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88 B.C. Olympiad 173.1


Consuls: L. Cornelius L.f. Sulla, Q. Pompeius Q.f. Rufus
Athenian archon: none (anarchy)
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Parmeniscus of Cercyra (II)

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 AS1 << Mithridates sends Pelopidas on a final embassy to the Romans.
* Read Appian's account
~Appian:Mith_15-16; DioCass_fr.99'2; { CAH_9'144.}
2 ITA << The Italians abandon Corfinium, and make Poppaedius their supreme commander.
~Diod_37.2'9.
3 ETR The Marsi start to sue for peace.
~[Liv]:Per_76.
4 EGY {16 Phamenoth -E = March} Document: SelPap_2.417 & BD_50, letters from Platon to Nechthyres and the town of Pathyris about a native revolt.
5 ITA << "Triumph" of Poppaedius after the recapture of Bovianum.
+Obseq_56; { OCD_p.}
6 ROM << Sulla marries Metella, daughter of L.Metellus.
Plut:Sull_6'18-22; { CAH_9'167; OCD_scaurus.}
7 PON << The generals of Mithridates defeat Nicomedes by the river Amneius.
* Read Appian's account
Sall:Hist_4.67'11; ~[Liv]:Per_76; Strab_12'562;(3.40)  Memn_22'6; Flor_1.40'6; ~Appian:Mith_17-18;(↓)  ~Just_38.3'8, 5'10; Trog:Prol_38; [Vict]:VirIll_76'2;L  ~Eutrop_5.5'2; Oros_6.2'2;L  { CAH_9'145.}
8 ITA ?? Heracleia sends warships to assist the Romans during the Social War.
Memn_21'1.
9 ++ The role of Marius, Sulla, and the other leaders of the opposing sides in the Social War.
* Read Velleius' account
Vell_2.15'3-16'1; Plut:Luc_2'1, :Sull_6'3-4, :Mar_33'1-2; Appian:BCiv_4'25.
10 ++ The Social War causes widespread devastation throughout Italy.
* Read Diodorus' account
Diod_37.1'1-6; Plin:HN_2'199;L  Flor_2.6'11; Just_38.4'13-14; August:DeCiv_3'26, 5'22.
11 Q.Metellus defeats and kills Poppaedius in Apulia; the end of the Social War.
* Read Appian's account
~Diod_37.2'10; ~[Liv]:Per_76; Appian:BCiv_1'53, '80; +Obseq_56; [Vict]:VirIll_63'1;L  +Eutrop_5.3'4; +Oros_5.18'25;L  { CAH_9'125; OCD_p.}
12 PON The Romans abandon Bithynia after M'.Aquillius is defeated near Proton Pachion.
* Read Appian's account
@  (?) ~Diod_37.26'1; Memn_22'7-8; ~Appian:Mith_19; ~Just_38.3'8, 4'4; { CAH_9'146.}
13 ROM Sulla is appointed commander for the war against Mithridates.
* Read Appian's account
+Vell_2.18'3; +Plut:Sull_7'1; +Appian:Mith_22, +:BCiv_1'55; [Vict]:VirIll_75'7;L  +Eutrop_5.4'2; Exsuper_16; { CAH_9'168.}
14 The tribune Sulpicius proposes to enrol the Italian allies and freedmen throughout all the Roman tribes.
* Read Appian's account
+[Liv]:Per_77; +Ascon_64;L  +Plut:Sull_8'1-2; +Appian:BCiv_1'55; { CAH_9'167-168; OCD_s.}
15 Marius takes regular exercise to show that he is fit enough to take the command against Mithridates.
* Read Plutarch's account
Diod_37.29'1; ~Plut:Mar_34'1-6.
16 Scaevola discusses the split between Pompeius and Sulpicius.
+Cic:Amic_1-3.
17 The consuls are attacked by a mob of Sulpicius' supporters, who kill the son of Pompeius.
* Read Plutarch's account
+[Liv]:Per_77; +Vell_2.18'6; +Plut:Sull_8'3-7, :Mar_35'1-4; +Appian:BCiv_1'56; { CAH_9'169.}
18 EGY ++ The gross appearance and luxurious lifestyle of Ptolemy X Alexander.
Athen_12.550'b<q" Poseidon_26>.
19 Ptolemy X Alexander is expelled in a popular uprising, and Ptolemy IX returns to Egypt.
* Read Justin's account
THI_20'H; +FGrH_252'A1; Paus_1.9'3; Just_39.5'1; Trog:Prol_39; ~[Euseb]:Chron_163-165,(↓)  171; ChronPasc_449'A; +Hieron:Chron_1929; ChronSynt_91; { CAH_9'316; Hölbl_p211; Bennett.}
20 ITA Sulla leaves Rome to join the Roman army at Nola.
* Read Diodorus' account
~Diod_37.2'13; +Vell_2.18'4; +Plut:Sull_7'3; +Eutrop_5.4'2; +Oros_5.19'3;L  { CAH_9'169.}
21 PAL << Alexander crucifies 800 of his opponents, and forces the remainder into exile.
* Read Josephus' account
@  (?) Qumran_4Q169'1;(Nahum,2.12)  Joseph:BJ_1'96-98, '113, ~:AJ_13'379-383, '410.
22 PON Mithridates addresses his army before the invasion of Asia.
~Just_38.3'8-8'1.
23 AS1 Mithridates invades Phrygia and the Roman province of Asia, while the Romans are distracted by civil war.
* Read Appian's account
Syll_742'4-9<t=B  Sherk_61>; Sall:Hist_4.67'11; +[Liv]:Per_77, 78; Strab_12'562;(3.40)  Memn_22'8; Flor_1.40'3-6; ~Appian:Mith_20, 58, +:BCiv_1'55; ~Just_38.3'8-9; Eutrop_5.5'2; Exsuper_15; +Oros_5.19'1-2,L  6.1'29;L  { CAH_9'146.}
24 AS1 Document: IAph_8.3, a decree of Aphrodisias authorising immediate aid to be sent to Q.Oppius.
IAph_8.2'22-29.
25 The inhabitants of Laodiceia hand over Q.Oppius to Mithridates.
* Read Appian's account
Athen_5.213'a<q" Poseidon_36>; [Liv]:Per_78; Strab_12'578;(8.16)  ~Appian:Mith_20'
26 The inhabitants of Mytilene hand over M'.Aquillius to Mithridates, who keeps him as a prisoner.
* Read Diodorus' account
Cic:LegMan_11; Athen_5.213'b<q" Poseidon_36>; Cic:Scaur_fr's; ~Diod_37.27'1-2; +Vell_2.18'3; ValMax_9.13'1;L  Plin:HN_33'48;L  Plut:Luc_4'2; ~Appian:Mith_21; { Green_560.}
27 ROM Sulpicius passes a law giving Marius the command against Mithridates.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_8'7; +Vell_2.18'6; ValMax_9.7e'1;L  +Plut:Sull_8'8, :Mar_35'5; Flor_2.9'6; +Appian:BCiv_1'56;(↓)  Ampel_40'1,L  42'1;L  [Vict]:VirIll_67'4,L  75'8;L  +Eutrop_5.4'2; Exsuper_17-18; +Oros_5.19'3;L  { CAH_9'169; OCD_s.}
28 Sulpicius passes a law for the recall of political exiles.
* Read Anon's account
[Cic]:RhetHer_2'45; +[Liv]:Per_77.
29 ROM Sulpicius passes a law setting a maximum amount for senators' debts.
+Plut:Sull_8'4.
30 ITA Sulla leads his army against his opponents at Rome.
* Read Plutarch's account
+ValMax_9.7e'1;L  +Plut:Sull_9'1-9, :Mar_35'6; Flor_2.9'6; +Appian:BCiv_1'57; Ampel_42'1;L  Exsuper_19; August:DeCiv_2'24; Oros_5.19'14;L  { CAH_9'170; OCD_s.}
31 ROM Sulla defeats Marius and his supporters inside Rome, near the Esquiline Forum.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_14'23; +[Liv]:Per_77; +Vell_2.19'1; ValMax_8.6'2;L  Plut:Sull_4'7, +9'10-14, :Mar_35'7-12; Flor_2.9'6-7; +Appian:BCiv_1'58, '80;(↓)  [Vict]:VirIll_67'4;L  +Eutrop_5.4'2; +Oros_5.19'4-5.L 
32 AS1 Rutilius escapes from Mytilene to Smyrna.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Balb_28, :RabPost_27; DioCass_fr.97'4.
33 ITA Metellus captures Venusia.
~Diod_37.2'10.
34 The Italians ask Mithridates to help them fight against the Romans.
~Diod_37.2'11.
35 EGY {28 Mesore = September} Document: SelPap_1.28, concerning the sale of a house at Pathyris.
36 ROM Sulla and Pompeius introduce a series of reforms at Rome, giving more power to the senate.
* Read Appian's account
+[Liv]:Per_77; +Appian:BCiv_1'59, '73; { CAH_9'172.}
37 ++ Sulpicius is recognised as an outstanding orator.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:HarResp_41, :Brut_203, 306.
38 Marius and Sulpicius are outlawed: Marius escapes, but Sulpicius is captured and killed.
* Read Appian's account
[Cic]:RhetHer_1'25, 4'31; Cic:Cat_3'24, :DeOr_3'8,L  '11,L  :Brut_168, +307; Nepos:Att_2'1-2; +[Liv]:Per_77; +Vell_2.19'1; ValMax_3.8'5,L  6.5'7;L  +Plut:Sull_10'1-5; Flor_2.9'8; +Appian:BCiv_1'60; Ampel_42'1;L  Exsuper_20; +Oros_5.19'6;L  { CAH_9'171; OCD_s.}
39 ETR Marius is discovered hiding in a swamp near Minturnae.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:RedPop_20, :Sest_50, :Pis_43, :Fin_2'105; Sall:Hist_1'21;L  +[Liv]:Per_77; Ovid:Pont_4.3'45-48; Seneca:Contr_7.2'6;L  Lucan_2'69-75; Plut:Mar_36'1-38'2; Ampel_42'2;L  [Vict]:VirIll_67'4;L  +Oros_5.19'7.L 
40 The inhabitants of Minturnae send a Gaul to kill Marius, but he fails to do so.
* Read Plutarch's account
+[Liv]:Per_77; +Vell_2.19'2-4; ValMax_2.10'6;L  Seneca:Contr_7.2'6;L  Lucan_2'76-88; Plut:Mar_38'3-39'6; +Appian:BCiv_1'61-62; GranLic_15; [Vict]:VirIll_67'5;L  +Oros_5.19'7.L 
41 Marius is allowed to escape by boat.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Sest_50, :Planc_26; Sall:Hist_1'22;L  +[Liv]:Per_77; +Vell_2.19'4; ValMax_1.5'5;L  Plut:Mar_39'7-40'1; +Appian:BCiv_1'62; GranLic_15-16; [Vict]:VirIll_67'5;L  August:DeCiv_2'23.(↓) 
42 AS1 Mithridates orders the massacre of Roman citizens in Asia: 80,000 are killed in one day.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:LegMan_7; ~[Liv]:Per_78; +Vell_2.18'1-2; ValMax_9.2e'3;L  Memn_22'9; Plut:Sull_24'7; Tac:Ann_4'14; Plut:Pomp_37'4; Flor_1.40'7-8; +Appian:Mith_22-23, 58, 62; ~DioCass_fr.101'1, 109'8; August:DeCiv_3'22; Oros_6.2'2-3;L  { CAH_9'148; Green_561.}
43 AEG The inhabitants of Cos surrender Alexander, the son of the Egyptian king, to Mithridates.
* Read Appian's account
Joseph:AJ_14'112-113<q" Strab>; +Appian:Mith_23,(↓)  115, 117,(↓)  :BCiv_1'102; { CAH_9'316; Green_553.}
44 The Rhodians defeats a fleet sent by Mithridates.
* Read Appian's account
~Diod_37.28'1; ValMax_5.2e'2;L  Memn_22'8; +Appian:Mith_24-25; { CAH_9'149.}
45 The Rhodians force Mithridates to abandon his attack on their island.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Verr_2.2'159; ~[Liv]:Per_78; +Vell_2.18'3; Flor_1.40'8; +Appian:Mith_26-27, :BCiv_4'67; { CAH_9'150; Green_721.}
46 AS1 Some Romans in Lydia escape by hiding on floating islands.
Plin:HN_2'209.L 
47 Mithridates decides to leave the fighting to his generals, and sends Archelaus over to the Greek mainland.
* Read Appian's account
Athen_5.213'c<q" Poseidon_36>; Flor_1.40'8; +Appian:Mith_27; +Obseq_56; ~Eutrop_5.6'1.
47a SYR << Antiochus Eusebes is either killed or expelled from Syria.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:AJ_13'371; Appian:Syr_70; [Euseb]:Chron_261;(↓)  { O.D.Hoover, Historia(2007), p.294; the three ancient accounts are very inconsistent.}
48 Philippus defeats Demetrius, who goes into exile in Parthia.
~Joseph:AJ_13'384-386; { CAH_8'517; O.D.Hoover, Historia(2007), p.294 <88/7>.}
49 ROM Sulla stops Sertorius becoming tribune for the following year.
Plut:Sert_4'6; { CAH_9'173; OCD_sert.}
50 {21 October -R} The triumph of P.Servilius Vatia.
#FastTr_p108; { CAH_9'788; OCD_s.}
51 SIC Marius is almost captured on the coast of Sicily.
~Plut:Mar_40'3.
52 AFR Marius attempts to land near Carthage in the province of Africa, but is expelled by Sextilius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:RedPop_20, :Pis_43; Diod_37.29'3; +Vell_2.19'4; ValMax_6.9'6;L  Seneca:Contr_1.1'5,L  7.2'6;L  Lucan_2'91-93, 8'269; Plut:Mar_40'4-9; +Appian:BCiv_1'62; Exsuper_21; ~Oros_5.19'8.L 
53 ETR Q.Pompeius is murdered, allegedly at the instigation of Pompeius Strabo.
* Read Appian's account
+[Liv]:Per_77; +Vell_2.20'1; +ValMax_9.7e'2;L  +Appian:BCiv_1'63; { CAH_9'173; OCD_p.}
54 AEG Archelaus and Menophanes capture Delos and other islands in the Aegean Sea.
* Read Pausanias' account
Cic:LegMan_55; Strab_10'486;(5.4)  Plut:Sull_11'5; Flor_1.40'8; ~Appian:Mith_28; Paus_3.23'3-5; [Vict]:VirIll_76'4;L  { CAH_9'151, '638; OCD_d.}
55 GRE Athenion seizes power in Athens, with the support of Archelaus; he is later replaced by Aristion.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Athen_5.211'd-214'a<q" Poseidon_36>; [Liv]:Per_78; ~Appian:Mith_28; Paus_1.20'5; ~Eutrop_5.6'1; { CAH_9'50; OCD_ath.}
56 PEL Achaea, Laconia, Boeotia, and other Greek states side with Mithridates against the Romans.
* Read Appian's account
Sall:Hist_4.67'11; [Liv]:Per_78; Memn_22'10; ~Appian:Mith_29, 58; { CAH_9'151.}
57 MAC Mithridates' fleet is destroyed(?) off Thessaly.
+Obseq_56.
58 ROM Octavius and Cinna are elected consuls, and are forced to swear not to upset Sulla's arrangements.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Planc_51; +Plut:Sull_10'6-7; +DioCass_fr.102'2-3; Exsuper_22; { CAH_9'173; OCD_s.}
59 EGY {19 Phaophi -E = Nov} Document: SelPap_2.418, a letter from Platon to the town of Pathyris, announcing that Ptolemy Soter is at Memphis. { CAH_9'317.}
60 NUM Marius moves to Numidia, and begins to gather together his friends and supporters.
* Read Plutarch's account
~Diod_37.29'3; Lucan_2'89-90; ~Plut:Mar_40'10-14; +Appian:BCiv_1'62.
61 ETR Sulla sends his army from Rome back to Capua.
+Appian:BCiv_1'63; { CAH_9'173.}
62 GRE The philosopher Philon escapes from Athens to Rome.
+Cic:Brut_306; { CAH_9'150; OCD_p.}
63 ?? Apellicon collects a large library, including the books of Aristotle.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_13'609;(1.54)  Athen_5.214'd-e.
64 AEG The Romans defeat an Athenian force led by Apellicon at Delos.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Strab_10'486;(5.4)  Athen_5.214'd-215'b, { CAH_9'150-151.}
65 AS1 Document: RC_73-74 (Syll_741), a decree of Nysa in honour of Chaeremon, a supporter of the Romans.
66 << Document: Sherk_59B  (OGIS_440), the inscription from a statue in honour of L.Caesar at Ilium.
67 ROM ?? A saying of Q.Scaevola "the Augur", when called as a witness in a court case.
ValMax_4.1'11.L 
68 ++ The character of Scaevola, a distinguished orator and expert on legal matters.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Balb_45, :Leg_1'13,L  :Brut_147-155; ValMax_8.8'2;L  Athen_6.274'c-e; { ~OCD_s.}
69 MAC ?? Profiteering by C.Sentius, the Roman governor of Macedonia.
Cic:Verr_2.3'217; { MRR_2'31.}
70 ROM ?? L.Plotius Gallus sets himself up as the first teacher of rhetoric at Rome.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Arch_20; Suet:Rhet_2<q" Cic:EpFr_1'1>; Seneca:Contr_2.pr'5;L  Quint_2.4'42; +Hieron:Chron_1929; Schol:Bob_178.L 
71 == Minatius Magius is rewarded with Roman citizenship, for his services during the Social War.
Vell_2.16'3.
72 ITA == The death of A.Cluentius, father of Cicero's client.
+Cic:Clu_11.

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