Tiberius. And Josephus, the native historian of the Jews, relates that around this time, on the day of Pentecost, first the priests noticed some movement and noise, and then a voice suddenly burst forth from the innermost sanctuary of the temple, saying "Let us move out of here". Josephus also says that in the same year the governor Pilatus secretly by night set up some statues of Caesar in the temple [ "where it was not right for them to be" - Ar.], and this was the first cause of rebellion and disturbances amongst the Jews.
[only in Ar.] Flaccus Avillius, the governor of Alexandria and Egypt, proposed to Tiberius many plots against the Jews.
202.4 [2048] From this time onwards, it can be seen how many disasters overtook the Jews.
[2049 in Ar.] James the brother of the Lord was ordained by the apostles as the first bishop of the church of Jerusalem.
[not in Ar.] Cassius Severus, an outstanding orator who jested with the famous "Quintian proverb", died in the (?) 25th year of his exile, in such great poverty that he scarcely had a rag to cover his genitals.

203rd OLYMPIAD [=33-36 A.D.]

203.1   [2049] After the revolt mentioned above, which was caused by the statues of Caesar, Pilatus used the sacred treasure, called the Corbanas by the Jews, to pay for an aqueduct at Jerusalem. This caused another revolt.
203.2 [2050] Sejanus, the prefect of Tiberius, who held great influence with the emperor, constantly urged him to destroy the Jewish people. Philon relates this in the second book of his "Embassy".
[only in Ar.] Philon of Alexandria, a very learned man, was in his prime.
[not in Ar.] Persius Flaccus, the satirical poet, was born at Volaterrae.
203.3 [2051] [2052 in Ar.] Agrippa, the son of king Herodes, came to Rome to accuse Herodes the tetrarch, but was thrown into prison by Tiberius.
Pilatus wrote to Tiberius about the faith of the Christians, and Tiberius referred it to the senate, so that it could be accepted amongst the other religions. But when the senate decreed that the Christians should be expelled from Rome, Tiberius issued an edict threatening the persecutors of Christians with death. Tertullianus [ "the Roman" - Ar.] relates this in his "Apologeticus".
203.4 [2052] Many Roman senators and knights were killed.
[not in Ar.] Tiberius died in Campania.

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