Excerpta Latina Barbari
- Pages 32A - 36B, 44A, 46A - 55A
Translated from Schoene's text (Eusebius, Appendix VI)
This little chronicle was probably composed in Greek in about 500 A.D., and was later translated into Latin by the eponymous "barbarian", who unfortunately had only a rudimentary knowledge of both languages. As a result the meaning of some passages remains obscure, and the spelling of proper names is erratic - some of the more obvious mis-spellings have been corrected here.
[33A] Alexander of Macedonia, the founder, reigned after Darius the Mede, the son of Alsames, for 8 years. From Adam until the death of Alexander the founder, there are 5,137 years. He was succeeded by the Ptolemaei. During his reign Alexander of Macedonia, the founder, defeated Darius the king of the Persians and Porus the king of the Indians. He conquered all the nations from the Caspian Gates in the east to the outer boundaries of Heracles which lie in the furthest parts of the west, opposite Gades. When he was close to death, Alexander left a testament, that each of his officers should rule in their individual provinces, as Alexander had instructed, as follows.
[33B] The testament of Alexander the founder:
- He ordered Aridaeus, also called Philippus, to rule over Macedonia
- He instructed Leon to rule over Pontus
- He appointed Eumenes [? as it is recorded] to rule over Paphlagonia and Cappadocia
- He allowed the islands to be free, with the Rhodians to govern and administer them
- He appointed Antigonus to rule over Pamphylia and Lycia
- He granted Phrygia and [? Great Caesarea] to Deasander
- He assigned Cilicia and Isauria and all the surrounding areas to Philo
- He gave Syria as far as Mesopotamia for Tapitho to rule over
- He appointed Meleager to rule over the part of Syria called Coele, which means Phoenicia
- He ordered Seleucus to rule over Babylonia
- He gave Egypt and the surrounding areas as far as upper Libya to Philippus, who was called Ptolemaeus
- He appointed Archistratigus and Perdicus to be rulers and satraps of the region from upper Babylonia to the Caspian Gates
- He gave India around the river Hydaspes for Taxius to rule over
- [34A] He ordered Pythonas to rule over the part of India which extends beyond the river Indus as far as the river Hydaspes
- He ordered Oxydarcus to rule over Parapannisodum [? or Paropamisus]
- He appointed Sybartus to rule over Arachosia and Cedrosia
- He gave the whole of Arabia to Stasanorus
- He gave Sogdiana for the [? younger] Philippus to rule over
- He gave the northern parts and the region of Hyrcania for Antigonus to rule over
- He gave the whole of Germany [? or Carmania] to Tripolemus
- He gave the whole of Persis to Percus
- He appointed Antipalus to rule over Iberia as far as the river Halys and the border of [? Heraclea].
This was what Alexander instructed and granted to his officers, and each of them ruled as he had arranged.
Alexander lived for 36 years, and reigned for 17 years as follows. He waged war for 9 years, until he was 38 years old. For the remaining 8 years, he lived in peace and security. He conquered 22 barbarian nations, and 13 Greek states.
Alexander founded 12 cities, which are still inhabited:
- [34B] Alexandria in Pentapolis
- Alexandria in Egypt
- Alexandria by the (?) Harpasus
- Alexandria Cabiosa
- Alexandria (?) Scythia, in (?) Aegaei
- Alexandria by Porus
- Alexandria on the river Cypris
- Alexandria in the Troad
- Alexandria in Babylonia
- Alexandria in (?) the Mesasgages
- Alexandria in Persia
- Alexandria the strongest
and then he died.
[35A] The Ptolemaei, kings of Egypt.
From the death of Alexander up until Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, there are 294 years, as follows:
After the death of Alexander, as has been said already, Ptolemaeus Philippus, one of Alexander's advisers, ruled in Egypt for 7 years. In total, 5,144 years. The high priest was Jannaeus. At that time Menander [the writer of comedies] was in his prime.
After Philippus, Ptolemaeus Alexander, another adviser of Alexander, was king for 12 years. In total, 5,156 years. The high priest at Jerusalem was the same Jannaeus. At that time the 70 Hebrew wise men translated the scriptures into the Greek language.
[35B] The next king in Egypt was Ptolemaeus Lagus, for 20 years. In total, 5,176 years. The high priest in Jerusalem was Jaddus. At that time, Jesus the son of Sirach was in his prime, who taught the Hebrews about god-given wisdom.
The next king in Egypt was Ptolemaeus Philadelphus, for 38 years. In total, 5,214 years. The high priest was Onias.
After Philadelphus, Ptolemaeus Euergetes was king in Egypt for 25 years. In total, 5,239 years. The high priest at Jerusalem was Simon, and after him another Onias.
After Euergetes, his son Ptolemaeus Philopator was king for 17 years. In total, 5,256 years. The high priest at Jerusalem was Eleazar.
After Philopator, his son Ptolemaeus Epiphanes was king for 24 years. In total, 5,280 years. The high priest at Jerusalem was Manasses.
After Ptolemaeus Epiphanes, his son Ptolemaeus Philometor was king in Egypt for 35 years. In total, 5,315 years. The high priest at Jerusalem was Simon. At that time, the events described in the book of Maccabees took place at Jerusalem, when Antiochus was king of Syria.
[36A] After Ptolemaeus Philometor, his son the second Euergetes was king in Egypt for 29 years. In total, 5,344 years. The high priest at Jerusalem was another Onias.
The next king in Egypt was Ptolemaeus Soter, for 36 years. In total, 5,380 years. The high priests in Jerusalem were Jesus for 6 years, another Onias for 7 years, and Jannaeus for 15 years.
The next king in Egypt was the new Dionysus, for 29 years. In total, 5,409 years. The high priests in Jerusalem were Simon for 8 years and John for 20 years. At that time Sosates the "Hebrew Homerus" was in his prime [36B] at Alexandria.
After the new Dionysus, Cleopatra Berenice was (?) the last of the Ptolemaei to rule in Egypt, for 22 years. In total, 5,431 years. The kingdom of the Ptolemaei in Egypt lasted for 294 years, from the death of Alexander up until the death of Cleopatra, who built the Pharus at Alexandria. From Adam up until the death of Cleopatra there were 5,431 years, and then the Lord God handed over the kingdom of Egypt to the Romans, who have ruled it up until the present day. And from then until now, there has not been a king in Egypt.
- - - - -
[44A] After [the death of] Alexander the founder, his empire was divided amongst his officers.
Philippus the brother of Alexander succeeded him as king of the Macedonians, and then as follows:
- 25. Philippus the brother for 7 years
- 26. Cassander for 19 years
- 27. [The sons of] Cassander for 4 years
- 28. Demetrius for 5 years
- 29. Pyrrhus for 11 months
- 30. Lysimachus for 5 years
- 31. Ptolemaeus Ceraunus for 2 years
- 32. Meleager for 7 months
- 33. Antipater for 2 months
- 34. Sosthenes for 2 years
- 35. Antigonus Gonatas for 35 years
- 36. Demetrius for 10 years
- 37. another Antigonus for 15 years
- 38. another Philippus for 45 years
- 39. Perseus for 10 years
The kingdom of the Macedonians started in the 33rd year of Uzziah king of Judah, and lasted for 647 years, until the 153rd Olympiad.
- - - - -
[46A] The Macedonian kings of Syria and their dates, starting from Alexander the founder.
Alexander the son of Philippus began to rule the Macedonians in the 111th Olympiad. He conquered all the other kingdoms and brought them under Macedonian control in the course of twelve and a half years. When he died he left four successors:
- Philippus his brother, as king of Macedonia
- Antigonus, as king of Asia
- He ordered Ptolemaeus Philippus to rule over all of Egypt
- He ordered Seleucus Nicanor to rule over all of Syria
The kings of Syria and their dates are as follows:
- Seleucus Nicanor for 32 years
- Antiochus Soter for 19 years
- Antiochus Theoidus for 15 years
- Seleucus Callinicus for 21 years
- Seleucus Ceraunus for 3 years
- Antiochus the Great for 36 years
- Antiochus Philometor for 12 years
- Antiochus Epiphanes for 11 years
This is the king who imposed idolatry on the Jews, as is related in the book of Maccabees.
- Antiochus Eupator for 2 years
- Demetrius Soter for 12 years
- Antiochus Grypus for 10 years
- Demetrius Grypus for 3 years
- [46B] Antiochus Situs for 9 years
- Demetrius the son for 4 years
- Antiochus the son of Grypus for 7 years
- Antiochus Cyzicenus for 18 years
- Philippus for 2 [years]
Philippus was the last of the kings, and with him the kingdom of the Syrians came to an end. Gaius Julius Caesar, the Roman emperor, brought it under Roman control. The kingdom of the Syrians had lasted for 221 years before it came to an end.
The kings of Egypt, and their dates. They reigned for 294 years after the death of Alexander, as follows:
- Ptolemaeus Philippus for 7 years
- Philadelphus Alexander for 12 years
- Ptolemaeus Lagus for 20 years
- Ptolemaeus Euergetes for 38 years
- Ptolemaeus Philopator for 17 years
- Ptolemaeus Epiphanes for  years
- Ptolemaeus Philometor for 35 years
- Ptolemaeus Euergetes Physcus for 29 years
- Ptolemaeus Soter for 36 years
- Ptolemaeus Philadelphus Soter for 25 years
- Ptolemaeus the new Dionysus for 29 years
- Cleopatra for 12 years
The kingdom of the Ptolemaei came to an end when Octavianus Augustus was emperor, in the 14th year of his reign. The kingdom had lasted for 294 years.
- [47A] Jesus the son of Josedec, together with Zorobabel, was the first to be appointed as high priest.
- Then Jacimus the son of Jesus
- Then Eliasibus the son of Jacimus
- Then Jodae the son of Eliasibus
- Then John the son of Jodae
- Then Jaddus the son of John
At this time Alexander of Macedonia founded Alexandria. He came to Jerusalem and worshipped the Lord God, saying: "Glory to you Lord, who live for ever, supreme above all".
- Then Onias the son of Jaddus.
- Then Eleazar the son of Onias.
At that time the seventy Hebrew wise men translated the scriptures into the Greek language at Alexandria.
- Then Onias the son of Simon and brother of Eleazar.
- Then Simon the son of Jaddus.
At that time Jesus the son of Sirach was in his prime, who wrote the great book of wisdom for the Hebrews.
- Then Onias the son of Simon.
At that time Antiochus the king of the Syrians conquered the Jews and forced them to speak in the Greek language.
- Then Judas Maccabaeus the son of Onias
- Then Jonathan the brother of Judas
- Then Simon the brother of Jonathan
- Then John who was called Hyrcanus, the son of Jonathan
- Then Aristobulus the son of John
He was the first to assume the diadem, and take the title of king as well as high priest.
- [47B] Then Alexander Jannaeus, who was both king and high priest
The anointed leaders ruled [the Jews] from the time of Cyrus up until Jannaeus for 483 years, which is 69 "sevens" of years, as was declared by Daniel in some way. After Alexander Jannaeus, who was both king and high priest, the traditional appointment of anointed high priest came to an end.
- The next king was Salinai and his wife Alexandra.
- After him, there was a civil war between his sons and the Roman general Pompeius captured Jerusalem and entered as far as the (?) hidden part of the temple. Then the Jewish nation became tributary to the Romans. Pompeius appointed Hyrcanus to be high priest, and Antipater of Ascalon to govern Palestine.
At that time, Gaius Julius Caesar became the first emperor of the Romans, for 18 years. Then Augustus was emperor for 56 years, and then his successors.
[48A] The dates of the Roman emperors.
Gaius Julius Caesar became the first emperor of the Romans in the 183rd Olympiad. This Gaius Julius Caesar invented the bissextile [the intercalary day] and the solar calendar. After him Octavianus Augustus was emperor, and then his successors, as follows, with their consulships:
- Augustus for 56 years - cons. 13
- Tiberius for 23 years - cons. 5
- Gaius for 10 years - cons. 4
- Claudius for 15 years - cons. 5
- Nero for 14 years - cons. 4
Galba [Otho] Vitellius for one and a half years
- Titus for 3 years - cons. 8
- Domitianus for 16 years - cons. 7
- Nerva for 2 years - cons. 4
- Trajanus for 20 years - cons. 6
- Hadrianus for 12 years - cons. 3
- Antoninus for 13 years - cons. 4
- Marcus (?) Verus for 20 years - cons. 24
- Commodus for 13 years - cons. 7
- Vespasianus for 9 years - cons. 10
- Pertinax Didius for ? years - cons. 4
- Severus for 3 months - cons. ?
- Geta Caracalla for ? years - cons. 25
- Macrinus Heliogabalus for 5 years - cons. 1
- Alexander son of Mamaea for 13 years - cons. 3
Maximus for 3 years - cons. 2
- Balbinus, Publianus and Cordus for 1 year
- Gordianus for 6 years - cons. 2
- Philippus for 6 years - cons. 3
- [48B] Decius for 2 years - cons. 1
- Gallus and Volusianus, jointly for 3 years - cons. 7
- Aemilianus, Valerianus and Galerianus, jointly for 15 years - cons. 7
- Gallianus and Claudius for 2 years - cons. 1
- Quintillus and Aurelianus for 6 years - cons. 3
- Tacitus and Florianus for 1 year - cons. 1
- Probus for 6 years - cons. 5
- Carus, Carinus and Numerianus, jointly for 2 and a half years - cons. (each) 2
- Diocletianus and Maximianus for 21 years, together with Constantius and Maximus for 12 years
- Constantius, Constantinus the Great, and his son Constantinus for 31 years
- Constantius, Costa and Constantinus the younger, jointly for 24 years
- Julianus for 2 years - cons. 2
- Jovianus for 8 months
- Valentinianus, Valens, and their sons Gratianus and Valentinianus for 22 years
- Theodosius the Great, and his sons Arcadius and Honorius for 36 years
- Theodosius and Valentinianus for 51 years
- Valentinus and Marcianus for 5 years
- Marcianus alone for 7 years
- Leo and Anthimus for 19 years
- Leo the younger and Zenon for 2 years
- Basiliscus and Marcus for 20 months
- Zenon alone for ? years
- Anastasius alone for ? years
[49A] So we have accurately described the reigns of all the kings. We will now relate some details about the Roman empire. Until Cleopatra the kingdom of the Ptolemaei in Egypt lasted for 294 years, and there have not been any kings in Egypt since Cleopatra up until the present day. While the Ptolemaei were ruling in Egypt, the Romans fought against the Spaniards and conquered them. The Romans raised up Julius, who was also called Caesar, to be their emperor. This is the same Julius Caesar who invented the bissextile and the solar calendar. He also decreed that there should be a consul (?) every year. Gaius Julius Caesar was emperor for 18 years, and after him Octavianus Augustus [was emperor].
- Gaius Julius Caesar (II) and Marcus
- Gratianus and Antoninus
- Gaius Julius Caesar (II) and Flavius Marcus
[49B] Gaius Julius Caesar was the first emperor at Rome, for 18 years.
- Hirtius and Pansa
- Burtus and Cortilianus
- Gaius Julius Caesar (III) and Lepidus
- Munatius and Plancus
- Aemilius and Caesarius
- Antoninus and Sevilianus
- Isauricus and Crispus
- Octavius and Pollio
- Censorinus and Sabinus
- Pulcher and Enobaudus
- Gallus and Agrippa
- Octavianus and the son of (?) Nerva
- Pompeius and Cornilius
- Libo and Antoninus
- Cicero and Publicollato
[50A] In the year of these consuls, Julius Caesar was killed, and Octavianus Augustus became emperor. Augustus ruled for 56 years, and held 13 consulships. From Adam until the start of Augustus' reign, there are 5,467 years.
- Augustus (I) and Tullius
- Augustus (II) and Socius
- Augustus (III) and Crassus
- Augustus (IV) and Messala
- Thenabaudus (V) and Scipio
- Augustus (VI) and Apuleius
- Augustus (VII) and Agrippa
In the year of these consuls, Carthage was restored, on the Ides of July, on the 18th day of Epeiph.
- Augustus (VIII) and Silvanus
- Augustus (IX) and Taurus
- Augustus (X) and Sullius
- Augustus (XI) and Piso
At that time, when Lentulus and Silvanus were consuls, Zechariah saw a vision of an angel in the temple of the Lord.
- Arruntius and Marcellus
- Celsus and Tiberius
- Tullius and (?) Aemilius
- Asperius and Severius
- [50B] Saturninus and Cinnus
- Lentulus and Silvanus
At that time, while the same Lentulus and Silvanus were consuls, an angel announced to Elizabeth about [the birth of] John, on 25th March.
- Savinus and Antoninus
- Lentulus (II) and Lepidus
- Rufinus and Piso
- Mesalla and Serinianus
- Maximus and Tubero
- Africanus and Maximus
- Aruntius and Priscus
- Censorinus and Gallio
- Nero and Placidus
- Balbinus and Veretus
At that time the angel Gabriel was sent to the virgin Mary, in the (?) 13th year of Augustus, on 25th March.
- Felecius and Sulla
- Lentulus and Auxonius
- Caesarius and Austorinus
- Silvanus and Paulinus
In the sixth month, Mary went to her relative Elizabeth. [51A] Elizabeth greeted her and said, "Why am I so favoured, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? The baby in my womb leaped for joy and blessed you."
- Priscus and Romanus
- Juctor and Protarchus
- Senecio and Bardo
- Timagenes and Nigrianus
- Syrianus and Peregrinus
- Xifidius and Marcellus
At that time in the reign of Augustus, John the forerunner, the son of Zechariah, was born on 24th June.
- Frurus and Autorinus
- Augustus and Sacerdo
- Pompeianus and Pluto
- Augustus and Silvanus
- Antulus and Julius
- Augustus and Silvanus
[51B] In the year of these consuls, in the reign of Augustus, our Lord Jesus Christ was born on 25th December. He was born in the desert (?) called Fuusdu according to Eusebius. On the day when he was born, 28th Choiac, the shepherds saw a star in the sky. From Adam until the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ, there are 5,500 years.
- Vinicius and Virrus
- Caesarius and Servilius
- Macrinus and Saturninus
- Sacerdo and Volesus
- Lepidus and Arruntius
At that time in the reign of Augustus, on 1st January the Magi brought him gifts and worshipped him. The names of the Magi were Bithisarea, Melichior and Gathaspa.
[52A] When Herodes heard that a king had been born, he was disturbed, and all Jerusalem with him. When Herodes realised that he had been tricked by the Magi, he sent out his murderers with orders to kill all the boys who were two years old and under.
Herodes searched for John, and sent his servants to Zechariah at the altar, to say, "Where have you hidden your son? Do you not know that I have the power to kill you, and your life-blood is in my hands?" Zechariah replied, "I am the witness of the living God. You can shed my blood, but God will receive my spirit." And Zechariah was killed in the morning.
- [52B] Criticus and Nerva
- Camerinus and Birillus
- Dolabella and Sofianus
- Quinctilianus and Barbilius
When Elizabeth heard that they were searching for John, she took him and went up into the mountains. She looked for somewhere to hide him, but there was nowhere to hide. Then Elizabeth sighed and cried out, "Mountain of God, take me in, the mother with my son." Immediately the mountain was split open and received them.
- Germanicus and Carpus
- Austorius and Silvanus
- Plancus and Avitus
- Pompeianus and Flaccus
In the year of these consuls, Augustus died and Tiberius became emperor, for 22 years. Tiberius held 7 consulships.
- Tiberius Augustus and German[ic]us
- Flaubius and Rufinus
- Drusus and Soranus
In these days, they mourned Zechariah and they wept for three days and three nights. And the Lord God raised up Simeon in place of Zechariah. [53A] Simeon was told by an angel that he would not die until he had seen the Lord's Christ in the flesh. When he had seen him, he said, "Lord, now dismiss your servant in peace, because my eyes have seen your salvation, which you have prepared in the sight of all people, a light for revelation to the gentiles and for the glory of your people Israel."
- Taurus and Libo
- Silvanus and Gerontius
- Mesaulicus and Balbinus
- Tiberius Augustus (II) and Cotta
- Agrippa and Drusus
Then Joseph, after receiving a warning, took Jesus and Mary, and fled to Egypt. He stayed there for twelve months, about which I will now remain silent.
- Nero and Lentulus
- Celethus and Piso
- Getulus and Barrus
When Asiaticus and Silvanus were consuls, Jesus came and performed miracles, including turning water into wine, on 27th October.
Crassus Tiberius and Serinianus (II) [were consuls]
When Meura was consul, Jesus was baptised by John, on 25th December.
- [53B] Tiberius (IV) and Antoninus
When Rubellio was consul, Jesus was transfigured on the mountain, on 19th March.
When Rubellio was consul, Jesus explained mysteries to his disciples, on 24th March.
- Tiberius (V) and Priscus
- Bicinus and Arruntius
At that time, when Herodes celebrated his birthday, the daughter of Herodias danced before him, and asked for the head of John; and the head of John was brought to her on a plate, on 27th May, which is 2nd Payni [in the Egyptian calendar].
When Rubellio was consul, our Lord Jesus Christ was betrayed by Judas, on 25th March.
[54A] A (?) servant girl saw Peter and recognised him. "Surely you are one of them," she said. "Your accent gives you away." But he denied it, saying "I am not." And immediately the cock crowed. The name of the girl was Ballia, which means "inquisitor".
- Tiberius (VI) and Silius
In that year, when Rubellio was consul, our Lord Jesus Christ was crucified, on 25th March, which is 28th Phamenoth [in the Egyptian calendar].
The soldier who guarded the cross was called Jeremiah, which is Adlas. The centurion was called Apronianus.
[54B] The names of the two beautiful angels were Azahel, which means righteous to the Lord, and Caldu, which means brave. But Judas went away and hung himself on the tree called tamarisk.
However our Lord Jesus Christ rose again, on 27th March, when Rubellio was consul. Our Lord ascended [to heaven] on 5th May.
The Holy Spirit came on 15th May. After the ascension of the Lord and the martyrdom of Stephen, the apostle Paul was accepted into the apostleship on 8th January, when Rubellio was consul. This was eight months after the ascension of our Saviour, and eleven days after the martyrdom of Stephen, on the day before Epiphany.
- S[ul]picius and Sulanus
- Persicus and Vitellius
- Tiberius Augustus and Drusus
[55A] In this year Tiberius died, and after him Gaius (?) Caligula became consul, for 4 years. Gaius held 4 consulships.
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