St. Jerome ( Hieronymus ): Chronological Tables

    - for Olympiads 111 to 169 [= 336-101 B.C.]

St. Jerome translated the tables from Eusebius' Chronicle into Latin, and added some material of his own, for instance about the lives of Roman writers. He also extended the tables up until the year 378 A.D.

Most of the Greek text of Eusebius' Chronicle has been lost, but as well as St. Jerome's Latin translation, we also possess a fairly complete Armenian translation of the Chronicle. Differences between the text of St. Jerome and the Armenian translation (Ar.) are shown in green.

This translation is based on the old edition by A.Schoene, and it does not attempt to reproduce the original format of the manuscripts. The references in red are the number of years from Abraham.

Olympiads 170 to 203 [= 100 B.C. - 36 A.D.]

111th OLYMPIAD [=336-333 B.C.]:

111.1 * [1681] Alexander the son of Philippus [became king] of the Macedonians, for 12 years and 6 months.
[not in Ar.] Manasses, the brother of Jaddus the high priest of the Jews, built a temple on Mount Garizim.
111.2 * [1682] [1681 in Ar.] Then Dareius the son of Arsames [became] the 14th [king of the Persians], for 6 years.
111.3 [1683] [1680 in Ar.] Alexander fought successfully against the Illyrians and Thracians, and destroyed Thebes. Then he attacked the Persians, and captured Sardis after defeating the king's generals at the river Granicus.
111.4 [1684] [1686 in Ar.] The Roman consul Mallius Torquatus flogged and executed his son, because he had disobeyed ordered by fighting against the enemy.

112th OLYMPIAD [=332-329 B.C.]:

112.1   [1685] [1680 in Ar.] Alexander captured Tyre, and entered Judaea, where he was given an enthusiastic welcome. He offered a sacrifice to God, and granted many honours to the priest of the temple. Andromachus, whom he left as governor of the region, was later murdered by the Samaritans. Therefore when he returned from Egypt Alexander punished the Samaritans severely, and handed over their city for the Macedonians to settle in.
112.3 [1687] [1686 in Ar.] Alexander founded Alexandria in Egypt in the 7th year of his reign, at the same time as the Romans subdued the Latins.
112.4 * [1688] [1687 in Ar.] Alexander started to rule over all of Asia in the 7th year of his reign, and ruled for 12 years.
[1687 in Ar.] Alexander captured Babylon and killed Dareius, with whom the Persian kingdom came to an end ["after it had lasted for 230 years" - Ar.]
[1687 in Ar.] Anaximenes and Epicurus were in their prime.
[1687 in Ar.] Alexander conquered the Hyrcani and Mardi, and [on his return] founded Paraetonium in Ammon.

113th OLYMPIAD [=328-325 B.C.]:

113.1   [1689] [not in Ar.] Alexander captured the rock of Aornus and crossed the river Indus.
113.2 [1690] Alexander's war in India against Porus and Taxiles.
113.3 [1691] [1688 in Ar.] Harpalus fled to Asia.
113.4 [1692] [1687 in Ar.] The Romans conquered the Samnites and founded colonies. ["The Sonii were Arabs from (Arabia) Eudaemon" - Ar.]

114th OLYMPIAD [=324-321 B.C.]:

114.1 * [1693] Alexander died at Babylon, aged 32 years. After his death, his empire was divided amongst many rulers.
* Ptolemy son of Lagus became the first king of Egypt, for 40 years.
* Philippus, also called Aridaeus, the brother of Alexander, became king of the Macedonians, for 7 years.
[not in Ar.] Appius Claudius Caecus ["the blind"] was in his prime at Rome. He built the Claudian aqueduct and constructed the Appian Way.
[1691 in Ar.] Lysimachus ruled over Lydia, Thrace and the Hellespont.
The Macedonian leaders fought against each other.
114.2 [1694] [not in Ar.] Agathocles became tyrant at Syracuse.
[not in Ar.] The start of the Lamian War.
Perdiccas attacked the Egyptians.
114.3 [1695] [not in Ar.] Ptolemy the son of Lagus gained control of Jerusalem and Judaea by treachery, and brought many captives back to Egypt.
[1698 in Ar.] Onias the son of Jaddus, the high priest of the Jews, was in his prime.
114.4 [1696] [1695 in Ar.] Menander won his first victory, for a play called Orge ["Anger"].
[1697 in Ar.] The philosopher Theophrastus was in his prime; Cicero says that he was given this name because of his god-like speech.

115th OLYMPIAD [=320-317 B.C.]:

115.1   [1697] [not in Ar.] Demetrius of Phalerum was in his prime.
[1698 in Ar.] The Romans completely subjugated the Samnites [or "Saunian Arabs" - Ar.] , who had fought against them for an exceedingly long time.
115.3 * [1699] Antigonus became king of Asia, for 18 years.
[only in Ar.] Antigonus founded the city of Antigoneia on the river Orontes, which Seleucus restored and called Antioch.
115.4 * [1700] Cassander became king of Macedonia, for 19 years.

116th OLYMPIAD [=316-313 B.C.]:

116.1   [1701] The philosophers Menedemus and Speusippus were in their prime.
116.4 [1704] [1702 in Ar.] The Hebrew books of Maccabees date the rule of the Greeks from this year; but these books have not been accepted as part of Holy Scripture.

117th OLYMPIAD [=312-309 B.C.]:

117.1 * [1705] Seleucus Nicator became king of Syria and Babylon and the eastern regions, for 32 years.
[1708 in Ar.] The Romans defeated the Marsi, Umbri, and Paeligni.
117.2 [1706] [not in Ar.] The inhabitants of Edessa date their years from this point.

118th OLYMPIAD [=308-305 B.C.]:

118.1   [1709] [1710 in Ar.] The Romans founded some colonies.
118.3 [1711] [1709 in Ar.] Lysimachia in Thrace was founded.
118.4 [1712] Ptolemy conquered the island of Cyprus.

119th OLYMPIAD [=304-301 B.C.]:

119.1   [1713] [not in Ar.] Theodorus the atheist was in his prime.
119.2 [1714] [1710 in Ar.] Demetrius of Phalerum went to Ptolemy, and persuaded him to restore democracy at Athens.
119.3 [1715] Seleucus founded the cities of Antioch, Laodiceia, Seleuceia, Apameia, Edessa, Beroea and Pella. The foundation of Antioch occurred in the 12th year of his reign.
119.4 [1716] [not in Ar.] Seleucus conquered Babylon.

120th OLYMPIAD [=300-297 B.C.]:

120.1 * [1717] Demetrius Poliorcetes [became king] of Asia, for 17 years.
[1716 in Ar.] Simon the son of Onias, the high priest of the Jews, was in his prime. He was called the Just, because of his great piety towards God and the concern which he showed for his countrymen.
120.3 * [1719] Antigonus and Alexander the sons of Cassander [became kings] of Macedonia, for 4 years.

121st OLYMPIAD [=296-293 B.C.]

121.1   [1721] [1720 in Ar.] Demetrius Poliorcetes, the king of Asia, destroyed the city of the Samaritans, which Perdiccas had previously built.
121.3 * [1723] Demetrius [became king] of Macedonia, for 6 years [or "5 years" - Ar.].
A census was held at Rome, and 270,000 [or "220,000" - Ar.] Roman citizens were counted.
121.4 [1724] [not in Ar.] Envoys were sent from Alexandria to Rome for the first time by Ptolemy, and they arranged an alliance.

122nd OLYMPIAD [=292-289 B.C.]

122.1   [1725] [1724 in Ar.] The death of Menander, the writer of comedies.
122.2 [1726] The Romans defeated the Gauls and Etruscans [or "Gauls and Sabines" - Ar.] and split up the territory of the Sabines into allotments.
122.3 [1727] [1726 in Ar.] Seleucus moved Jewish settlers into the cities which he had built. He gave them the right of citizenship, and an equal rank to the local Greeks.

123rd OLYMPIAD [=288-285 B.C]

123.1 * [1729] [1728 in Ar.] Pyrrhus [became king] of Macedonia, for 7 months.
Eleazar the brother of Simon took over the supervision of the temple as high priest of the Jews, because Onias the son of Simon was still a young boy.
123.2 * [1730] [1729 in Ar.] Then Lysimachus [became king of Macedonia], for 5 years.
[not in Ar.] Seleucus captured Demetrius, and gained control of both Syria and Asia.
123.3 [1731] [1738 in Ar.] The entry of Sarapis ["called Sorapis or Sirapis by some" - Ar.] into Alexandria.
123.4 [1732] [not in Ar.] The Romans founded Ariminum and Beneventum.

124th OLYMPIAD [=284-281 B.C.]

124.1 * [1733] Ptolemy Philadelphus [became] the 2nd [king] of Egypt, for 38 years.
[1734 in Ar.] Sostratus of Cnidus ["the son of Dexiphanes" - Ar.] built the Pharus ["a lighthouse of great height" - Ar.] at Alexandria.
124.2 [1734] [not in Ar.] Demetrius the king of Asia surrendered himself to Seleucus.
[1732 in Ar.] The Romans captured Croton.
124.3 * [1735] [1734 in Ar.] Ptolemy Ceraunus [became king] of Macedonia, for 1 year [or "2 years" - Ar.].
[1731 in Ar.] Antigonus Gonatas captured Sparta.
124.4 * [1736] Meleager [became king of Macedonia] for 2 months. Then Antipater, for 45 days. Then Sosthenes, for 2 years.
Ptolemy granted freedom to the Jews who were in Egypt, and sent votive vessels to Eleazar the high priest at Jerusalem. He ordered 70 interpreters to translate the Holy Scripture from Hebrew into Greek, and kept the translation in the library at Alexandria, which he had filled with every kind of literature.

125th OLYMPIAD [=280-277 B.C.]

125.1 * [1737] After Seleucus, Antiochus Soter became king of Syria and Asia, for 19 years.
125.2 * [1738] Antigonus Gonatas [became king of Macedonia], for 36 years.
125.3 [1739] [1742 in Ar.] A [Vestal] Virgin at Rome was found to have been defiled, and was executed.

126th OLYMPIAD [=276-273 B.C.]

126.2   [1742] [1737 in Ar.] Milon handed over Tarentum to the Romans.
126.4 [1744] [1749 in Ar.] The Romans conquered Calabria and captured Messana.

127th OLYMPIAD [=272-269 B.C.]

127.1   [1745] [not in Ar.] Aratus was in his prime.
127.3 [1747] [not in Ar.] Silver coins were minted at Rome for the first time.

128th OLYMPIAD [=268-265 B.C.]

128.1   [1749] [1743 in Ar.] Polemon the philosopher died, and then Arcesilaus and Crates were in their prime.
128.4 [1752] [1750 in Ar.] The Romans founded some colonies, and many cities in Sicily entered into alliance with them.
A Vestal Virgin at Rome was condemned for fornication, and killed herself by hanging.

129th OLYMPIAD [=264-261 B.C.]

129.1   [1753] [1748 in Ar.] Zenon the Stoic died, and was succeeded by Cleanthes.
129.2 [1754] The Romans captured [or "besieged" - Ar.] Syracuse.
129.3 [1755] [1752 in Ar.] Nicomedes the king of Bithynia enlarged a city and called it Nicomedeia.
129.4 * [1756] Antiochus Theos became king of Syria, for 15 years.

130th OLYMPIAD [=260-257 B.C.]

130.1   [1757] [1756 in Ar.] The Romans defeated the Carthaginians in a naval battle, and captured a hundred cities in Africa.
130.4 [1760] [1758 in Ar.] Erasistratus the doctor was in his prime.

131st OLYMPIAD [=256-253 B.C.]

131.1   [1761] Antigonus restored the freedom of the Athenians.
131.3 [1763] [1760 in Ar.] After Eleazar, his uncle Manasses became high priest of the Jews.

132nd OLYMPIAD [=252-249 B.C.]

132.1   [1765] [1764 in Ar.] The Carthaginians captured 90 Roman ships off Sicily, and forced the consul Metellus to flee [or "they trapped the consul Metellus, and forced him to flee" - Ar.]

133rd OLYMPIAD [=248-245 B.C.]

133.1   [1769] [1766 in Ar.] The Parthians rebelled against Macedonian rule. Their first king was Arsaces, the founder of the Arsacid dynasty.
133.3 * [1771] Ptolemy Euergetes [became] the 3rd [king] of Egypt, for 26 years.
* Seleucus Callinicus [became king] of Syria, for 20 years.
Onias, the son of Simon the Just and high priest of the Jews, was in his prime. He made king Ptolemy angry by failing to pay him the usual tribute. But Josephus, one of the prominent Jews who had been sent as an envoy to Ptolemy, won the friendship of the king by the loyal service which he gave him, and was appointed leader of Judaea and the surrounding regions.

134th OLYMPIAD [=244-241 B.C.]

134.1   [1773] [1774 in Ar.] A census was held at Rome, and 260,000 [or "250,000" - Ar.] citizens were counted.
134.2 * [1774] Demetrius [became king] of Macedonia, for 10 years.
134.3 [1775] [not in Ar.] The temple of Vesta at Rome was burnt down.

135th OLYMPIAD [=240-237 B.C.]

135.1   [1777] [not in Ar.] The poet Quintus Ennius was born at Tarentum. Cato as quaestor brought him back to Rome, where he settled on the Aventine hill, and lived contentedly on a small income with the help of one servant woman.

136th OLYMPIAD [=236-233 B.C.]

136.1   [1781] [1780 in Ar.] A Vestal Virgin at Rome was defiled by a slave, and killed herself.
136.4 * [1784] Antigonus [became king] of Macedonia, for 15 years.

137th OLYMPIAD [=232-229 B.C.]

137.1   [1785] [1786 in Ar.] Simon the son of Onias, the high priest of the Jews, was in his prime. In his time, Jesus the son of Sirach wrote the book of wisdom called the Panareton, in which he made mention of Simon.
137.4 [1788] [1790 in Ar.] The Romans killed about 40,000 of the Gauls.

138th OLYMPIAD [=228-225 B.C.]

138.3 * [1791] Seleucus Ceraunus [became king] of Syria, for 3 years.

139th OLYMPIAD [=224-221 B.C.]

139.1   [1793] [1792 in Ar.] Caria and Rhodes were struck by an earthquake, which caused the collapse of the great Colossus.
139.2 * [1794] Antiochus the Great [became king of Syria], for 36 years.

140th OLYMPIAD [=220-217 B.C.]

140.1 * [1797] Ptolemy Philopator [became] the 4th [king] of Egypt, for 17 years.
The events which are described in the third book of Maccabees took place under this king [Philopator].
140.3 * [1799] Philippus [became king] of Macedonia, for 42 years.

141st OLYMPIAD [=216-213 B.C.]

141.1   [1801] [not in Ar.] The Jews were defeated, and 60,000 of their soldiers were killed.
141.2 [1802] Some Vestal Virgins were buried alive at Rome, after they were accused of fornication.
141.3 [1803] [1802 in Ar.] Eratosthenes was in his prime.
141.4 [1804] [1805 in Ar.] The Romans, with Marcellus as their consul [ or "their general" - Ar.], captured Syracuse.

142nd OLYMPIAD [=212-209 B.C.]

142.1   [1805] [1806 in Ar.] The Romans captured Capua, and conquered Sicily.
142.3 [1807] [1808 in Ar.] Antiochus the king of Syria defeated Ptolemy Philopator and gained control of Judaea.
142.4 [1808] [not in Ar.] Laevinus made an alliance with Attalus, the king of Asia.

143rd OLYMPIAD [=208-205 B.C.]

143.1   [1809] Onias the son of Simon, the high priest of the Jews, was in his prime, and Areius the king of Sparta sent envoys to him.

144th OLYMPIAD [=204-201 B.C.]

1441.   [1813] [not in Ar.] Scipio captured many cities in Spain.
144.2 * [1814] Ptolemy Epiphanes [became] the 5th [king] of Egypt, for 24 years.
Ptolemy Epiphanes appointed Scopas to be general of his army, and conquered Judaea and many cities in Syria.
144.4 [1816] [not in Ar.] Naevius the writer of comedies died at Utica, after being forced to leave Rome by a group of nobles led by Metellus.

145th OLYMPIAD [=200-197 B.C.]

145.1 [1817] [not in Ar.] Plautus, who was born at Sarsina in Umbria, died at Rome. Because of his poverty, he worked at a hand-mill for a baker, and in his spare time used to write and sell plays.
145.2 [1818] [1815 in Ar.] A new island appeared near Thera, and it was given the name Hiera.
145.4 [1820] [1818 in Ar.] Antiochus recovered the cities of Syria after defeating Scopas, and Judaea willingly surrendered to him.

146th OLYMPIAD [=196-193 B.C.]

146.1   [1821] [1823 in Ar.] The Romans granted freedom to the Greeks, and forced all of Spain into subjugation.
146.2 [1822] [1820 in Ar.] Antiochus, in recognition of the Jews' goodwill towards him, sent them many gifts and frequently praised them in his official letters.

147th OLYMPIAD [=192-189 B.C.]

147.1   [1825] After he was defeated at the battle of Thermopylae, Antiochus made peace with the Romans on these terms: that he should give them a thousand talents each year as an indemnity.
147.2 [1826] [1829 in Ar.] The Romans founded many colonies.
147.3 [1827] [1826 in Ar.] After agreeing peace terms with Ptolemy, Antiochus sent his daughter Cleopatra to be Ptolemy's bride, and gave him Syria, Phoenicia, Samaria and Judaea as a dowry.
147.4 [1828] [not n Ar.] Eumenes, the brother of king Attalus, was in his prime. He founded the city of Eumenia in Phrygia.

148th OLYMPIAD [=188-185 B.C.]

148.1   [1829] [1830 in Ar.] The second book of Maccabees describes events which took place in Judaea at this time.
148.2 * [1830] Seleucus Philopator [became king] of Syria and Asia, for 12 years.
[not in Ar.] Titus Livius, the writer of tragedies, was in his prime. Because of his excellence as a writer, he was set free by Livius Salinator, whose children he had educated.
148.3 [1831] [not in Ar.] Hannibal fled to Prusias, the king of Bithynia, because envoys had demanded that he should be surrendered by Antiochus, whom he had joined after being defeated by Scipio. But when Flamininus on behalf of the senate again asked Prusias to surrender Hannibal, and he was about to be handed over, Hannibal drank poison and was buried at Libyssa in Bithynia.

149th OLYMPIAD [=184-181 B.C.]

149.1   [1833] [1830 in Ar.] Simon, who was in charge of the temple at Jerusalem, fled to Apollonius the governor of Phoenicia, and promised him many gifts if he was established as high priest of the Jews. When Seleucus heard about this, he sent Heliodorus to ensure that it was done. When Heliodorus arrived in Judaea, he acted unjustly and committed many crimes, but was frightened away by signs from god, and returned to Seleucus. But Onias the high priest forced Simon to go into exile ["as is related in the book of Maccabees" - Ar.].
149.4 [1836] Hyrcanus, the son of Josephus the leader of the Jews, went to visit Ptolemy, who received him with honour. But his brothers formed a plot against him, which caused much trouble for the Jewish people.

150th OLYMPIAD [=180-177 B.C.]

150.2 * [1838] Ptolemy Philometor [became] the 6th [king] of Egypt, for 35 years.
[not in Ar.] Statius Caecilius, the writer of comedies, was in his prime. By birth he was an Insubrian Gaul (some say that he came from Mediolanum) and at first he was an associate of Ennius. He died in the year after the death of Ennius, and was buried near the Janiculum.

151st OLYMPIAD [=176-173 B.C.]

151.1 * [1841] Perseus [became king] of Macedonia, for 10 years.
Aristobulus, the Jewish Peripatetic philosopher, was in his prime. He wrote commentaries on the works of Moses for Ptolemy Philometor.
151.2 * [1842] Antiochus Epiphanes [became king] of Syria and Asia, for 11 years.

152nd OLYMPIAD [=172-169 B.C.]

152.1   [1845] [1841 in Ar.] Antiochus suddenly attacked the kingdom of the Ptolemaei, but was forced to withdraw by order of the senate. On his return he arrived in Judaea, and installed Jesus, also called Jason, the brother of Onias, as high priest. Then when Jason had been forced out he installed Onias, called Menelaus, as his successor. Therefore, as the leaders of the nation vied with each other for the position of high priest, there appeared the seeds of great trouble for the Jews.
152.4 [1848] [1851 in Ar.] Antiochus opposed the Jewish laws, and at first forced the whole country into idolatry, killing those who refused. Then he entered Jerusalem, and after despoiling the temple and the sacred vessels which were used for the worship of God, he set up a statue of Olympian Zeus in the temple. In Samaria he built a temple of Zeus Xenios ["the god of hospitality"] at the top of Mount Garizim, at the request of the Samaritans themselves. But then Mattathias the son of Asamonaeus, who was one of the priests, took up arms against Antiochus' officers at the village of Modin, and defended his country's laws with the help of his sons, in the 153rd Olympiad.

153rd OLYMPIAD [=168-165 B.C.]

153.1   [1849] [not in Ar.] The poet Ennius died of a disease of the joints, when he was over 70 years old. He was buried in the monument of Scipio on the Appian Way, less than a mile out of Rome, though some claim that his bones were taken from the Janiculum back to Rudiae.
153.3 [1851] The kingdom of Macedonia came to an end.
153.4 [1852] [1850 in Ar.] The Romans killed Perseus, and granted freedom to the Macedonians, Illyrians, and Galatians.

154th OLYMPIAD [=164-161 B.C.]

154.1 * [1853] Antiochus Eupator [became king] of Syria and Asia, for 2 years.
[1851 in Ar.] Judas Maccabaeus, the son of Mattathias and leader of the Jews, drove the generals of Antiochus out of Judaea. He removed the statues of idols from the temple, and after three years restored the traditional laws of the Jews, in the 154th Olympiad.
154.3 * [1855] Demetrius Soter [became king of Macedonia], for 12 years.

155th OLYMPIAD [=160-157 B.C.]

155.1 * [1857] Judas [became] leader of the Jews, for 3 years.
After Menelaus the high priest of the Jews, who had previously betrayed Judaea to Antiochus Epiphanes, was put to death by the younger Antiochus, Alcimus, despite not being from one of the priestly families, procured the position of high priest. Because of this, Onias the son of the high priest Onias left for Egypt and founded a city in the Heliopolitan nome which was named after himself, where he built a temple similar to the temple in Judaea. However Alcimus quarrelled with Judas Maccabaeus and not long afterwards was struck down by the anger of God, and died. And so Judas Maccabaeus was appointed high priest, with the approval of all the Jews. After becoming high priest, Judas sent envoys to Rome and the senate decreed that the Jews should be reckoned as friends and allies of the Romans.
155.3 [1859] [not in Ar.] Publius Terentius of Carthage, the writer of comedies, who had been set free because of his talent and his good looks, died in Arcadia. Before he sold the first version of his "Andria" to the aediles, Terentius read the play to Caecilius who greatly admired him.
155.4 * [1860] Jonathan [became] leader of the Jews, for 19 years.
[not in Ar.] Judas was killed in battle against the generals of Demetrius, after he had been high priest for 3 years.

156th OLYMPIAD [=156-153 B.C.]

156.1   [1861] [1860 in Ar.] The grammarian Aristarchus was in his prime.
156.2 [1862] [1861 in Ar.] Jonathan, the brother of Judas and leader of the Jews, drove Bacchides the general of Demetrius out of Judaea, and became high priest.
156.3 [1863] [not in Ar.] Pacuvius of Brundisium, the writer of tragedies, was in his prime. He was the maternal grandson of Ennius, and earned a living at Rome by painting pictures and selling his plays. Later he moved to Tarentum, and died at the age of nearly 90 years.

157th OLYMPIAD [=152-149 B.C.]

157.1 * [1865] [1870 in Ar.] Pseudophilippus ["the false Philippus"] ruled in Macedonia for one year ["after there had been democracy for 19 years" - Ar.].
157.2 [1866] [1867 in Ar.] Alexander, the son of Antiochus Epiphanes and king of Syria and Asia, honoured Jonathan with a precious crown and many splendid gifts.
157.3 * [1867] Alexander [became king] of Syria and Asia, for 8 years and 10 months.
[1871 in Ar.] The Romans killed Pseudophilippus, and reduced the Macedonians to tributary status.

158th OLYMPIAD [=148-145 B.C.]

158.1   [1869] [1859 in Ar.] The Samaritans and Jews argued at Alexandria about the honours due to their respective temples, and Ptolemy decided in favour of the Jews.
158.2 [1870] [not in Ar.] The birth of the poet Lucilius.
A census was held at Rome, and 322,000 citizens were counted.
158.3 [1871] [1869 in Ar.] Oppius defeated the Gauls; and Scipio captured Carthage for the Romans, 669 years (or 749 years, according to others) after its foundation.

159th OLYMPIAD [=144-141 B.C.]

159.1 * [1873] Ptolemy Euergetes [became] the 7th [king] of Egypt, for 29 years.
[1871 in Ar.] Jonathan, the leader and high priest of the Jews, arranged alliances with the Romans and Spartans.
159.2 [1874] Ptolemy gave his own daughter as wife to Alexander son of Balas, the king of Syria.
159.3 [1875] [1874 in Ar.] Scipio [or "Pompeius" - Ar.] destroyed Numantia.
[1876 in Ar.] Brutus conquered Spain as far as the Ocean.
159.4 [1876] [1878 in Ar.] Tryphon ["treacherously" - Ar.] killed Jonathan the high priest of the Jews, who was succeeded by his brother Simon.

160th OLYMPIAD [=140-137 B.C.]

160.1 * [1877] Demetrius [became king] of Syria and Asia, for 3 years.
[not in Ar.] Tryphon killed Antiochus, the son of Alexander.
Ptolemy gave his daughter as wife to Demetrius, and made him king [of Syria] instead of Alexander.
160.2 [1878] [not in Ar.] L.Accius, the writer of tragedies, was in his prime. He was born to freedman parents in the consulship of Mancinus and Serranus, and read some of his compositions to Pacuvius at Tarentum, when Pacuvius was already an old man. The Accian estate near Pisaurum is named after him, because he was sent there as one of the colonists from Rome.
160.3 * [1879] Simon [became] leader of the Jews, for 8 years.
Tryphon tried to seize control of Syria after killing Antiochus the son of Alexander, but eventually he himself was killed.
160.4 * [1880] Then Antiochus Sidetes [became king of Syria], for 9 years.
After Demetrius, his brother Antiochus, who was called Sidetes, became king of all of Syria.

161st OLYMPIAD [=136-133 B.C.]

161.1 [1881] The Romans and Spartans gave friendly replies to the embassies which were sent by Simon, the high priest and leader of the Jews.
161.2 [1882] A slave war started in Sicily.
161.3 [1883] [1886 in Ar.] Simon the high priest of the Jews was killed. He was succeeded by his son John.
161.4 [1884] [1885 in Ar.] The first [or "second" - Ar.] book of Maccabees contains [or "ends with" - Ar.] an account of this period.

162nd OLYMPIAD [=132-129 B.C.]

162.1   [1885] Antiochus Sidetes, the king of Syria, invaded Judaea and besieged Jerusalem. After forcing the high priest Simon to come to terms, he returned home in the 162nd Olympiad.
162.3 * [1887] John Hyrcanus [became] king of the Jews, for 26 years.
Attalus died, and left the Roman people as heirs to his kingdom.
162.4 [1888] [1889 in Ar.] Ptolemy was forced out of Egypt.

163rd OLYMPIAD [=128-125 B.C.]

163.1 * [1889] Then Demetrius [became king of Syria] again, for 4 years.
Arsaces of Parthia killed Antiochus.
163.2 [1890] [1891 in Ar.] The rebel slaves in Sicily were put under siege, and were forced by famine to eat the dead bodies of their comrades.
163.3 [1891] [not in Ar.] Arverni, one of the principal cities of Gaul, was captured along with its king Bituitus.
163.4 [1892] [1890 in Ar.] Flames shot up near the Aeolian islands, and a new island emerged, which is now called Hiera ["Holy Island"].

164th OLYMPIAD [=124-121 B.C.]

164.1 * [1893] Antiochus Grypus [became king] of Syria and Asia, for 12 years.
John, the leader and high priest of the Jews, was given the name Hyrcanus after waging war against the Hyrcani. He sought an alliance with the Romans, and was enrolled amongst their allies by the senate.

165th OLYMPIAD [=120-117 B.C.]

165.1   [1897] [not in Ar.] A colony was founded at Narbo.
165.2 [1898] [1896 in Ar.] Hyrcanus the high priest of the Jews besieged and captured Samaria, which is now called Sebaste. After capturing it, he levelled it to the ground, but it was later rebuilt by Herodes, who called it Sebaste in honour of Augustus.

166th OLYMPIAD [=116-113 B.C.]

166.1   [1901] [not in Ar.] M.Terentius Varro, the philosopher and poet, was born.
166.2 * [1902] Ptolemy Physcon, also called Soter, [became] the 8th [king] of Egypt, for 17 years ["and six months" - Ar.].

167th OLYMPIAD [=112-109 B.C.]

167.1 * [1905] Then Antiochus Cyzicenus [became king of Syria], for 18 years.
Antiochus Cyzicenus seized control of Syria after forcing out Grypus, and then Grypus recovered it after defeating Cyzicenus. And so they ruled alternately, while fighting against each other.

168th OLYMPIAD [=108-105 B.C.]

168.1   [1909] Jugurtha, who was fighting against the Romans, was captured.
168.2 [1910] [1908 in Ar.] The Colossus collapsed in an earthquake at Rhodes.
168.3 [1911] [not in Ar.] (?) Jonathan was a glorious leader of the Jews.
168.4 [1912] [not in Ar.] Cicero was born at Arpinum. His mother was called Helvia, and his father was a member of the equestrian order, descended from the kings of the Volsci.
[not in Ar.] Cn.Pompeius Magnus was born.

169th OLYMPIAD [=104-101 B.C.]

169.1 * [1913] Aristobulus [became king] of the Jews, for 1 year.
Aristobulus the son of Jonathan, the king and high priest of the Jews, was the first to wear the royal diadem, 484 years [or "480 years" - Ar.] after the Babylonian exile. The king after him was Alexander Jannaeus, who also held the position of high priest and was a very cruel ruler.
169.2 * [1914] Then Jannaeus, also called Alexander, [became king of the Jews], for 27 years.
[not in Ar.] Turpilius the writer of comedies died at Sinuessa, when fairly old.
[not in Ar.] C.Lucilius the writer of satires died at Neapolis and was given a public funeral. He was 46 years old.
[not in Ar.] The poet M.Furius, also called Bibaculus, was born at Cremona.
169.3 [1915] [not in Ar.] Marius killed 200,000 of the Cimbri, and captured 80,000 of them, along with their leader Teutomodus.
169.4 [1916] [1914 in Ar.] Gaius Marius was consul for the fifth time. He defeated the Cimbri by the river Eridanus, and celebrated a triumph over them with Catulus.

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