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58 B.C. Olympiad 180.3


Consuls: L. Calpurnius L.f. Piso Caesoninus, A Gabinius A.f.
Athenian archon: Calliphon

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {1 January -R} Sex.Cloelius holds the Ludi Compitalicii, even though they are still officially banned.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RedSen_17, #:Pis_8; #Ascon_7'b-c;L  {CAH_9'378.}
2 P.Clodius passes a law to provide the corn dole at Rome completely free of charge.
* Read Dio's account
+Cic:Dom_25, :Sest_55; +Ascon_8'b;L  +DioCass_38.13'1; Schol:Bob_132;L  {CAH_9'377-378; OCD_c.}
3 P.Clodius restores the right to belong to guilds.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:Sest_34, 55, +:Pis_9-10; Ascon_7'b,L  +8'c;L  +DioCass_38.13'2.
4 Clodius restricts the ability of the censors to punish senators.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:HarResp_58, +:Sest_55, +:Pis_9-10; +Ascon_8'c-9'a;L  +DioCass_38.13'2, 40.57'2.
5 {January -R} Clodius prohibits the use of "watching the sky" to obstruct legislation, as allowed by the Lex Aelia Fufia.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:RedSen_11, :HarResp_58, +:Sest_33, 56, :Vat_18, #:Pis_9-10; +Ascon_8'b-c;L  +DioCass_38.13'3-6.
6 {January -R} Clodius forms an armed gang of slaves, and occupies the temple of Castor.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Dom_54, 110, +:Sest_34, +:Pis_11; +Plut:Cic_30'1.
7 M.Antonius joins the supporters of Clodius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_2'48; Plut:Ant_2'6-7.
8 Pupius Piso invites Clodius to dinner.
Plut:Mor_511'D-E; {Probably to celebrate Clodius becoming tribune.}
9 Clodius mollifies the opposition of the tribune L.Ninnius.
* Read Dio's account
@  (?) Plut:Cic_30'3; +DioCass_38.14'1-3; {CAH_9'378.}
10 Domitius and Memmius attempt to prosecute Caesar for his activities as consul.
* Read Suetonius' account
Suet:Caes_23'1, :Ner_2'2; Schol:Bob_130;L  {CAH_9'378-379; OCD_d.}
11 {28 January -R} The birth of Livia, the future wife of Augustus.
* Read Dio's account
#EhrJon:Fast_Jan30; Plin:HN_14'60;L  +DioCass_58.2'1; {OCD_l.}
12 ITA L.Piso visits Capua, where he hold the office of duumvir.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:Sest_19, +:Pis_25; Ascon_10'a.L 
13 ROM Clodius passes a law to give the consuls the provinces of Macedonia and Cilicia (later changed to Syria).
* Read Cicero's account
~Cic:RedSen_18, :RedPop_11, :Dom_23-24, 55, 60, +:Sest_24-25, 55, +:Pis_28, 37; +Plut:Cic_30'1; [Vict]:VirIll_81'4;L  {CAH_9'380; OCD_cl.}
14 Clodius proposes a law, to punish anyone who has taken the life of a Roman citizen without trial.
* Read Dio's account
+Cic:Sest_25; [Liv]:Per_103'b; Vell_2.45'1; Appian:BCiv_2.15'a; +DioCass_38.14'4-7.
15 Cicero, anticipating the use of Clodius' law against himself, approaches the people of Rome as a suppliant.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Plut:Cic_30'4-5; Appian:BCiv_2.15'a-b.
16 The equites and some of the senators demonstrate in support of Cicero, but Gabinius orders L.Lamia, one of the equites, to leave Rome.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RedSen_12, :Dom_55-57, +:Sest_25-32, +:Pis_18, 64, :Planc_87, :Fam_11.16'2, 12.29'1; Ascon_9'c;L  +Plut:Cic_31'1, :Crass_13'4; +DioCass_38.16'2-3.
17 The consuls support Clodius against Cicero.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RedSen_10, 13-17, +:Sest_17-24, +:Pis_12-17, 77-78; ValMax_4.2'4;L  +DioCass_38.16'4-6.
18 The triumvirs offer no practical help to Cicero.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RedSen_32, +:Sest_36-41, :ProvCon_43, :Pis_76-81; Vell_2.45'2; +Plut:Cic_30'4, 31'2-3, :Pomp_46'8-9; +DioCass_38.15'1-16'1, 17'1-3; Schol:Bob_129,L  167.
19 Vatinius escapes prosecution by accepting an offer to join Caesar's staff in Gaul.
Cic:Vat_33-36; Schol:Bob_140,L  150;L  {Vatinius was due to appear before the praetor C.Memmius.}
20 Clodius passes a law to turn Cyprus into a Roman province; M.Cato is sent to expel king Ptolemaeus from the island, and to restore some exiles to Byzantium.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Dom_20-23, 52-53, 65, +:Sest_56-64; Sall:Hist_1'6; [Liv]:Per_104'b; Strab_14.684'e;(6.6)  Vell_2.45'4; ~Plut:CatMin_34'1-7; Flor_1.44'1-3; !Appian:BCiv_2.23'b; +DioCass_38.30'5; Festus:Brev_13'1; AmmMarc_14.8'15; Schol:Bob_132-133;L  {CAH_9'384; OCD_cl.}
21 {March -R} Cicero leaves Rome and goes into exile, without waiting for a trial.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:RedSen_33-34, :Dom_63-64, 95-99, :HarResp_45, :Vat_6-9, +:Pis_19-21, 31-33, :Planc_73, 86-90, :Mil_36-37, :Leg_3'25-26;L  Vell_2.45'2; Plut:CatMin_35'1, +:Cic_31'4-5, 53'1-2; Appian:BCiv_2.15'b; +DioCass_38.17'4-5, 45.17'3; +Obseq_68; [Vict]:VirIll_81'4;L  {CAH_9'381-383; OCD_c.}
22 Clodius passes another law, explicitly banishing Cicero.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Dom_43-53, 82-85, +:Sest_53-54, :Pis_72, :Leg_3'45;L  Plut:CatMin_30'1, +:Cic_32'1; +DioCass_38.17'6-7; Schol:Bob_139,L  153.
23 Clodius seizes Cicero's possessions, and destroys his house in Rome.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RedSen_18, :Dom_60-62, 101-141, +:Sest_54, +:Pis_22-26, :Leg_2'42;L  Vell_2.45'3; Ascon_10'b;L  Sen:Ben_5.17'2; +Plut:Cic_33'1; Appian:BCiv_2.15'c; +DioCass_38.17'6, 39.11'1-2; Schol:Bob_171.
24 NAR {28 March -R} Caesar rushes to Gaul, on hearing that the Helvetii have fixed a date for their migration.
* Read Caesar's account
#Caes:BGall_1.5'1-7'2; [Liv]:Per_103'b; Plut:Caes_17'5, 18'1; Oros_6.7'4;L  {CAH_9'383; OCD_h.}
25 The start of Caesar's conquest of Gaul.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BCiv_1.7'7; Vell_2.47'2; Lucan_1'283; Plut:Caes_15'5; Suet:Caes_25'1; Flor_2.13'81; Appian:Gall_1'6;(Epit.2)  DioCass_44.33'2; Eutrop_6.17'3; AmmMarc_15.12'6; {Ancient writers say that Caesar's campaigns lasted for between 8 and 10 years.}
26 ETR Cicero has a dream foretelling his return, at Atina in Latium.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Div_1'59, 2'136-141; ValMax_1.7'5.L 
27 SIC C.Vergilius warns Cicero not to cross to Sicily.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Planc_95-96; +Plut:Cic_32'2.
28 NAR {13 April -R} The Helvetii ask Caesar to allow them to migrate, but he refuses and fortifies a stretch of the river Rhine.
* Read Caesar's account
#Caes:BGall_1.7'3-8'4; Flor_1.45'2-3; Appian:Gall_15'1-2;(13)  +DioCass_38.31'1-4.
29 GAL The Helvetii invade the territory of the Aedui, while Caesar raises reinforcements in northern Italy.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_1.9'1-11'6; Polyaen_8.23'2.
30 ITA {April -R} Document: Cic:Att_3.1-7, letters written by Cicero during his journey down to Vibo, and then across southern Italy to Brundisium.
31 {29 April -R} Document: Cic:Fam_14.4, a letter from Cicero to his wife Terentia, written at Brundisium.
32 ROM M.Cotta prosecutes C.Carbo, who is found guilty of extortion as governor of Bithynia.
* Read Dio's account
ValMax_5.4'4;L  DioCass_36.40'4; {MRR_2'131; Carbo was governor of Bithynia until 59 B.C.}
33 ITA C.Octavius dies while travelling home to Rome from Macedonia.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Phil_3'15; NicDam_126'3; Vell_2.59'2; Tac:Ann_1'9; Suet:Aug_4'1, 8'1, 100'1; DioCass_45.1'1; {MRR_2'131.}
34 MAC {May -R} Cicero crosses over from Italy to Macedonia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Planc_97; +Plut:Cic_32'3-5; +DioCass_38.18'1-29'4.
35 GAL Caesar and Labienus defeat the Helvetii by the river Arar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_1.12'1-15'5; Plut:Caes_18'2; Appian:Gall_1'8,(Epit.3)  15'3;(13)  Polyaen_8.23'3; +DioCass_38.32'1-33'1.
36 Liscus accuses Dumnorix of trying to undermine the alliance between the Aedui and the Romans.
Caes:BGall_1.16'1-20'6.
37 MAC Cn.Plancius, as quaestor in Macedonia, welcomes and protects Cicero.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RedSen_35, :Planc_28, 61, 71, 98-101; Hieron:Chron_1956; Schol:Bob_127,L  153, 168;L  {OCD_p.}
38 {29 May -R} Document: Cic:Att_3.8, a letter from Cicero to Atticus, written at Thessalonice.
39 ROM {1 June -R} L.Ninnius proposes a motion for Cicero's recall.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RedSen_3-4, (?) :Dom_125, #:Sest_67-68; +DioCass_38.30'3-4; {CAH_9'385.}
40 GAL Caesar defeats the Helvetii again, near Bibracte.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:ProvCon_33; +Caes:BGall_1.21'1-26'6; [Liv]:Per_103'b; Plut:Caes_18'2-4; Appian:Gall_1'8;(Epit.3)  +DioCass_38.33'2-5; Eutrop_6.17'2; Oros_6.7'5.L 
41 Caesar allows the survivors of the Helvetii to return home.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BGall_1.27'1-29'3, 7.9'6; Strab_4.193'd;(3.3)  Plut:Caes_18'5-6; Flor_1.45'3; +DioCass_38.33'6; Julian:Caes_321'D; Oros_6.7'4;L  {OCD_h.}
41a MAC {June -R} Document: Cic:Att_3.9-11 & Cic:QFr_1.3, letters from Cicero to Atticus and to his brother Quintus.
41b EGY ?? Document: BD_134, statutes of the "synodos" of Zeus Hypsistos. {This probably dates from the first part of the reign of Ptolemaeus Auletes.}
42 {? June} Ptolemaeus is forced out by an uprising at Alexandria, and his daughter Berenice becomes queen of Egypt.
* Read Dio's account
Plut:Pomp_49'13-14; DioCass_39.12'1-2, 13'1; [Euseb]:Chron_167'b, 261'c-d; ChronPasc_456'A; {OCD_p; Hölbl_p226-227; Bennett.}
43 GAL Diviciacus and the Aedui urge Caesar to make war on the German king Ariovistus.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BGall_1.30'1-33'5, 6.12'6; [Liv]:Per_104'a; Plut:Caes_19'1-2; (?) Flor_1.45'10; {OCD_ar.}
44 MAC {July/August -R} Document: Cic:Att_3.12-14 & Cic:QFr_1.4, further letters from Cicero to Atticus and to his brother Quintus.
45 ROM {11 August -R} Clodius is accused to plotting to murder Pompeius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Sest_69, +:Pis_28, :Mil_18-19, 37; #Ascon_46'b-c;L  Schol:Bob_170-172.
46 {16 August -R} Clodius turns against Pompeius, and prevents him from leaving his house.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Dom_66-67, :HarResp_58, +:Pis_27-30, :Mil_18; #Ascon_46'c-47'a;L  +Plut:Cic_33'1-2, :Pomp_48'8-49'4; +DioCass_38.30'2; {CAH_9'385; OCD_c.}
47 MAC {17-19 August -R} Document: Cic:Att_3.15-16, two letters from Cicero to Atticus.
48 GAL Ariovistus rejects Caesar's demands, and they prepare for war.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_1.34'1-38'7; Flor_1.45'11; +DioCass_38.34'1-6.
49 Caesar quells a mutiny in his army, caused by fear of the Germans.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_1.39'1-41'5; [Liv]:Per_104'a; Frontin:Str_1.11'3, 4.5'11; Plut:Caes_19'3-5; Flor_1.45'12; Appian:Gall_17'1;(15)  +DioCass_38.35'1-47'2; Quint_3.8'19-21; Oros_6.7'6.L 
52 ROM Clodius helps Tigranes, the son of king Tigranes, to escape from custody at the house of Flavius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Ascon_47'b-c;L  Plut:Pomp_48'10; +DioCass_38.30'1; Schol:Bob_118-119;L  {CAH_9'385; OCD_c.}
53 Lentulus Spinther is elected consul for the following year, with the help of Caesar.
Caes:BCiv_1.22'4.
54 M.Scaurus gives extravagant displays, including leopards and a hippopotamus, while holding the office of aedile.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Sest_116, :Off_2'57; ValMax_2.4'6;L  Ascon_18'a,L  27'a;L  Plin:HN_8'64,L  '96,L  9'11,L  34'36,L  35'127,L  36'5-7,L  '50,L  '113-116;L  {OCD_s; MRR_2'134.}
55 MAC {September -R} Document: Cic:Att_3.17-19, letters from Cicero to Atticus, written at Thessalonice.
56 GER Ariovistus agrees to meet Caesar, but their negotiations soon break down.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_1.48'1-50'3; Appian:Gall_17'1;(15)  +DioCass_38.47'3-4.
57 After some delay, Ariovistus enters into a battle with Caesar, and is completely defeated.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_1.48'1-54'1, 4.16'7; [Liv]:Per_104'a; Frontin:Str_2.1'16, 6'3; Plut:Caes_19'6-12; Flor_1.45'12-13; Appian:Gall_1'9;(Epit.3)  Polyaen_8.23'4; ClemAl:Strom_1.15'g; +DioCass_38.47'4-50'5; Oros_6.7'6-10;L  {CAH_9'385; OCD_a.}
58 AEG Ptolemaeus Auletes visits Cato at Rhodes.
Plut:CatMin_35'4-7; {Hölbl_p226-227.}
59 GRE M.Antonius leaves Rome to study rhetoric in Greece.
Plut:Ant_2'7-8; {Before Gabinius went out to Syria.}
60 ROM {late September -R} Atticus receives a large inheritance from his uncle Q.Caecilius.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:Att_3.20'1-2; Nepos:Att_5'1-2; ValMax_7.8'5.L 
61 CIS Caesar returns to Cisalpine Gaul.
+Caes:BGall_1.54'2-3; +Plut:Caes_20'1-3.
62 MAC {October -R} Document: Cic:Att_3.20-21 & Cic:Fam_14.2, letters from Cicero to Atticus and to his wife Terentia.
63 ROM {29 October -R} Eight tribunes, led by Ninnius, pass a motion in the senate for the recall of Cicero, but it is vetoed by L.Aelius.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_3.23'1-4, :RedSen_4, 8; :Sest_69-70; {CAH_9'387.}
64 CIS Sestius attempts to win Caesar's support for Cicero's return.
Cic:Sest_71.
65 MAC {Nov./Dec. -R} Document: Cic:Att_3.22-25 & Cic:Fam_14.1-3, further letters from Cicero to Atticus and to his wife Terentia.
66 ROM == Clodius proposes that freedmen should be able to vote among the rural tribes.
* Read Plutarch's account
@  (?) Plut:Cic_30'1; Ascon_52'b.L 
67 == Clodius is bribed to pass a law appointing Brogitarus priest of Magna Mater at Pessinus.
+Cic:Sest_56; {CAH_9'379; OCD_c.}
68 == The tribune Antistius attempts to prosecute Caesar, but is not allowed to proceed while Caesar is absent from Rome.
Suet:Caes_23'1; {MRR_2'134.}
69 == The consuls ban the worship of Serapis, Isis and other eastern gods in Rome.
+Tert:Apol_6'8; Arnob_2'73.
70 PON == C.Piso leaves the province of Pontus, where he is quaestor, to help his father-in-law Cicero.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_14.1'4, 3'3, :RedSen_38, :RedPop_7, :Brut_272.
71 SYR << Lentulus Marcellinus, as governor of Syria, fights against the Arabs.
Appian:Syr_51'a; {MRR_2'135; Lentulus was governor in 59 and 58 B.C.}
72 CIS == The poet Vergilius starts studying at a school in Cremona.
* Read Suetonius' account
[Suet]:Verg_6; +Hieron:Chron_1959.

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