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240 B.C. Olympiad 135.1


Consuls: C. Claudius Ap.f. Centho, M. Sempronius C.f. Tuditanus
Athenian archon: Polystratus
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Eraton of Aetolia

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 LYC {Dystrus -M = February} Document: Austin_270B  (OGIS_55), a decree of Telmessus in honour of Ptolemaeus son of Lysimachus.
2 ROM {4 March -R} The triumph of Torquatus, over the Faliscans.
#FastTr_p101.
3 {19 March -R} Dedication of the shrine of Minerva Capta.
#Inscr_7'Mar19; #~Ovid:Fast_3'835-846; { ~OCD_m.}
4 AFR The mercenaries appoint Spendius and Mathus as their generals.
~Polyb_1.69'4-14.
5 The mercenaries hold Gesco captive: start of the Mercenary War.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_1.70'1-72'7, 88'7, 3.9'8-9; ~Diod_25.2'1-2, 6'1; Liv_21.2'1; Appian:Sic_2'9;(4)  { Polybius, Diodorus, and Livius give different estimates of the length of the war; but it is not clear which event they took as its start.}
6 The mercenaries defeat Hanno.
~Polyb_1.73'1-74'14; { CAH_7.2'567.}
7 GRE << Peace between the Aetolians and Achaeans.
~Plut:Arat_33'1; { CAH_7.1'255; Green_153.}
8 ?? The Epicurean philosophers Polystratus and Hippocleides die on the same day.
ValMax_1.8e'17;L  { Polystratus was head of the Epicurean school after Hermarchus, who took over after Epicurus' death.}
9 PEL ?? The education of Cleomenes, and his marriage to Agiatis.
Plut:Cleom_1'1-2'6.
10 ASI ?? Eumenes narrowly escapes being captured by Galatians.
Polyaen_4.8'1.
11 ASI ?? Document: BD_67 (OGIS_267), a letter from Eumenes I to Pergamum.
12 ?? Document: BD_23 (OGIS_266), recording a settlement between Eumenes I and his mercenaries. { Errington_p129?262.}
13 ASI << The death of Eumenes I.
* Read Strabo's account
~Polyb_18.41'8; ~Liv_33.21'1; ~Strab_13.624'a-b;(4.2)  Paus_1.8'1; Athen_10.445'd; { CAH_7.1'428; Errington_p123.}
14 ?? Sayings of Ariston of Chios, addressed to Arcesilaus, Cleanthes, and others.
* Read Diogenes' account
Plut:Mor_776'C; DiogLaert_7'162-163, '171.
15 ++ The character of Ariston and his followers Diphilus, Eratosthenes, Miltiades, and Satyrus.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Athen_7.281'c-d<q" Eratosth:Fr_17>; Eratosth:Fr_T1; Strab_1.15'a-b,(2.2)  'c;(2.2)  Sen:Ep_29'6; Aelian:VH_3'33; DiogLaert_7'161, '182.
16 ?? The death of Ariston of Chios.
DiogLaert_7'164; { Ariston was a contemporary of Perseus and Arcesilaus.}
17 ?? A saying of the philosopher Arideices: a retort to an insolent host.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Mor_634'C;(Q2.1)  Macrob:Sat_7.3'13;L  { Arideices was a pupil and fellow-banqueter of Arcesilaus - see Athen_10.420'd.}
18 ?? Chrysippus is taught by Arcesilaus.
DiogLaert_7'183-184.
19 ?? Arcesilaus rejects Baton because he has insulted Cleanthes.
Plut:Mor_55'C.(11) 
20 ?? Apelles of Chios falls ill, and is visited by Arcesilaus, who secretly leaves a gift for him.
Sen:Ben_2.10'1; Plut:Mor_63'D;(22)  Julian:Or_3.104'A.
21 ?? Sayings of Timon, criticising Arcesilaus.
* Read Diogenes' account
DiogLaert_9'114, '115.
22 ?? Sayings of Arcesilaus, addressed to a pupil of Alexinus, Antagoras, Apelles, Aridelus, Charmides, Cleanthes, Ctesibius, Hemon, Telephus, and others.
* Read Gellius' account
Cic:Fin_5'94; Sen:Ben_2.21'4; Plut:Mor_110'A, 126'A, 634'A,(Q2.1)  705'E,(Q7.5)  :Fr_152; Gell_3.5'1-2<q" Plut:Fr_181>; Athen_5.186'c, 10.420'c-d; Aelian:VH_14'26; DiogLaert_4'34-36, '37, '42, '43, 7'171.
23 ?? A jest of Arcesilaus about the fleet of Antigonus, ridiculing Stoic beliefs.
Plut:Mor_1078'C.(37) 
24 ++ General comments on the character and beliefs of Arcesilaus, the founder of the Middle Academy.
* Read Diogenes' account
Cic:DeOr_3'67,L  :Acad_1'43-46; Strab_1.15'a-b;(2.2)  Mela_1'90; DiogLaert_4'28, '32-33, '37-42; August:DeCiv_19.1'm; Suda_Th'213.
25 << The death of the philosopher Arcesilaus.
* Read Diogenes' account
DiogLaert_4'43-45, '59, +'61; { CAH_7.1'504; OCD_a<242/1>.}
26 MES << The birth of Diogenes of Seleuceia, the Stoic philosopher.
Lucian:Macr_20; { OCD_d.}
27 ?? Document: Arat:Phaen, the "Phaenomena" of Aratus, written at the request of Antigonus.
Vit:Arat_1'p8, 3'p15, 'p16.
28 ++ General commends on the life and writings of the poet Aratus of Soli, who resided with Antigonus.
* Read Suda's account
Paus_1.2'3; Vit:Arat_1'p6-p9, 2'p11-p13, 3'p14-p17, 4'p19-p21; Suda_A'3745; { OCD_ar; Green_183; Suda puts his floruit in the 124th Olympiad (284-281 B.C.).}
29 PEL Cleoxenus of Alexandria is outright victor at all the major boxing tournaments.
+[Euseb]:Chron_207'c-d.
30 << An abortive plot by Aratus against Aristomachus.
~Plut:Arat_25'1-3; { CAH_7.1'504.}
31 SAR The mercenaries seize Sardinia.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_1.79'1-7; Paus_10.17'9; { CAH_7.2'567.}
32 AFR The Carthaginians appoint Hamilcar to share the command against the mercenaries.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_1.75'1-2; Nepos_22.2'1-3.
33 Hamilcar defeats the mercenaries by the river Bagradas.
~Polyb_1.75'3-76'11; { CAH_7.2'567.}
34 GRE Aratus breaks a truce with the Macedonians by attacking the Peiraeus.
~Plut:Arat_33'2-5; { CAH_7.1'255; Green_696.}
35 PEL << The Aetolians devastate Laconia, and take away 50,000 captives.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_4.34'9; Plut:Cleom_18'3; { CAH_7.1'254.}
36 ++ Anthemocritus, a pancration-fighter, is a parasite of Aristomachus.
Athen_6.246'e<q" Agatharch>.
37 The death of Aristomachus, tyrant of Argos.
~Plut:Arat_25'4.
38 Aristippus the son of Aristomachus repels an unprovoked attack by Aratus, but lives in fear of an attempt on his life.
* Read Plutarch's account
~Plut:Arat_25'4-5, :Mor_781'E; { CAH_7.1'255; Green_153.}
39 ASI Seleucus defeats Antiochus Hierax in Lydia.
~[Euseb]:Chron_251'b-c; { CAH_7.1'504.}
40 AFR Hamilcar defeats the mercenaries again, after the defection of the Numidian leader Naravas.
~Polyb_1.77'1-78'15.
41 PEL The Achaeans fine Aratus for his attack on Aristippus.
~Plut:Arat_25'5-26'5; { CAH_7.1'255.}
42 EGY ?? Aristophanes of Byzantium is a pupil of Callimachus and Zenodotus.
Suda_A'3933; { OCD_c; this is just possible, for Callimachus - for Zenodotus, who died earlier, it is impossible.}
42a << Document: BD_106A, recording a judgment of the chrematistae against Nicias.
43 ++ General comments on the life and writings of the poet Callimachus.
* Read Suda's account
Suda_K'227; Tzetz:ProlCom_21; { ~OCD_c; Green_179.}
44 >> A Roman embassy offers to help Ptolemaeus against Syria.
~Eutrop_3.1'1.
45 ROM >> Livius Andronicus produces the first play at Rome.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:Brut_72, +:Tusc_1'3,L  +:Sen_50; +Gell_17.21'42; !Cassiod:Chr_515; { CAH_7.2'671; OCD_l.}
46 ++ A.Atilius Caiatinus is recognized as an outstanding citizen of Rome.
Cic:Fin_2'116-117; { ~OCD_c.}

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